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Educational Psychology : Theory and Practice

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205455317

ISBN10:
020545531X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $140.20
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Summary

";Slavin writes in such a way that concepts are very clear and examples illustrating the concepts are engaging and relevant."; Karen Huxtable-Jester, University of Texas at Dallas ";For the teacher candidate, who is often encountering this material for the first time, the tables, organization, and formatting of the chapters make this text eminently accessible."; Richard Battaglia, California Lutheran University ";The major strength of this text is its relevance to effective teaching. Slavin touches on various approaches and types of teaching and the consistent message of intentional teaching is evident."; Joshua S. Smith, University at Albany This edition continues to have in-depth, practical coverage with a focus on the intentional teacher. It presents up-to-the-minute research that a reflective, intentional teacher can apply. The eighth edition of this popular text from renowned educational psychologist Robert Slavin translates theory into practices that teachers can use in their classrooms and focuses on the concept of intentionality. An ";intentional teacher,"; according to Slavin, is one who constantly reflects on his or her practice and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students. To help readers become ";intentional teachers,"; the author models best practices through classroom examples and offers questions to guide the reader. New to This Edition: bull; bull;NEW ";Teaching Dilemmas"; in all chapters introduce controversial issues of practice and ask students to reflect on their own beliefs with Reflective Questions. bull;NEW ";Certification Pointers"; throughout the text note text content likely to appear on state certification tests. bull;NEW ";Personal Reflections"; describe chapter-related events from the authorrs"s own experience, helping students relate to the text as the product of a real author's work. bull;Updated throughout with important new coverage on programs for English language learners (Chapter 4), technology and No Child Left Behind (Chapter 9) to keep students abreast of current trends and issues. bull;NEW IDEA updates are included in Chapter 12. bull;NEW certification guides for state-specific tests in California, Texas, New York, and Florida as well as a general certification guide based on Praxis are available free with the text so that students can readily keep and use this text to prepare for their state certification tests. Please visit the companion web site for this book at www.ablongman.com/slavin8e to find practice quizzes, web links, activities and more! Package this text with MyLabSchoola powerful set of online tools that bring the classroom to life! See the inside cover and visit www.mylabschool.com for more information!

Table of Contents

Features xiii
Preface xv
About the Author xxvii
Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching
1(27)
What Makes A Good Teacher?
3(5)
Knowing the Subject Matters (but So Does Teaching Skill)
3(1)
Mastering the Teaching Skills
4(1)
Can Good Teaching Be Taught?
5(1)
The Intentional Teacher
5(3)
What is the Role of Research in Educational Psychology?
8(8)
Personal Reflection: Adapting
9(1)
The Goal of Research in Educational Psychology
10(1)
The Value of Research in Educational Psychology to the Teacher
10(1)
Teaching as Decision Making
10(2)
Theory into Practice: Teaching as Decision Making
12(1)
Research + Common Sense = Effective Teaching
13(1)
Research on Effective Programs
13(1)
Impact of Research on Educational Practice
14(1)
Theory into Practice: How to Be an Intelligent Consumer of Educational Psychology Research
14(2)
What Research Methods are Used in Educational Psychology?
16(6)
Experiments
16(4)
Correlational Studies
20(1)
Descriptive Research
21(1)
Action Research
21(1)
Personal Reflection: Using Research to Inform Teaching
22(1)
How Can I Become an Intentional Teacher?
22(4)
Teacher Certification
22(2)
Beyond Certification
24(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Choosing a New Curriculum
25(1)
Chapter Summary
26(1)
Key Terms
26(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing For Licensure
27(1)
Theories of Development
28(36)
What are Some Views of Human Development?
30(1)
Aspects of Development
30(1)
Issues of Development
30(1)
How Did Piaget View Cognitive Development?
31(10)
How Development Occurs
32(1)
Piaget's Stages of Development
33(4)
Personal Reflection: Egocentrism in Action
37(4)
How is Piaget's Work Viewed Today?
41(2)
Criticisms and Revisions of Piaget's Theory
41(1)
Theory into Practice: Educational Implications of Piaget's Theory
42(1)
Neo-Piagetian and Information-Processing Views of Development
43(1)
How Did Vygotsky View Cognitive Development?
43(4)
How Development Occurs
44(2)
Applications of Vygotskian Theory in Teaching
46(1)
Theory into Practice: Classroom Applications of Vygotsky's Theory
46(1)
How Did Erikson View Personal and Social Development?
47(4)
Stages of Psychosocial Development
48(2)
Implications and Criticisms of Erikson's Theory
50(1)
What are Some Theories of Moral Development?
51(9)
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
51(2)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
53(2)
Theory into Practice: Fostering Moral Development in the Classroom
55(1)
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory
56(1)
Personal Reflection: Developing Character
57(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Using Moral Reasoning
58(1)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Human Development to Improve Teaching and Learning
59(1)
Chapter Summary
60(1)
Key Terms
61(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
62(2)
Development during Childhood and Adolescence
64(32)
How Do Children Develop During the Preschool Years?
66(9)
Physical Development in Early Childhood
67(1)
Language Acquisition
68(1)
Personal Reflection: Understanding Development
68(3)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Adapting Instruction
71(1)
Theory into Practice: Promoting Literacy Development in Young Children
72(1)
Socioemotional Development
73(2)
What Kinds of Early Childhood Education Programs Exist?
75(3)
Day-Care Programs
75(1)
Preschools
75(1)
Compensatory Preschool Programs
76(1)
Early Intervention
77(1)
Kindergarten Programs
77(1)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
78(1)
How Do Children Develop During the Elementary Years?
78(5)
Physical Development during Middle Childhood
78(1)
Cognitive Abilities
79(1)
Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
79(2)
Theory into Practice: Promoting the Development of Self-Esteem
81(2)
Theory into Practice: Helping Children Develop Social Skills
83(1)
How Do Children Develop During the Middle School and High School Years?
83(11)
Physical Development during Adolescence
83(1)
Cognitive Development
84(1)
Characteristics of Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning
84(1)
Theory into Practice: Promoting Formal Operational Thought
85(1)
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
85(1)
Identity Development
86(1)
Personal Reflection: Coping with Change
86(1)
James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses
87(1)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
88(1)
Social Relationships
88(1)
Emotional Development
89(1)
Problems of Adolescence
90(2)
Theory into Practice: Providing Developmental Assets for Adolescents
92(1)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adolescent Students to Improve Teaching and Learning
92(2)
Chapter Summary
94(1)
Key Terms
95(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
95(1)
Student Diversity
96(36)
What is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning?
98(1)
How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement?
99(7)
The Role of Child-Rearing Practices
101(1)
The Link between Income and Summer Learning
101(1)
The Role of Schools as Middle-Class Institutions
102(1)
School and Community Factors
103(1)
School, Family, and Community Partnerships
103(1)
Theory into Practice: Parent Involvement
104(1)
Is the Low Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups Inevitable?
105(1)
Implications for Teachers
105(1)
How Do Ethnicity and Race Affect Students' School Experiences?
106(6)
Racial and Ethnic Composition of the United States
106(1)
Academic Achievement of Students from Under-Represented Groups
107(1)
Why Have Students from Under-Represented Groups Lagged in Achievement?
107(2)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Meeting Resistance
109(1)
Effects of School Desegregation
110(1)
Personal Reflection: Being Sensitive to Race
111(1)
Theory into Practice: Teaching in a Culturally Diverse School
111(1)
How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs Affect Student Achievement?
112(4)
Bilingual Education
113(1)
Theory into Practice: Teaching English Language Learners
114(2)
What is Multicultural Education?
116(2)
Dimensions of Multicultural Education
117(1)
How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students' School Experiences?
118(3)
Do Males and Females Think and Learn Differently?
118(1)
Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Bias
119(1)
Theory into Practice: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching
120(1)
How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles?
121(6)
Definitions of Intelligence
122(2)
Theory into Practice: Multiple Intelligences
124(1)
Origins of Intelligence
125(1)
Theories of Learning Styles
125(1)
Aptitude--Treatment Interactions
126(1)
Personal Reflection: Understanding Diverse Thinkers
126(1)
Chapter Summary
127(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Student Diversity to Improve Teaching and Learning
128(2)
Key Terms
130(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
130(2)
Behavioral Theories of Learning
132(32)
What is Learning?
134(1)
What Behavioral Learning Theories Have Evolved?
135(3)
Pavlov: Classical Conditioning
135(1)
Thorndike: The Law of Effect
136(1)
Skinner: Operant Conditioning
136(2)
What are Some Principles of Behavioral Learning?
138(16)
The Role of Consequences
138(1)
Reinforcers
139(2)
Theory into Practice: Classroom Uses of Reinforcement
141(1)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers
141(1)
Theory into Practice: Practical Reinforcers
142(1)
Punishers
143(2)
Immediacy of Consequences
145(1)
Shaping
145(1)
Personal Reflection: Modifying Behavior
146(1)
Extinction
147(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
148(2)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Dealing with Behavior Problems
150(1)
Maintenance
151(1)
The Role of Antecedents
152(2)
How Has Social Learning Theory Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Learning?
154(5)
Bandura: Modeling and Observational Learning
154(1)
Theory into Practice: Observational Learning
155(2)
Meichenbaum's Model of Self-Regulated Learning
157(2)
Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories
159(1)
Chapter Summary
159(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Behavioral and Social Learning Theory to Improve Teaching and Learning
160(2)
Key Terms
162(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
163(1)
Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning
164(42)
What is an Information-Processing Model?
166(15)
Sensory Register
167(2)
Short-Term or Working Memory
169(2)
Long-Term Memory
171(4)
Factors That Enhance Long-Term Memory
175(1)
Other Information-Processing Models
175(2)
Research on the Brain
177(4)
What Causes People to Remember or Forget?
181(5)
Forgetting and Remembering
181(1)
Theory into Practice: Reducing Retroactive Inhibition
182(3)
Practice
185(1)
How Can Memory Strategies be Taught?
186(3)
Verbal Learning
186(1)
Paired-Associate Learning
186(1)
Theory into Practice: Keyword Mnemonics
187(1)
Serial and Free-Recall Learning
188(1)
What Makes Information Meaningful?
189(3)
Rote versus Meaningful Learning
190(1)
Schema Theory
191(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Differing Approaches
192(1)
How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn?
192(1)
What Study Strategies Help Students Learn?
193(4)
Note-Taking
194(1)
Underlining
194(1)
Summarizing
194(1)
Writing to Learn
195(1)
Outlining and Mapping
195(1)
The PQ4R Method
195(1)
Theory into Practice: Teaching the PQ4R Method
196(1)
Personal Reflection: Defining Effective
196(1)
How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn?
197(4)
Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge
197(2)
Organizing Information
199(2)
Chapter Summary
201(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Cognitive Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning
202(2)
Key Terms
204(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
205(1)
The Effective Lesson
206(34)
What is Direct Instruction?
209(1)
Personal Reflection: Balancing Instruction
209(1)
How is a Direct Instruction Lesson Taught?
210(16)
State Learning Objectives
213(1)
Theory into Practice: Planning a Lesson
213(1)
Orient Students to the Lesson
214(1)
Theory into Practice: Communicating Objectives to Students
215(1)
Review Prerequisites
215(1)
Present New Material
216(3)
Conduct Learning Probes
219(3)
Provide Independent Practice
222(2)
Assess Performance and Provide Feedback
224(1)
Provide Distributed Practice and Review
224(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Designing Lessons
225(1)
What Does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Suggest?
226(1)
Advantages and Limitations of Direct Instruction
227(1)
How Do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts?
227(5)
Concept Learning and Teaching
227(1)
Teaching for Transfer of Learning
228(4)
How are Discussions Used in Instruction?
232(3)
Subjective and Controversial Topics
232(1)
Difficult and Novel Concepts
232(1)
Affective Objectives
232(1)
Whole-Class Discussions
233(1)
Small-Group Discussions
234(1)
Chapter Summary
235(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Direct Instruction to Improve Teaching and Learning
236(2)
Key Terms
238(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
239(1)
Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction
240(34)
What is the Constructivist View of Learning?
243(12)
Historical Roots of Constructivism
243(2)
Top-Down Processing
245(1)
Cooperative Learning
245(1)
Discovery Learning
245(2)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Developing Self-Regulating Techniques
247(1)
Self-Regulated Learning
248(1)
Scaffolding
248(1)
APA's Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
249(1)
Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas
250(2)
Theory into Practice: Introducing Reciprocal Teaching
252(2)
Research on Constructivist Methods
254(1)
How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?
255(7)
Cooperative Learning Methods
256(1)
Theory into Practice: Student Teams--Achievement Divisions (STAD)
257(2)
Research on Cooperative Learning
259(2)
Personal Reflection: Working Together
261(1)
How are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught?
262(9)
The Problem-Solving Process
262(2)
Teaching Creative Problem Solving
264(2)
Teaching Thinking Skills
266(3)
Critical Thinking
269(1)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Improve Teaching and Learning
270(1)
Chapter Summary
271(1)
Key Terms
272(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
273(1)
Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs
274(40)
What are Elements of Effective Instruction Beyond a Good Lesson?
276(3)
Carroll's Model of School Learning and QAIT
277(2)
How are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences?
279(7)
Between-Class Ability Grouping
281(3)
Untracking
284(1)
Regrouping for Reading and Mathematics
284(1)
Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schools
284(1)
Within-Class Ability Grouping
285(1)
What is Mastery Learning?
286(2)
Forms of Mastery Learning
286(1)
Theory into Practice: Applying the Principles of Mastery Learning
287(1)
Research on Mastery Learning
288(1)
What are Some Ways of Individualizing Instruction?
288(4)
Peer Tutoring
289(1)
Adult Tutoring
290(1)
Theory into Practice: Effectively Using Tutoring Methods to Meet Individual Needs
291(1)
How is Technology Used in Education?
292(10)
Technology for Instruction
292(1)
Technology for Learning
293(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Should Computers be in Labs or Classrooms?
293(6)
Technology for Administration
299(1)
Research on Computer-Assisted Instruction
299(1)
Cutting Edge Educational Technologies
300(1)
Personal Reflection: Computers in Education
301(1)
What Educational Programs Exist for Students Placed at Risk?
302(7)
Compensatory Education Programs
303(4)
Early Intervention Programs
307(1)
Comprehensive School Reform Programs
308(1)
After-School and Summer School Programs
309(1)
Chapter Summary
309(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs
310(2)
Key Terms
312(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
313(1)
Motivating Students to Learn
314(34)
What is Motivation?
317(1)
What are Some Theories of Motivation?
318(8)
Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theory
318(1)
Motivation and Human Needs
319(2)
Motivation and Attribution Theory
321(3)
Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning
324(1)
Theory into Practice: Giving Students Motivating Feedback
324(1)
Motivation and Expectancy Theory
325(1)
How can Achievement Motivation be Enhanced?
326(8)
Motivation and Goal Orientations
327(1)
Personal Reflection: Using Different Styles
327(3)
Learned Helplessness and Attribution Training
330(1)
Theory into Practice: Helping Students Overcome Learned Helplessness
331(1)
Teacher Expectations and Achievement
331(2)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Expectations
333(1)
Anxiety and Achievement
333(1)
How Can Teachers Increase Students' Motivation to Learn?
334(7)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
334(2)
How Can Teachers Enhance Intrinsic Motivation?
336(2)
Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learn
338(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Adapting Strategies
339(2)
How Can Teachers Reward Performance, Effort, and Improvement?
341(3)
Using Praise Effectively
342(1)
Teaching Students to Praise Themselves
343(1)
Using Grades as Incentives
343(1)
Incentive Systems Based on Goal Structure
343(1)
Chapter Summary
344(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Motivation to Improve Teaching and Learning
346(1)
Key Terms
347(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
347(1)
Effective Learning Environments
348(40)
What is an Effective Learning Environment?
351(1)
What is the Impact of Time on Learning?
352(9)
Using Allocated Time for Instruction
352(3)
Using Engaged Time Effectively
355(5)
Can Time On-Task be Too High?
360(1)
Personal Reflection: Maintaining Control
360(1)
Classroom Management in the Student-Centered Classroom
361(1)
What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management?
361(3)
Starting Out the Year Right
362(1)
Setting Class Rules
363(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Rules of the Room
364(1)
What are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior?
364(5)
The Principle of Least Intervention
365(1)
Prevention
365(1)
Nonverbal Cues
366(1)
Praising Behavior That is Incompatible with Misbehavior
367(1)
Praising Other Students
367(1)
Verbal Reminders
367(1)
Repeated Reminders
367(1)
Applying Consequences
368(1)
How is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems?
369(10)
How Student Misbehavior is Maintained
369(2)
Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis
371(3)
Applied Behavior Analysis Programs
374(2)
Theory into Practice: Using a Daily Report Card System
376(1)
Theory into Practice: Establishing a Group Contingency Program
377(1)
Ethics of Behavioral Methods
378(1)
How Can Serious Behavior Problems be Prevented?
379(4)
Preventive Programs
379(1)
Identifying Causes of Misbehavior
380(1)
Enforcing Rules and Practices
380(1)
Enforcing School Attendance
380(1)
Check and Connect
381(1)
Avoiding Tracking
381(1)
Practicing Intervention
381(1)
Requesting Family Involvement
382(1)
Using Peer Mediation
382(1)
Judiciously Applying Consequences
383(1)
Chapter Summary
383(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Effective Learning Environments to Improve Teaching and Learning
384(2)
Key Terms
386(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
387(1)
Learners with Exceptionalities
388(50)
Who are Learners with Exceptionalities?
391(20)
``People-First'' Language
392(1)
Types of Exceptionalities and the Numbers of Students Served
392(2)
Students with Mental Retardation
394(4)
Theory into Practice: Teaching Adaptive Behavior Skills
398(1)
Students with Learning Disabilities
399(2)
Theory into Practice: Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
401(2)
Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
403(1)
Theory into Practice: Students with ADHD: The Role of the Teacher
403(1)
Students with Speech or Language Impairments
404(1)
Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
405(2)
Students with Autism
407(1)
Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairments
407(1)
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
408(3)
What is Special Education?
411(12)
Public Law 94-142 and IDEA
411(3)
An Array of Special-Education Services
414(3)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Referring a Student
417(2)
Theory into Practice: Preparing IEPs
419(4)
What is Inclusion?
423(10)
Personal Reflection: The Struggle over Inclusion
424(1)
Research on Inclusion
425(2)
Adapting Instruction
427(1)
Theory into Practice: Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needs
427(1)
Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awareness
428(1)
Prevention and Early Intervention
429(1)
Computers and Students with Disabilities
429(1)
Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoring
430(1)
Special-Education Teams
431(1)
Social Integration of Students with Disabilities
431(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Finding What Works
432(1)
Chapter Summary
433(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Learners with Exceptionalities to Improve Teaching and Learning
434(2)
Key Terms
436(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
436(2)
Assessing Student Learning
438(54)
What are Instructional Objectives and How are They Used?
440(13)
Planning Lesson Objectives
441(3)
Theory into Practice: Planning Courses, Units, and Lessons
444(2)
Linking Objectives and Assessment
446(1)
Using Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives
447(3)
Research on Instructional Objectives
450(1)
Why Is Evaluation Important?
450(1)
Evaluation as Feedback
451(1)
Evaluation as Information
452(1)
Evaluation as Incentive
453(1)
How is Student Learning Evaluated?
453(3)
Formative and Summative Evaluations
453(1)
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluations
453(1)
Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goals
454(2)
How are Tests Constructed?
456(16)
Principles of Achievement Testing
456(2)
Theory into Practice: Making Assessments Fair
458(1)
Using a Table of Specifications
459(2)
Writing Selected-Response Test Items
461(1)
Theory into Practice: Writing Multiple-Choice Tests (Format Suggestions)
462(3)
Writing Constructed-Response Items
465(1)
Writing and Evaluating Essay Tests
466(2)
Theory into Practice: Detecting Bluffing in Students' Essays
468(1)
Writing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Items
469(1)
Theory into Practice: Peer Evaluations
470(2)
What are Authentic, Portfolio, and Performance Assessments?
472(8)
Portfolio Assessment
473(2)
Theory into Practice: Using Portfolios in the Classroom
475(2)
Performance Assessment
477(1)
How Well Do Performance Assessments Work?
477(2)
Scoring Rubrics for Performance Assessments
479(1)
How are Grades Determined?
480(7)
Establishing Grading Criteria
481(1)
Assigning Letter Grades
481(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Establishing a Grading System
482(1)
Performance Grading
483(1)
Other Alternative Grading Systems
484(2)
Assigning Report Card Grades
486(1)
Personal Reflection: Assigning Grades
486(1)
Chapter Summary
487(3)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Assessing Student Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning
488(2)
Key Terms
490(1)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
491(1)
Standardized Tests
492(33)
What are Standardized Tests and How are They Used?
495(8)
Selection and Placement
496(1)
Diagnosis
496(1)
Evaluation
497(1)
School Improvement
497(1)
Accountability
497(3)
Personal Reflection: Mixed Messages
500(1)
Theory into Practice: Teaching Test-Taking Skills
501(2)
What Types of Standardized Tests are Given?
503(4)
Aptitude Tests
503(3)
Norm-Referenced Achievement Tests
506(1)
Criterion-Referenced Achievement Tests
507(1)
Standard Setting
507(1)
How are Standardized Tests Interpreted?
507(10)
Percentile Scores
507(1)
Grade-Equivalent Scores
508(1)
Standard Scores
509(3)
Theory into Practice: Interpreting Standardized Test Scores
512(5)
What are Some Issues Concerning Standardized and Classroom Testing?
517(4)
Test Validity
517(1)
Test Reliability
518(1)
Test Bias
519(1)
Teaching Dilemmas: Cases to Consider: Dealing with High-Stakes Testing
520(1)
Computer Test Administration
520(1)
Chapter Summary
521(1)
The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know about Standardized Tests to Improve Teaching and Learning
522(1)
Key Terms
522(2)
Self-Assessment: Practicing for Licensure
524(1)
Appendix: Developing Your Portfolio 525(5)
References 530(55)
Name Index 585(12)
Subject Index 597


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