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Educational Research : Competencies for Analysis and Applications,9780131185340
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Educational Research : Competencies for Analysis and Applications

by ; ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780131185340

ISBN10:
0131185349
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This new edition of Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications maintains the strong yet accessible coverage you expect. The reorganized text reflects a more balanced coverage of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Unique features of this revised edition include: An Approachable Text Your Students Won't Mind Reading--and Will Want to Keep bull; bull; bull;The accessible writing style, clear and concise explanations, and humorous tone demystify the research process. bull;Eleven cumulative "Tasks" throughout the text provide practice and skill development in doing research, step by step. Expanded Coverage of Qualitative Research and Mixed Methods bull; bull; bull;Chapter 16, "Narrative Research," and Chapter 17, "Ethnographic Research," are new to this edition. bull;Chapter 19, "Mixed Methods," is new to this edition. Expanded Coverage of Technology bull; bull; bull;Increased coverage of how to use technology in the research process. bull;The Companion Website (http://www.prenhall.com/gay) allows students to check their understanding of concepts through self-quizzes, access tools and tips to guide them through the research process, and expand their skill base through practice evaluating both quantitative and qualitative research by analyzing data and critiquing journal articles. 39 Articles Provided in the Package (Text, Student Study Guide, and Website) bull; bull; bull;Articles are accompanied by a variety of pedagogical aids to help students learn to read research. bull;Chapter 22, "Evaluating Research," provides a framework for critiquing research.

Table of Contents

Part I Introduction
Introduction to Educational Research
2(30)
Tasks 1a, 1b
3(1)
Task 1c
3(1)
Welcome!
3(1)
The Scientific Method
4(1)
Application of the Scientific Method in Education
5(1)
Other Ways of Knowing
6(1)
Classification of Research by Purpose
6(2)
Basic and Applied Research
6(1)
Evaluation Research
7(1)
Research and Development (R&D)
7(1)
Action Research
8(1)
Classification of Research by Method
8(8)
Quantitative Research
9(1)
Qualitative Research
9(1)
Quantitative Approaches
10(4)
Qualitative Approaches
14(2)
Guidelines for Classification
16(1)
Limitations of the Scientific Method
17(1)
Summary
18(2)
Performance Criteria Task 1
20(12)
Tasks 1a, 1b
20(1)
Task 1c
20(1)
Task 1a Quantitative Example
21(4)
Task 1b Qualitative Example
25(7)
Selecting and Defining A Research Topic
32(38)
Task 2
33(1)
Identifying a Topic or Question to Research
34(5)
Sources of Research Topics
34(2)
Narrowing the Topic
36(1)
Characteristics of Good Topics
37(1)
Stating the Research Topic
38(1)
Review of Related Literature
39(17)
Definition, Purpose, and Scope
39(2)
Qualitative Research and the Review of Related Literature
41(1)
Identifying Keywords
41(1)
Identifying Your Sources
42(8)
Evaluating Your Sources
50(1)
Abstracting
51(2)
Analyzing, Organizing, and Reporting the Literature
53(3)
Formulating and Stating a Hypothesis
56(6)
Quantitative Definition and Purpose of Hypotheses
56(1)
Criteria for Hypotheses
57(1)
Types of Hypotheses
58(1)
Stating the Hypothesis
59(1)
Testing the Hypothesis
60(1)
Qualitative Definition and Purpose of Hypotheses
61(1)
Summary
62(4)
Task 2 Performance Criteria
66(4)
Task 2 Example
67(3)
Preparing and Evaluating a Research Plan
70(28)
Task 3a
71(1)
Task 3b
71(1)
Definition and Purpose of a Research Plan
71(2)
General Considerations in a Research Plan
73(5)
The Ethics of Research
73(4)
Gaining Entry to the Research Site
77(1)
Components of the Quantitative Research Plan
78(6)
Introduction Section
79(2)
Method Section
81(2)
Data Analysis
83(1)
Time Schedule
84(1)
Budget
84(1)
Components of the Qualitative Research Plan
84(5)
Prior Fieldwork
85(1)
Title
85(1)
Introduction Section
85(1)
Research Procedures Section
86(3)
Appendixes
89(1)
Revising and Improving the Research Plan
89(2)
Summary
91(3)
Task 3 Performance Criteria
94(4)
Task 3a Example
95(3)
Selecting a Sample
98(22)
Task 4
99(1)
Quantitative Sampling
99(14)
Defining a Population
100(1)
Selecting a Random Sample
101(8)
Determining Sample Size
109(2)
Avoiding Sampling Error and Bias
111(1)
Selecting a Nonrandom Sample
112(1)
Qualitative Sampling
113(3)
Selecting Research Participants: Purposive Sampling Approaches
114(1)
Determining Sample Size
114(2)
Summary
116(2)
Task 4 Performance Criteria
118(2)
Task 4 Example
119(1)
Selecting Measuring Instruments
120(38)
Task 5
121(1)
Constructs
122(1)
Variables
122(3)
Measurement Scales and Variables
123(2)
Quantitative and Qualitative Variables
125(1)
Dependent and Independent Variables
125(1)
Characteristics of Measuring Instruments
125(3)
Instrument Terminology
126(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Methods
127(1)
Interpreting Instrument Data
127(1)
Types of Measuring Instruments
128(6)
Cognitive Tests
128(1)
Affective Tests
129(4)
Projective Tests
133(1)
Criteria for Good Measurement Instruments
134(11)
Validity of Measuring Instruments
134(5)
Reliability of Measuring Instruments
139(6)
Selecting a Test
145(6)
Sources of Test Information
145(3)
Selecting From Alternatives
148(1)
Constructing Tests
149(1)
Test Administration
150(1)
Summary
151(4)
Task 5 Performance Criteria
155(3)
Task 5 Example
156(2)
Part II QUANTITATIVE METHODS
Descriptive Research
158(32)
Task 6a
159(1)
Descriptive Research: Definition and Purpose
159(1)
The Descriptive Research Process
160(1)
Classifying Descriptive Research
161(2)
Self-Report Research
161(2)
Conducting Self-Report Research
163(12)
Conducting a Questionnaire Study
163(10)
Conducting an Interview Study
173(2)
Summary
175(15)
Correlational Research
190(26)
Task 6b
191(1)
Correlational Research: Definition and Purpose
191(1)
The Correlational Research Process
192(4)
Problem Selection
192(1)
Participant and Instrument Selection
192(1)
Design and Procedure
193(1)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
193(3)
Relationship Studies
196(4)
Data Collection
197(1)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
197(3)
Prediction Studies
200(3)
Data Collection
201(1)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
201(2)
Other Correlation-Based Analyses
203(1)
Problems to Consider in Interpreting Correlation Coefficients
204(1)
Summary
204(12)
Causal--Comparative Research
216(16)
Task 6c
217(1)
Causal-Comparative Research: Definition and Purpose
217(3)
Conducting a Causal-Comparative Study
220(4)
Design and Procedure
220(1)
Control Procedures
221(2)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
223(1)
Summary
224(8)
Experimental Research
232(42)
Task 6d
233(1)
Experimental Research: Definition and Purpose
233(4)
The Experimental Process
234(1)
Manipulation and Control
235(2)
Threats to Experimental Validity
237(10)
Threats to Internal Validity
238(3)
Threats to External Validity
241(6)
Group Experimental Designs
247(16)
Control of Extraneous Variables
247(3)
Types of Group Designs
250(13)
Summary
263(11)
Single-Subject Experimental Research
274(26)
Task 6e
275(1)
Single-Subject Experimental Designs
275(10)
Single-Subject Versus Group Designs
275(1)
External Validity
276(1)
Internal Validity
276(2)
Types of Single-Subject Designs
278(6)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
284(1)
Replication
284(1)
Summary
285(2)
Task 6 Performance Criteria
287(13)
Task 6 Example
288(12)
Descriptive Statistics
300(36)
Task 7
301(1)
The Word Is ``Statistics,'' Not ``Sadistics''
301(1)
Preparing Data for Analysis
302(2)
Scoring Procedures
302(1)
Tabulation and Coding Procedures
302(2)
Using a Computer
304(1)
Types of Descriptive Statistics
304(14)
Graphing Data
304(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
306(2)
Measures of Variability
308(2)
The Normal Curve
310(3)
Measures of Relative Position
313(4)
Measures of Relationship
317(1)
Calculation for Interval Data
318(13)
Symbols
318(2)
The Mean
320(1)
The Standard Deviation
320(2)
Standard Scores
322(1)
Obtaining Descriptive Statistics With SPSS 12.0
323(3)
The Pearson r
326(5)
Postscript
331(1)
Summary
331(5)
Inferential Statistics
336(48)
Concepts Underlying Inferential Statistics
337(10)
Standard Error
338(2)
The Null Hypothesis
340(1)
Tests of Significance
341(1)
Decision Making: Levels of Significance and Type I and Type II Errors
342(3)
Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests
345(1)
Degrees of Freedom
346(1)
Tests of Significance: Types
347(31)
The t Test
348(11)
Simple Analysis of Variance
359(4)
Multiple Comparisons
363(5)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
368(1)
Analysis of Covariance
369(1)
Multiple Regression
369(1)
Chi Square
370(7)
Types of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests
377(1)
Summary
378(6)
Postanalysis Considerations
384(14)
Verifying and Storing Data
385(1)
Verification and Data Checking
385(1)
Storage
386(1)
Interpreting Quantitative Research Results
386(4)
Hypothesized Results
386(1)
Unhypothesized Results
387(1)
Statistical and Methodological Issues
387(2)
Significance Versus Practical Significance
389(1)
Replication of Results
390(1)
Summary
390(2)
Task 7 Performance Criteria
392(6)
Task 7 Example
393(5)
Part III QUALITATIVE METHODS
Overview of Qualitative Research
398(14)
Task 8
399(1)
Qualitative Research: Definition and Purpose
399(1)
The Qualitative Research Process
400(1)
Qualitative Research Approaches
401(1)
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
402(1)
Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research
403(4)
Validity in Qualitative Research
403(4)
Reliability in Qualitative Research
407(1)
Doing the Right Thing: The Role of Ethics in Qualitative Research
407(3)
Ethical Guideposts
408(2)
Summary
410(2)
Qualitative Data Collection
412(16)
Qualitative Data Collection: Definition and Purpose
413(1)
Types of Data Collection Sources
413(1)
Data Collection Techniques
413(10)
Observing
413(5)
Interviewing
418(3)
Examining Records
421(2)
Threats to the Quality of Observations and Interviews
423(1)
Observer Bias
423(1)
Observer Effect
424(1)
Getting Started
424(1)
Summary
425(3)
Narrative Research
428(12)
Narrative Research: Definition and Purpose
429(1)
The Narrative Research Process
430(2)
Types of Narrative Research
432(1)
Key Characteristics of Narrative Research
432(1)
Narrative Research Techniques
433(4)
Restorying
434(1)
Narrative Analysis and the Analysis of Narrative
435(1)
Oral History
435(1)
Photographs, Memory Boxes, and Other Artifacts
436(1)
Storytelling
436(1)
Letter Writing
436(1)
Autobiographical and Biographical Writing
436(1)
Other Narrative Data Sources
437(1)
Writing the Narrative
437(1)
Summary
437(3)
Ethnographic Research
440(26)
Ethnographic Research: Definition and Purpose
441(1)
The Ethnographic Research Process
442(2)
Types of Ethnographic Research
444(1)
Key Characteristics of Ethnographic Research
445(1)
Ethnographic Research Techniques
446(8)
Triangulation
446(1)
Participant Observation
446(3)
Field Notes
449(2)
Observing and Recording Everything You Possibly Can
451(1)
Observing and Looking for Nothing in Particular
452(1)
Looking for ``Bumps'' or Paradoxes
453(1)
Summary
454(12)
Qualitative Research: Data Analysis and Interpretation
466(22)
Data Analysis and Interpretation: Definition and Purpose
467(1)
Data Analysis During Data Collection
468(1)
Data Analysis After Data Collection
468(1)
Steps in Analyzing Qualitative Research Data
469(2)
Reading/Memoing
470(1)
Describing
470(1)
Classifying
470(1)
Data Analysis Strategies
471(3)
Qualitative Data Analysis: An Example
474(1)
Using Computer Software to Assist with Data Analysis
475(3)
Data Interpretation
478(2)
Ensuring Credibility in Your Study
480(1)
Summary
480(3)
Task 8 Performance Criteria
483(5)
Task 8 Example
484(4)
Part IV MIXED METHODS
Mixed Methods Research: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
488(10)
Introduction to Mixed Methods
489(1)
Mixed Methods Research: Definition and Purpose
490(1)
Types of Mixed Methods Research Designs
490(2)
Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs
492(2)
Evaluating a Mixed Methods Study
494(2)
Summary
496(2)
Part V ACTION RESEARCH
Action Research
498(16)
Task 9
499(1)
Action Research: Definition and Purpose
499(1)
The Action Research Process
500(1)
Types of Action Research
500(2)
Critical Action Research
500(1)
Practical Action Research
501(1)
Levels of Action Research
502(1)
Key Characteristics of Action Research
503(2)
Action Research Is Persuasive and Authoritative
503(1)
Action Research Is Relevant
504(1)
Action Research Is Accessible
504(1)
Action Research Challenges the Intractability of Reform of the Educational System
505(1)
Action Research Is Not a Fad
505(1)
Action Research Techniques
505(3)
Identifying an Area of Focus
505(2)
Collecting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Data
507(1)
Action Planning
508(1)
Summary
508(2)
Task 9 Performance Criteria and Examples
510(4)
Part VI REPORTING RESEARCH
Preparing a Research Report
514(26)
Task 10
515(1)
General Guidelines
515(2)
General Started: Overcoming Writing Obstacles
516(1)
General Rules for Writing
517(1)
Format and Style
518(1)
Sections of Theses and Dissertations
519(5)
Preliminary Pages
520(1)
The Main Body
521(1)
Method
521(3)
Summary
524(3)
Task 10 Performance Criteria
527(13)
Task 10 Example
528(12)
Part VII CRITIQUING RESEARCH
Evaluating a Research Report
540(21)
Task 11
541(1)
General Evaluation Criteria
541(3)
Introduction
542(1)
Method
543(1)
Results
544(1)
Discussion (Conclusions and Recommendations)
544(1)
Abstract or Summary
544(1)
Type-Specific Evaluation Criteria
544(5)
Descriptive Research
545(1)
Correlational Research
545(1)
Causal-Comparative Research
545(1)
Experimental Research
546(1)
Single-Subject Research
546(1)
Qualitative Research (in General)
546(1)
Narrative Research
547(1)
Ethnographic Research
547(1)
Mixed Methods
547(1)
Action Research
547(1)
Evaluating Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Studies
548(1)
Summary
549(1)
Task 11 Performance Criteria
550(11)
Task 11 Example
551(5)
Self-Test for Task 11
556(5)
Appendix A Reference Tables 561(16)
Appendix B Math Review 577(12)
Appendix C Suggested Responses 589(6)
Glossary 595(10)
Author Index 605(2)
Subject Index 607


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