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Educational Research : Fundamentals for the Consumer,9780321023377
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Educational Research : Fundamentals for the Consumer

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780321023377

ISBN10:
0321023374
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 7/1/1999.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Designed to help students become intelligent consumers of educational research, the fifth edition of this text introduces basic research principles to those who may later use research in their work. The author utilizes aids to facilitate student learning, including chapter concept maps, study questions, a book website, and more than 90 examples from published articles, including 9 full-length articles.

Author Biography

James H. McMillan is Professor of Education in the School of Education at Virginia Commonwealth University, Chair of the Department of Foundations of Education, and Director of the Metropolitan Educational Research Consortium.

Table of Contents

To the Instructor xiii
To the Student xvii
Introduction to Research in Education
1(26)
Sources of Knowledge
2(3)
Personal Experience
2(1)
Tradition
3(1)
Authority
3(1)
Research
4(1)
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
5(2)
Purpose of Scientific Inquiry
5(1)
Characteristics of Scientific Inquiry
6(1)
Purpose of Theories
6(1)
Applying Systematic Inquiry to Education
7(1)
Types of Educational Research
8(5)
Two Traditions of Research: Quantitative and Qualitative
9(3)
Basic, Applied, Evaluation, and Action Research
12(1)
Educational Research Report Format
13(11)
Title and Author(s)
14(1)
Abstract
14(1)
Introduction
15(1)
Review of Literature
15(1)
Specific Research Question or Hypothesis
15(1)
Method and Design
15(1)
Results
16(1)
Discussion
16(1)
Conclusions
16(1)
References
16(8)
Anatomy of a Research Article
24(1)
Study Questions
24(1)
Sample Test Questions
25(2)
Variables, Research Problems, and Hypotheses
27(20)
Variables in Educational Research
28(4)
Conceptual and Operational Definitions
28(2)
Types of Variables
30(2)
Research Problems
32(5)
Sources for Research Problems
34(3)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Research Problems
37(3)
Hypotheses
40(4)
Why Researchers Use Hypotheses
40(1)
Types of Hypotheses
41(3)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Research Hypotheses
44(1)
Study Questions
45(1)
Sample Test Questions
45(2)
Locating and Reviewing Related Literature
47(28)
The Purpose of Reviewing Related Literature
48(2)
Refining the Research Problem
48(1)
Developing Significance for the Research
49(1)
Identifying Methodological Techniques
49(1)
Identifying Contradictory Findigns
49(1)
Developing Research Hypotheses
49(1)
Learning About New Information
50(1)
Steps to Review Related Literature
50(17)
Step One: Use Secondary Sources to Locate Existing Reviews and Related Research
51(3)
Step Two: Identify Key Terms
54(1)
Step Three: Identify the Appropriate Journal Indexes and Abstracts
55(4)
Step Four: Search Indexes for Primary Sources
59(6)
Step Five: Summarize and Analyze Primary Source Information
65(1)
Step Six: Organize and Write the Review
66(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating the Review of Literature
67(6)
Study Questions
73(1)
Simple Test Questions
73(2)
Using the Internet for Educational Research
75(26)
Introduction to the Internet
76(3)
What Is the Internet?
76(1)
Internet Terminology
76(1)
Accessing the Internet
76(3)
Using Internet Communication for Educational Research
79(1)
E-mail
80(1)
Listservs and Newsgroups
80(1)
Organization of Information on the World Wide Web
80(4)
Similarities Between Online and Print Research Techniques
81(1)
Differences Between Online and Print Research Techniques
82(1)
Elements of Website Organization
82(2)
World Wide Web Search Techniques
84(7)
Using Subject Directories to Find Relevant Websites
84(1)
Using Search Engines
85(4)
Using Known Locations
89(2)
Review of Education Websites
91(3)
Federal Government
91(1)
State Government
92(1)
National Research Centers
92(1)
Regional Educational Laboratories
92(1)
Associations and Organizations
93(1)
Online Journals
94(1)
Consumer Tips: Online Research Tutorials and Guides
94(1)
Consumer Tips: How to Cite Internet Resources in Your References
95(1)
Consumer Tips: Evaluating Information Found on the Internet
95(4)
Study Questions
99(1)
Sample Test Questions
99(2)
Subjects, Participants, and Sampling
101(18)
What is a Subject, A Participant, and a Sample?
102(1)
Types of Sampling Procedures
102(9)
Probability Sampling
103(5)
Nonprobability Sampling
108(3)
How Subjects and Sampling Affect Research
111(4)
Knowledge of Sampling Procedures
111(1)
Volunteer Samples
111(3)
Sample Size
114(1)
Subject Motivation
114(1)
Sampling Bias
115(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Subjects Sections of Reports and Sampling Procedures
115(1)
Study Questions
116(1)
Sample Test Questions
117(2)
Foundations of Educational Measurement
119(28)
Introduction to Measurement
120(3)
What Is Measurement?
120(1)
What Is Evaluation?
120(1)
What Is Assessment?
121(1)
The Purpose of Measurement for Research
121(1)
Scales of Measurement
122(1)
Principles of Descriptive Statistics for Understanding Measurement
123(9)
Frequency Distributions
124(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
126(1)
Measures of Variability
127(3)
Correlation
130(2)
Validity of Measurement
132(5)
What Is Validity?
132(1)
Sources of Validity Evidence
133(3)
Effect of Validity on Research
136(1)
Reliability of Measurement
137(6)
Types of Reliability
137(4)
Effect of Reliability on Research
141(2)
Study Questions
143(1)
Sample Test Questions
144(3)
Types of Educational Measures
147(29)
Classifying Educational Measures
148(1)
Tests
148(7)
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Interpretations
149(1)
Standardized Tests
150(4)
Scores from Norm-Referenced Interpretations
154(1)
Questionnaires
155(6)
Personality Assessment
155(1)
Attitude, Value, and Interest Questionnaires
156(4)
Problems in Measuring Noncognitive Traits
160(1)
Observations
161(4)
Inference
162(1)
Laboratory Observation
163(1)
Structured Field Observations
164(1)
Observer Effects
164(1)
Interviews
165(4)
Types of Interview Questions
166(1)
Interviewer Effects
167(2)
Locating and Evaluating Educational Measures
169(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Instrumentation
169(4)
Study Questions
173(1)
Sample Test Questions
174(2)
Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Designs
176(30)
The Purpose of Nonexperimental Research
177(1)
Descriptive Studies
177(2)
Characteristics of Descriptive Studies
177(2)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Descriptive Studies
179(1)
Relationships in Nonexperimental Designs
179(1)
Comparative Studies
180(2)
Characteristics of Comparative Studies
180(2)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Studies
182(2)
Correlational Studies
184(5)
Characteristics of Correlational Studies
184(3)
Prediction Studies
187(2)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Correlational Studies
189(3)
Causal-Comparative Studies
192(2)
Ex Post Facto Studies
192(2)
Correlational Causal-Comparative Studies
194(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Causal-Comparative Studies
194(1)
Using Surveys in Nonexperimental Research
195(2)
Cross-Sectional Surveys
196(1)
Longitudinal Surveys
196(1)
Anatomy of a Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Study
197(6)
Study Questions
203(1)
Sample Test Questions
204(2)
Experimental and Single-Subject Research Designs
206(30)
Characteristics of Experimental Research
207(1)
Experimental Validity
208(6)
Internal Validity
208(5)
External Validity
213(1)
Types of Experimental Designs
214(8)
Single-Group Posttest-Only Design
215(1)
Single-Group Pretest-posttest Design
215(1)
Nonequivalent-Groups Posttest-Only Design
216(1)
Nonequivalent-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design
217(2)
Randomized-Groups Posttest-Only Design
219(1)
Randomized-Groups Pretest-Posttest Design
220(1)
Factorial Designs
221(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Experimental Research
222(3)
Single-Subject Research
225(3)
Characteristics of Single-Subject Research
225(1)
Types of Single-Subject Designs
226(2)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Single-Subject Research
228(1)
Anatomy of an Experimental Research Study
229(5)
Study Questions
234(1)
Sample Test Questions
234(2)
Analyzing Statistical Inferences
236(15)
The Purpose and Nature of Inferential Statistics
237(3)
Degree of Certainty
237(1)
Estimating Errors in Sampling and Measurement
237(1)
The Null Hypothesis
238(2)
Interpreting Results of Inferential Tests
240(7)
The t Test
241(1)
Simple Analysis of Variance
242(1)
Factorial Analysis of Variance
243(1)
Analysis of Covariance
244(1)
Multivariate Statistics
245(1)
Chi-Square
245(2)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Inferential Statistics
247(1)
Study Questions
248(1)
Sample Test Questions
249(2)
Qualitative Research Designs
251(36)
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
252(3)
Natural Settings
253(1)
Direct Data Collection
253(1)
Rich Narrative Descriptions
253(1)
Process Orientation
254(1)
Inductive Data Analysis
254(1)
Participant Perspectives
254(1)
Emergent Research Design
255(1)
Ethnographic Studies
255(11)
Research Problem Statement
256(1)
Entering the Research Site
257(1)
Selecting Participants
258(1)
Obtaining Data
258(6)
Data Analysis
264(2)
Case Studies
266(3)
Research Problem Statement
267(1)
Entering the Research Site
268(1)
Selecting Participants
268(1)
Obtaining Data
268(1)
Data Analysis
269(1)
Phenomenological Studies
269(1)
Grounded Theory Studies
270(2)
Credibility of Qualitative Research
272(3)
Triangulation
272(1)
Reliability
272(1)
Internal Validity
273(2)
External Validity
275(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Research
275(1)
Anatomy of a Qualitative Research Study
276(8)
Study Questions
284(1)
Sample Test Questions
284(3)
Analyzing Discussion and Conclusions
287(16)
Purpose and Nature of the Discussion
288(1)
Interpretation of the Results
288(6)
Interpretation Related to the Problem and/or Hypothesis
288(1)
Interpretation Related to Methodology
289(2)
Interpretation Based on Statistical Procedures
291(2)
Interpretation Related to Previous Research
293(1)
Conclusions
294(5)
Limitations
294(4)
Recommendations and Implications
298(1)
Consumer Tips: Criteria for Evaluating Discussion and Conclusion Sections
299(2)
Study Questions
301(1)
Sample Test Questions
301(2)
The Intelligent Consumer: Putting It All Together
303(63)
Questions for Quantitative Studies
304(3)
Questions for Qualitative Studies
307(2)
Examples of Research Articles
309(57)
Article 1: A Study of Academic Time-on-Task in the Elementary School
309(9)
Evaluation of Article 1
318(5)
Article 2: Reducing Teacher Stress
323(11)
Evaluation of Article 2
334(5)
Article 3: Kindergarten Readiness and Retention: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Practices
339(25)
Evaluation of Article 3
364(2)
Appendix: Answers to Sample Test Questions 366(2)
References 368(5)
Acknowledgments 373(2)
Index 375


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