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Educational Research : An Introduction

by ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780205488490

ISBN10:
0205488498
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
5/9/2006
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $179.80

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Summary

"Without question, this text is the most comprehensive, well-written, and practical introductory research methods textbook available. Gall, Gall, & Borg have stood the test of time." Susan N. Kushner Benson, University of Akron "This is a very student-friendly text." Ann Hassenpflug, University of Akron Educational Research: An Introduction, Eighth Edition, is the most comprehensive and widely respected text for scholars and for the preparation of graduate level students who need to understand educational research in depth and who may conduct original research for a dissertation or thesis. A comprehensive introduction to the major research methods and types of data analysis used today, this text provides detailed coverage of all facets of research, from the epistemology of quantitative and qualitative scientific inquiry to the design, data collection, analysis, and reporting of a completed study. New To This

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
About the Authors xxxi
PART I: Introduction
1. The Nature of Educational Research
2(37)
Contributions of Research to Knowledge about Education
3(7)
Description
3(1)
Prediction
4(1)
Improvement
5(1)
Explanation
6(4)
Uses of Theory
8(1)
Approaches to Theory Development
8(1)
Example of Theory Testing
9(1)
Application of Research to Educational Practice
10(5)
Limitations of Research Knowledge
12(2)
The Importance of Basic Research
14(1)
Funding for Educational Research
15(1)
Epistemological Issues in Educational Research
15(16)
Positivism and Postpositivism
15(6)
Constructivism
21(2)
Objective and Constructed Realities
23(3)
Cases and Populations
24(2)
Numerical and Verbal Representations of Social Reality
26(2)
Mechanical, Interpretive, and Structural Views of Causation
28(2)
Postmodernism
30(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
31(3)
Mixed-Methods Research
32(2)
A Definition of Research
34(2)
Learning How to Do Educational Research
36(1)
Self-Check Test
37(2)
PART II: Planning a Research Study 39(56)
2. The Research Process: From Proposal to Final Report
40(28)
Introduction
41(1)
Identifying a Research Problem
41(8)
Reading the Research Literature
42(2)
Doing Theory-Based Research
44(1)
Example of Theory-Based Research
44(1)
Advantages of Theory-Based Research
45(1)
Replicating and Extending Previous Research
45(3)
Working on a Team Project
48(1)
Preparing a Research Proposal
49(7)
Introductory Section
49(4)
Research Hypotheses in Quantitative Research
50(1)
Research Hypotheses in Qualitative Research
51(1)
Research Questions and Purposes
52(1)
Literature Review Section
53(1)
Research Design Section
53(1)
Research Methods Section
54(1)
Data Analysis Section
54(1)
Protection of Human Subjects Section
55(1)
Time Line Section
55(1)
Conducting a Pilot Study
56(1)
Using the Proposal in Writing the Dissertation
56(7)
Format
58(1)
Front Matter
58(1)
Introductory Chapter
59(1)
Literature Review Chapter
59(2)
Research Method Chapter
61(1)
Results Chapter
61(1)
Discussion Chapter
62(1)
Back Matter
63(1)
Preparing a Journal Article
63(2)
Preparing a Paper for a Professional Meeting
65(1)
Recommendations for Planning and Reporting Research
66(1)
Self-Check Test
67(1)
3. Ethics and Site Relations in Educational Research
68(27)
The Importance of Ethics and Site Relations in Educational Research
68(1)
Typical Aspects of Educational Research That May Raise Ethical Concerns
69(7)
Planning and Design of Research
70(1)
Researcher Qualifications
70(1)
Conflict of Interest
70(1)
Neglect of Important Topics
70(1)
Research Methodology
71(3)
Control Group Experience
71(1)
Use of Deception
71(1)
Use of Tests
72(1)
Termination of Treatment Conditions
73(1)
Data Collection and Analysis
73(1)
Reporting of Research
74(2)
Authorship
74(1)
Plagiarism
75(1)
Partial or Dual Publication
75(1)
Formal Regulation of Research Ethics
76(2)
Statements of Ethical Principles
76(1)
Government Regulations
76(1)
Ethical Standards of the American Educational Research Association
76(2)
Ethical Principles of the American Psychological Association
78(1)
Institutional Review Boards' Role in Ensuring Research Ethics
78(9)
The Design and Purpose of an IRB
78(1)
Examples of Research Situations That Call for IRB Review
79(1)
Criteria for IRB Approval of a Research Project
80(7)
Assessment of the Risk-Benefit Ratio
80(1)
Selection of Participants
81(1)
Obtaining Informed Consent
82(2)
Maintenance of Privacy and Confidentiality
84(2)
Treatment of Vulnerable Populations
86(1)
Site Relations in Educational Research
87(5)
Location of a Research Site
87(1)
Securing Permission and Cooperation
88(2)
Building a Relationship with the Site
90(1)
Dealing with Human Relations Issues
91(1)
Recommendations for Ensuring That a Research Study Is Ethical, Legal, and Harmonious
92(1)
Self-Check Test
93(2)
4. Reviewing the Literature 95(28)
Purposes of a Literature Review
96(2)
Major Steps in a Literature Review
98(1)
Searching Preliminary Sources
99(8)
Types of Documents Indexed by Preliminary Sources
99(1)
Content and Coverage of Online Preliminary Sources
100(1)
Popular Online Preliminary Sources
100(3)
Search Strategies in Using Preliminary Sources
103(2)
Displaying Records in Preliminary Sources
105(2)
Using Secondary Sources
107(3)
Reading Primary Sources
110(2)
Classifying Primary Sources
111(1)
Critical Evaluation of Research Studies
111(1)
Synthesizing the Findings of Your Literature Review
112(9)
Synthesizing Quantitative Research Findings
114(4)
The Narrative Review
115(1)
Vote Counting
115(1)
The Chi-Square Method
115(1)
Meta-Analysis and Effect Size
116(2)
Synthesizing Qualitative Research Findings
118(3)
Recommendations for Reviewing Research Literature
121(1)
Self-Check Test
121(2)
PART III: Research Methods 123(174)
5. Statistical Techniques
124(41)
The Use of Statistics in Educational Research
125(4)
Example of Statistical Analysis in a Research Study
125(1)
The Need for Judgment in Statistical Analysis
126(2)
Acquiring Statistical Expertise
128(1)
Types of Scores
129(3)
Continuous Scores
129(2)
Age and Grade Equivalents
130(1)
Standard Scores
131(1)
Rank Scores
131(1)
Categories
132(1)
Descriptive Statistics
132(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
133(2)
Mean, Median, and Mode
134(1)
Skewness
134(1)
Categorical Data
135(1)
Measures of Variability
135(2)
Standard Deviation
135(1)
Normal Curve
135(1)
Other Measures of Variability
136(1)
Correlational Statistics
137(1)
Inferential Statistics
137(9)
Generalizing from a Sample to a Population
137(1)
The Null Hypothesis
138(1)
Tests of Statistical Significance
138(2)
Levels of Statistical Significance
139(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
139(1)
Interpretation of Significance Tests
140(2)
Alpha and Probability Values
140(1)
Misinterpretation of pValues
140(2)
Criticisms of Significance Tests
142(1)
Types of Significance Tests
142(1)
Statistical Power Analysis
142(4)
Supplements to Significance Tests
146(4)
Confidence Limits
146(2)
Replication of Research Results
148(1)
Effect Size
149(1)
Psychometric Statistics
150(1)
Problems in Statistical Analysis
151(9)
The Need for Exploratory Data Analysis
151(5)
Stem-and-Leaf Displays
152(2)
Advantages of Stem-and-Leaf Displays
154(1)
Graphical Displays
155(1)
Missing Data
156(2)
The Unit of Statistical Analysis
158(2)
Multilevel Analysis
159(1)
Processing Statistical Data
160(3)
Computer Hardware
160(1)
Computer Software
161(1)
Computer Consultants
161(1)
Checking Data Analyses for Accuracy
162(1)
Storing Research Data
162(1)
Recommendations for Doing Statistical Analyses
163(1)
Self-Check Test
163(2)
6. Selecting a Sample
165(27)
Sampling Logic in Research
166(1)
Sampling in Quantitative Research
166(11)
Defining the Population of Interest
166(3)
Target and Accessible Populations
166(2)
Inferential Leaps from a Sample to a Population
168(1)
Determining Population Validity
169(1)
Types of Probability Sampling
170(4)
Simple Random Sampling
170(2)
Systematic Random Sampling
172(1)
Stratified Random Sampling
173(1)
Cluster Sampling
173(1)
Example of Sampling a Phenomenon Rather Than Individuals
174(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
174(2)
Convenience Sampling
175(1)
Determining Sample Size for a Quantitative Research Study
176(1)
Sampling in Qualitative Research
177(9)
Rationale of Purposeful Sampling
178(1)
Applying Replication Logic
178(2)
Types of Purposeful Sampling
180(5)
Strategies to Select Cases Representing a Key Characteristic
180(3)
Strategies Reflecting a Conceptual Rationale
183(1)
Emergent Strategies
184(1)
Strategy Lacking a Rationale
185(1)
Determining the Number of Cases for a Qualitative Research Study
185(1)
Volunteers in Research Samples
186(4)
Characteristics of Research Volunteers
186(3)
Volunteers in Research Requiring Parental Consent
187(1)
Checking Volunteer Characteristics
188(1)
Improving the Rate of Volunteering
189(1)
Recommendations for Selecting a Research Sample
190(1)
Self-Check Test
190(2)
7. Collecting Research Data with Tests and Self-Report Measures
192(35)
Use of Tests and Self-Report Measures in Educational Research
193(1)
Characteristics of a Good Test in Research
194(14)
Criteria for Judging the Quality of Tests
194(1)
Objectivity
194(1)
Standard Conditions of Administration and Scoring
194(1)
Standards for Interpretation
195(1)
Fairness
195(1)
Test Validity
195(5)
Evidence from Test Content
196(1)
Evidence from Response Processes
197(1)
Evidence from Internal Structure
197(1)
Evidence from Relationship to Other Variables
198(1)
Evidence from Consequences of Testing
199(1)
Test Reliability
200(8)
Types of Test Reliability
201(2)
Use of Generalizability Theory
203(1)
Standard Error of Measurement
203(1)
Use of Item Response Theory
204(4)
Approaches to Measurement
208(5)
Standardized versus Locally Constructed Tests
208(1)
Referenced Test Scores
209(3)
Norm-Referenced Measurement
209(1)
Criterion-Referenced Measurement
210(1)
Individual-Referenced Measurement
211(1)
Computer-Based Testing
212(1)
Use of Computers in Test Development
212(1)
Use of Computers in Test Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation
212(1)
Individual versus Group Testing
213(1)
Types of Tests and Self-Report Measures
213(9)
Measures of Performance
214(4)
Intelligence Tests
214(1)
Aptitude Tests
214(1)
Achievement Tests
214(1)
Diagnostic Tests
215(1)
Performance Assessment
215(3)
Measures of Personal Characteristics
218(2)
Personality Inventories
218(1)
Projective Techniques
218(1)
Measures of Specific Personality Traits
219(1)
Measures of Self-Concept
219(1)
Measures of Learning Styles and Habits
219(1)
Attitude Scales
220(1)
Measures of Vocational Interest
220(1)
Obtaining Information about Tests and Self-Report Measures
220(2)
Searching Preliminary and Secondary Sources
221(1)
Reading the Test Manual
221(1)
Examining the Test Itself
221(1)
Contacting the Test Developer
222(1)
Using Tests or Self-Report Measures in a Research Project
222(3)
Developing Your Own Test
222(1)
Dealing with Resistance to Tests
222(1)
Testing in Field Sites
223(1)
Gaining the Cooperation of Test-Takers
224(1)
Recommendations for Using Tests and Self-Report Measures in Research
225(1)
Self-Check Test
225(2)
8. Collecting Research Data with Questionnaires and Interviews
227(35)
Questionnaires and Interviews as Data-Collection Methods
228(2)
Selecting between Questionnaires and Interviews
228(1)
Validity and Reliability Issues
229(1)
Survey Research
230(1)
Steps in Constructing and Administering a Research Questionnaire
230(13)
Step 1: Defining Research Objectives
230(2)
Step 2: Selecting a Sample
232(1)
Step 3: Designing the Questionnaire
233(3)
Anonymity of Respondents
233(1)
Item Form
233(2)
Use of Questionnaires in the Measurement of Attitudes
235(1)
Web Questionnaires
236(1)
Step 4: Pilot-Testing the Questionnaire
236(1)
Step 5: Precontacting the Sample
237(1)
Step 6: Writing a Cover Letter
237(3)
Step 7: Following Up with Nonrespondents
240(1)
Step 8: Analyzing Questionnaire Data
241(2)
Steps in Preparing and Conducting Research Interviews
243(16)
Step 1: Defining the Purpose of the Interview
243(2)
Key Informant Interviews
243(1)
Survey Interviews
244(1)
Focus Group Interviews
244(1)
Step 2: Selecting a Sample
245(1)
Step 3: Designing the Interview Format
245(4)
Interview Formats in Quantitative Research
246(1)
Interview Formats in Qualitative Research
247(1)
Telephone Interviews
247(1)
Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviews
248(1)
Web Interviews
249(1)
Step 4: Developing Questions
249(1)
Step 5: Selecting and Training Interviewers
250(3)
Distinctive Respondents
250(2)
Respondents as Interviewers
252(1)
Training of Interviewers
252(1)
Step 6: Pilot-Testing the Interview
253(1)
Step 7: Conducting the Interview
254(3)
Interviewing Tasks
254(2)
Recording Interview Data
256(1)
Step 8: Analyzing Interview Data
257(2)
Recommendations for Using a Questionnaire or an Interview Guide to Collect Research Data
259(1)
Self-Check Test
260(2)
9. Collecting Research Data through Observation and Content Analysis
262(35)
Forms of Observation and Content Analysis
263(1)
Reactive Observation in Quantitative Research
264(20)
Defining Observational Variables
264(2)
Types of Observational Variables
266(1)
Recording and Analyzing Observations
266(3)
Types of Recording Procedures
266(3)
Selecting an Observation Recording Procedure
269(2)
Standard Observation Forms
270(1)
Audio and Video Recording
270(1)
Use of Computers and Other Electronic Devices
271(1)
Selecting and Training Observers
271(2)
Determining Observer Agreement
272(1)
Reducing Observer Effects
273(2)
Types of Observer Effects
273(2)
Reactive Observation in Qualitative Research
275(3)
Purpose of Observation in Qualitative Research
276(1)
Defining the Observer Role
277(1)
Preparing for Observation
278(1)
Determining the Focus of Observation
278(2)
Gaining Entry into the Field Setting
280(1)
Recording Observations
281(2)
What Field Notes Should Include
281(2)
Dealing with Observer Effects
283(1)
Analyzing Qualitative Observational Data
284(1)
Nonreactive Observation in Quantitative Research
284(2)
Use of Unobtrusive Measures
284(3)
Potential Limitations of Unobtrusive Measures
285(1)
Nonreactive Observation in Qualitative Research
286(1)
Content Analysis of Documents and Other Communication Media
287(7)
Content Analysis in Quantitative Research
288(3)
Steps in Content Analysis
288(3)
Analysis of Documents and Records in Qualitative Observation
291(3)
Recommendations for Using Observational and Content-Analysis Methods
294(1)
Self-Check Test
295(2)
PART IV: Quantitative Research Design 297(148)
10. Nonexperimental Research: Descriptive and Causal-Comparative Designs
298(33)
Introduction
299(1)
An Example from Medical Research
299(1)
Descriptive Research Designs
300(6)
The Purpose of Descriptive Research
300(1)
Measurement in Descriptive Research
301(1)
Statistics in Descriptive Research
301(1)
Description of a Sample at One Point in Time
302(1)
Longitudinal Description of a Sample
302(4)
Trend Studies
303(1)
Cohort Studies
303(1)
Panel Studies
304(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies
305(1)
Causal-Comparative Research Designs
306(23)
The Study of Cause-and-Effect Relationships
306(1)
Example of a Causal-Comparative Research Study
307(4)
Planning a Causal-Comparative Study
311(4)
Statement of the Research Problem
311(1)
Selecting Comparison Groups
312(2)
Data Collection
314(1)
Data Analysis
315(1)
Statistical Analysis: The t Test
315(3)
The tTest for the Difference between Means
315(2)
The tTest for a Single Mean
317(1)
Statistical Analysis: Analysis of Variance
318(7)
Comparison of More Than Two Means
318(2)
Analysis of Covariance
320(1)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
321(3)
Tests for the Difference between Variances
324(1)
Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Tests
325(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Tests
325(1)
The Chi-Square Test
325(2)
Other Nonparametric Tests
327(1)
Interpretation of Causal-Comparative Findings
328(1)
Recommendations for Doing Descriptive and Causal-Comparative Research
329(1)
Self-Check Test
329(2)
11. Nonexperimental Research: Correlational Designs
331(48)
The Nature of Correlation
332(5)
Types of Scattergrams
332(2)
Positive Correlation
332(1)
Negative Correlation
333(1)
Absence of Correlation
334(1)
The Mathematics of Correlation
334(1)
Correlational Research Design
335(1)
Correlation and Causality
335(1)
Advantages and Uses of Correlational Research
336(1)
Planning a Causal Relationship Study
337(4)
Basic Research Design
337(4)
The Problem
337(1)
Selection of Research Participants
338(1)
Data Collection
338(1)
Data Analysis
339(1)
Problems of Interpretation
340(1)
Limitations of Causal Relationship Studies
341(1)
Planning a Prediction Study
341(6)
Types of Prediction Studies
341(1)
Basic Research Design
342(4)
The Problem
342(1)
Selection of Research Participants
343(1)
Data Collection
343(1)
Data Analysis
344(2)
Statistical Factors in Prediction Research
346(1)
Group Prediction
346(1)
Shrinkage
346(1)
Bivariate Correlational Statistics
347(5)
Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
347(1)
Correlation Ratio
347(3)
Adjustments to Correlation Coefficients
350(2)
Correction for Attenuation
350(1)
Correction for Restriction in Range
350(1)
Part and Partial Correlation
351(1)
Multivariate Correlational Statistics
352(25)
Multiple Regression
353(8)
A Research Example
353(3)
Steps in a Multiple Regression Analysis
356(2)
Multiple Correlation Coefficient
358(1)
Coefficient of Determination
359(1)
The Mathematics of Multiple Regression
359(1)
Types of Multiple Regression
360(1)
Cautions in Using Multiple Regression
361(1)
Hierarchical Linear Modeling
361(2)
Path Analysis
363(5)
Steps in Path Analysis
364(2)
Path Analysis Models
366(1)
The Mathematics of Path Analysis
367(1)
Path Analysis and Theory Testing
368(1)
Factor Analysis
368(3)
Factor Loadings and Factor Scores
369(1)
Types of Factor Analysis
370(1)
Structural Equation Modeling
371(2)
Differential Analysis
373(2)
Subgroup Analysis in Causal Relationship Studies
373(1)
Moderator Variables in Prediction Studies
374(1)
Interpretation of Correlation Coefficients
375(4)
Statistical Significance of Correlation Coefficients
375(1)
Interpreting the Magnitude of Correlation Coefficients
375(2)
Recommendations for Doing Correlational Research
377(1)
Self-Check Test
377(2)
12. Experimental Research: Designs, Part 1
379(36)
Introduction
379(4)
Terminology in Experimental Design
381(1)
Validity Problems in Experiments
381(2)
Internal Validity of Experiments
383(5)
External Validity of Experiments
388(6)
Population Validity
389(1)
Ecological Validity
390(2)
Representative Design
392(2)
Issues in Designing Experiments
394(8)
Experimenter Bias
394(1)
Treatment Fidelity
395(1)
Strong versus Weak Experimental Treatments
396(1)
Random Assignment in Experiments
397(5)
Single-Group Designs
402(2)
The One-Shot Case Study
402(1)
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
402(2)
Time-Series Design
404(1)
Control-Group Designs with Random Assignment
404(9)
Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design
405(4)
Posttest-Only Control-Group Design
409(3)
One-Variable Multiple-Condition Design
412(1)
Recommendations for Doing Experiments
413(1)
Self-Check Test
413(2)
13. Experimental Research: Designs, Part 2
415(30)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
416(2)
Static-Group Comparison Design
416(1)
Nonequivalent Control-Group Design
416(2)
Factorial Designs
418(19)
Two-Factor Experiments
418(3)
Example of a Two-Factor Experiment
418(3)
Solomon Four-Group Design
421(2)
Example of a Solomon Four-Group Experiment
421(2)
Variations in Factorial Experiments
423(3)
Three-Factor Experiments
423(1)
Manipulability of Independent Variables
424(1)
Fixed and Random Factors
425(1)
Assignment of Participants to Multiple Treatments
426(1)
Single-Case Designs
426(1)
Example of a Single-Case Experiment
427(3)
General Design Considerations
430(2)
Reliable Observation
430(1)
Repeated Measurement
431(1)
Description of Experimental Conditions
431(1)
Baseline and Treatment Stability
431(1)
Length of Baseline and Treatment Phases
432(1)
A-B-A Designs
432(1)
A-B Design
432(1)
A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs
432(1)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
433(2)
Example of a Multiple-Baseline Experiment
433(2)
Statistical Analysis of Single-Case Data
435(2)
External Validity of Single-Case Designs
437(1)
Other Experimental Designs
437(1)
Measurement of Change
438(5)
Gain Scores
438(2)
Statistical Analysis of Change
440(7)
Multiple Regression
440(1)
Analysis of Covariance and t Tests
440(1)
Analysis of Varience for Repeated Measures
440(3)
Recommendations for Doing Experiments
443(1)
Self-Check Test
443(2)
PART V: Approaches to Qualitative Research 445(112)
14. Case Study Research
446(42)
Importance of Case Study in Qualitative Research
447(6)
Characteristics of Case Studies
447(4)
Study of Particular Instances
447(1)
In-Depth Study of the Case
448(1)
Study of a Phenomenon in Its Real-Life Context
449(1)
Representation of Emic and Etic Perspectives
450(1)
Purposes of Case Studies
451(2)
Description
451(1)
Explanation
452(1)
Evaluation
453(1)
Designing a Case Study
453(7)
Formulating a Research Problem
455(1)
Selecting a Case
456(1)
Defining the Role of the Case Study Researcher
457(1)
Gaining Entry
458(1)
Addressing Ethical Issues
459(1)
Collecting Case Study Data
460(5)
Personal Involvement in the Data-Collection Process
461(2)
Analyzing Data during Data Collection
463(2)
Ending Data Collection
465(1)
Analyzing Case Study Data
465(8)
Interpretational Analysis
466(5)
Segmenting the Database
466(1)
Developing Categories
467(1)
Coding Segments
468(1)
Grouping Category Segments
468(1)
Drawing Conclusions
469(2)
Structural Analysis
471(1)
Reflective Analysis
472(1)
Ensuring the Quality and Rigor of Qualitative Research
473(4)
Strategies to Meet Users' Needs
474(1)
Strategies to Ensure Thorough Data Collection
474(1)
Strategies Reflecting Sound Research Design
475(3)
Positivist Conceptions of the Validity and Reliability of Case Study Research
476(1)
Determining the Applicability of Case Study Findings
477(1)
Reporting a Case Study
478(6)
Finalizing Definition of the Case
479(1)
Reflective Reporting
480(2)
Analytic Reporting
482(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Study Research
484(1)
Recommendations for Doing Case Studies
485(1)
Self-Check Test
486(2)
15. Qualitative Research Traditions
488(40)
Qualitative Research Traditions in Educational Research
489(3)
The Characteristics of Qualitative Research Traditions
490(2)
Traditions Involving Investigation of Lived Experience
492(8)
Cognitive Psychology
492(3)
A Study of Differences in the Knowledge Structures of Experts and Novices
493(2)
Phenomenology
495(2)
Phenomenographic Research
497(1)
Life History Research
498(2)
Traditions Involving Investigation of Society and Culture
500(19)
Ethnography
500(9)
Phenomena Studied by Ethnographers
503(1)
Doing an Ethnographic Study
503(5)
Issues Facing Ethnography
508(1)
Cultural Studies and Critical-Theory Research
509(9)
Assumptions of the Cultural Studies Tradition
509(3)
Methods of Inquiry
512(1)
Focus on Issues Relevant to Education
513(1)
Theory Building in Cultural Studies
514(3)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Cultural Studies
517(1)
Ethnomethodology
518(1)
Traditions Involving Investigation of Language and Communication
519(7)
Hermeneutics
520(2)
Semiotics
522(1)
Structuralism and Poststructuralism
523(3)
Recommendations for Designing a Study Based on a Qualitative Research Tradition
526(1)
Self-Check Test
526(2)
16. Historical Research
528(29)
Importance of Historical Research in Education
529(4)
Subject Matter of Historical Research
530(1)
Impact of Historical Research on Education
530(6)
A Subject in the Curriculum
530(1)
A Foundation for Developing New Knowledge and Policies Related to Education
531(1)
A Variable Affecting the Validity of Research Findings
532(1)
A Basis for Evaluating Educational Programs
532(1)
A Tool in Planning the Future
532(1)
Historiography and the Stages of Historical Research
533(1)
Defining a Problem for Historical Research
534(2)
Studying Historical Sources
536(3)
Formulating a Search Plan
536(1)
Searching Preliminary Sources
536(1)
Reading Secondary Sources
537(1)
Studying Primary Sources
537(2)
Recording Information from Historical Sources
539(1)
Recording and Analyzing Quantitative Data
540(1)
Evaluation of Historical Sources
540(3)
External Criticism
541(1)
Internal Criticism
542(1)
Interpretation in Historical Research
543(5)
Use of Concepts to Interpret Historical Information
543(1)
Historians as Interpreters
544(2)
Causal Inference in Historical Research
546(1)
Generalizability of Historical Evidence
547(1)
Writing a Historical Research Report
548(1)
Examples of Historical Research in Education
549(5)
A Micropolitical Perspective on the Education of Mexican Americans in a South Texas Community
549(2)
Politics and the Pendulum: A Historical Analysis of Whole Language
551(8)
Expanding Political Opportunities
552(1)
Shared Cognitions
552(1)
Mobilization of Indigent Organization Resources
552(1)
Shifting Response of Other Organized Groups to the Movement
553(1)
Recommendations for Doing Historical Research
554(1)
Self-Check Test
554(3)
PART VI: Applications of Research 557(59)
17. Evaluation Research
558(39)
The Role of Evaluation in Education
559(1)
Relationship between Evaluation and Research
559(1)
Steps in Program Evaluation
560(9)
Clarifying the Reasons for an Evaluation
561(1)
Selecting an Evaluation Model
561(1)
Example of Collaborative Evaluation
562(1)
Identifying Stakeholders
562(1)
Deciding What Is to Be Evaluated
563(2)
Program Goals
563(1)
Program Resources and Procedures
563(1)
Program Management
564(1)
Program Outcomes
565(1)
Identifying Evaluation Questions
565(1)
Developing an Evaluation Design and Time Line
566(1)
Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data
567(1)
Reporting Evaluation Results
568(1)
Criteria for Effective Evaluation Research
569(4)
Program Evaluation Standards
569(3)
Personnel Evaluation Standards
572(1)
Other Standards for Educational Evaluation
572(1)
Quantitative Approaches to Evaluation
573(7)
Evaluation of the Individual
573(1)
Objectives-Based Evaluation
573(2)
Needs Assessment
575(4)
Example of Needs Assessment
576(2)
Limitations of Needs Assessment
578(1)
Context—Input—Process—Product (CIPP) Evaluation
579(1)
Qualitative Approaches to Evaluation
580(9)
Responsive Evaluation
581(2)
Example of Responsive Evaluation
581(1)
Emergent Design
582(1)
Fourth-Generation Evaluation
583(1)
Quasi-Legal Models of Evaluation
583(3)
Adversary Evaluation
583(2)
Judicial Evaluation
585(1)
Expertise-Based Evaluation
586(2)
Educational Connoisseurship and Criticism
586(1)
Example of Expertise-Based Evaluation
587(1)
Empowerment Evaluation
588(1)
Example of Empowerment Evaluation
588(1)
Educational Research and Development
589(5)
R&D Model
589(1)
Formative and Summative Evaluation
590(2)
Example of R&D Evaluation
592(2)
Recommendations for Doing an Evaluation Research Study or an R&D Evaluation
594(1)
Self-Check Test
595(2)
18. Action Research
597(19)
Characteristics of Action Research
597(3)
Purposes for Conducting Action Research
599(1)
Personal Purposes for Action Research
599(1)
Professional Purposes for Action Research
599(1)
Political Purposes for Action Research
600(1)
Cyclical Nature of Action Research
600(6)
Focus on Data Collection and Analysis as a Basis for Action
603(1)
Focus on Reflection
604(2)
Stages of Action Research
606(3)
Selecting a Focus
606(1)
Taking Action
607(1)
Collecting Data
607(1)
Analyzing and Interpreting the Data
607(1)
Continuing or Modifying Action
607(1)
Reflection
608(1)
Reporting Action Research
608(1)
Credibility and Trustworthiness of Action Research
609(3)
Outcome Validity
610(1)
Process Validity
610(1)
Democratic Validity
610(1)
Catalytic Validity
611(1)
Dialogic Validity
611(1)
Reducing Discrepancies between Practitioners' Espoused Theories and Theories-in-Action
612(1)
Practitioner—Academic Collaboration
612(1)
Ethical Issues in Action Research
613(1)
Recommendations for Doing Action Research
614(1)
Self-Check Test
614(2)
Self-Check Test Answers 616(2)
APPENDIX A Questions for Evaluating Quantitative Research Reports 618(4)
APPENDIX B Questions for Evaluating Qualitative Research Reports 622(4)
APPENDIX C Preliminary and Secondary Sources: Tests and Self-Report Measures 626(3)
APPENDIX D Preliminary and Secondary Sources on the History of Education 629(3)
Glossary 632(27)
Author Index 659(7)
Subject Index 666


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