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Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Application and Practice, 9th Edition,9780470522813
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Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Application and Practice, 9th Edition

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780470522813

ISBN10:
047052281X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $193.92
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Summary

While grasping testing and measurement concepts can sometimes seem daunting, the new Ninth Edition of Kubiszyn and Borich's Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Application and Practice continues to present content in a reader-friendly, jargon-free manner. Through its conversational style, the authors keep the needs of their primary audience - classroom teachers - fully in mind, while also providing sufficient information to enable interested readers to grasp the theory behind various assessment strategies and testing procedures.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Contemporary Educational Testing And Measurementp. 1
Tests Are Only Tools: Their Usefulness Can Varyp. 1
Why We Developed This Text: Enhancing Test Usefulnessp. 2
Technical Adequacyp. 2
Test User Competencyp. 3
Matching the Test's Intended Purposep. 3
Matching Diverse Test-Takers to the Testp. 5
Test Results and Diversity Considerationsp. 6
Tests Are Only Tools: A Video Beats a Photop. 6
Defining Some Test-Related Termsp. 8
Tests, Assessments, and the Assessment Processp. 8
Types of Tests/Assessmentsp. 10
Recent Developments: Impact on Classroom Testing and Measurementp. 13
Education Reform Meets Special Education Reform: NCLB and IDEIAp. 14
The Impact on Regular Education Teachers of the IDEIA and NCLBp. 15
Other Trends: Technology, Globalization, and International Competitivenessp. 16
Competency Testing for Teachersp. 17
Increased Interest from Professional Groupsp. 17
A Professional Association-Book Publisher Information Initiativep. 18
Effects on the Classroom Teacherp. 19
About the Textp. 21
What if You're ˘No Good in Math÷p. 22
Summaryp. 22
For Discussionp. 23
High-Stakes Testingp. 25
Comparing NCLB and State High-Stakes Testing Programsp. 25
High-Stakes Testing: A Nationwide Phenomenonp. 27
High-Stakes Tests Are Only Toolsp. 28
Why Does High-Stakes Testing Matter?p. 29
Promotion and Graduation Decisions Affect Studentsp. 30
Principal and Teacher Incentives Are Linked to HST Performancep. 32
Property Values, Business Decisions, and Politics and HSTp. 32
The Lake Wobegon Effect and HSTp. 32
The History of High-Stakes Testingp. 33
Education Reformp. 33
Standards-Based Reformp. 33
Types of High-Stakes Testsp. 36
Criterion-Referenced High-Stakes Testsp. 36
Norm-Referenced High-Stakes Testsp. 41
Benchmark Tests and High-Stakes Testsp. 41
The High-Stakes Testing Backlashp. 42
Is There Really a High-Stakes Testing Backlash?p. 44
What Do National Organizations Say About High-Stakes Tests?p. 45
AERA's Twelve Conditions for HST Programsp. 46
How Can a Teacher Use the Twelve Conditions?p. 48
Helping Students (and Yourself) Prepare for High-Stakes Testsp. 49
Focus on the Task, Not Your Feelings About Itp. 49
Inform Students and Parents About the Importance of the Testp. 50
Teach Test-Taking Skills as Part of Regular Instructionp. 51
As the Test Day Approaches, Respond to Student Questions Openly and Directlyp. 53
Take Advantage of Whatever Preparation Materials Are Availablep. 53
Summaryp. 53
For Discussionp. 55
Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and the Regular Classroom Teacherp. 56
What Is RTI?p. 56
What if You Have Not Heard of RTI Before?p. 57
How New Is RTI?p. 57
Do Regular Education Teachers Need to Know About RTI?p. 57
An RTI Scenariop. 58
How Important Is RTI to Regular Education Teachers?p. 60
Can a Special Education Law Reform Regular Education?p. 61
How Is RTI Supposed to Help Students and Schools?p. 61
RTI Definitions, Components, and Implementation Approachesp. 62
RTI Definitionsp. 62
RTI Componentsp. 63
RTI Implementation Approachesp. 68
How Widely Is RTI Being Implemented1?p. 71
Some Benefits of RTIp. 72
RTI: The Promise and Some Controversiesp. 72
Technical Issues: Reliability, Validity, and Fairnessp. 72
Implementation Issuesp. 73
The Purpose Of Testingp. 76
Testing, Accountability, and the Classroom Teacherp. 77
Types of Educational Decisionsp. 79
A Pinch of Saltp. 82
˘Pinching÷ in the Classroomp. 83
What to Measurep. 84
How to Measurep. 85
Written Testsp. 86
Summaryp. 87
For Discussionp. 87
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Content Validity Evidencep. 89
Defining Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Testsp. 89
Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Testsp. 93
Differences in the Construction of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Testsp. 94
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Linguistic and Cultural Diversityp. 95
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Validity Evidencep. 97
A Three-Stage Model of Classroom Measurementp. 98
Why Objectives? Why Not Just Write Test Items?p. 100
Where Do Goals Come From?p. 101
Are There Different Kinds of Goals and Objectives?p. 102
How Can Instructional Objectives Make a Teacher's Job Easier?p. 106
Summaryp. 107
For Discussionp. 108
Measuring Learning Outcomesp. 110
Writing Instructional Objectivesp. 110
Identifying Learning Outcomesp. 110
Identifying Observable and Directly Measurable Learning Outcomesp. 111
Stating Conditionsp. 112
Stating Criterion Levelsp. 113
Keeping It Simple and Straightforwardp. 114
Matching Test Items to Instructional Objectivesp. 115
Taxonomy of Educational Objectivesp. 117
Cognitive Domainp. 117
Affective Domainp. 120
The Psychomotor Domainp. 123
The Test Blueprintp. 123
Content Outlinep. 125
Categoriesp. 126
Number of Itemsp. 126
Functionsp. 126
Summaryp. 128
For Practicep. 128
Writing Objective Test Itemsp. 130
Which Format?p. 130
True-False Itemsp. 132
Suggestions for Writing True-False Itemsp. 134
Matching Itemsp. 135
Faults Inherent in Matching Itemsp. 135
Suggestions for Writing Matching Itemsp. 138
Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 139
Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questionsp. 144
Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Itemsp. 147
Completion Itemsp. 148
Suggestions for Writing Completion Itemsp. 151
Gender and Racial Bias in Test Itemsp. 151
Guidelines for Writing Test Itemsp. 152
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Objective Item Formatsp. 153
Summaryp. 155
For Practicep. 156
Writing Essay Test Itemsp. 157
What Is an Essay Item?p. 158
Essay Items Should Measure Complex Cognitive Skills or Processesp. 158
Essay Items: Extended or Restricted Responsep. 159
Examples of Restricted Response Essaysp. 161
Pros and Cons of Essay Itemsp. 162
Advantages of the Essay Itemp. 163
Disadvantages of the Essay Itemp. 163
Suggestions for Writing Essay Itemsp. 164
Scoring Essay Questionsp. 166
Scoring Extended Response and Higher Level Questionsp. 168
General Essay Scoring Suggestionsp. 172
Assessing Knowledge Organizationp. 172
Open-Book Questions and Examsp. 175
Some Open-Book Techniquesp. 178
Guidelines for Planning Essays, Knowledge Organization, and Open-Book Questions and Examsp. 182
Summaryp. 183
For Practicep. 184
Performance-Based Assessmentp. 185
Performance Tests: Direct Measures of Competencep. 185
Performance Tests Can Assess Processes and Productsp. 186
Performance Tests Can Be Embedded in Lessonsp. 186
Performance Tests Can Assess Affective and Social Skillsp. 188
Developing Performance Tests for Your Learnersp. 189
Deciding What to Testp. 190
Designing the Assessment Contextp. 192
Specifying the Scoring Rubricsp. 195
Specifying Testing Constraintsp. 201
A Final Wordp. 202
Summaryp. 202
For Discussion and Practicep. 203
Portfolio Assessmentp. 205
Ensuring Validity of the Portfoliop. 206
Developing Portfolio Assessmentsp. 207
Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfoliop. 207
Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositionsp. 208
Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfoliop. 208
Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Productp. 208
Building the Portfolio Rubricsp. 209
Developing a Procedure to Aggregate All Portfolio Ratingsp. 214
Determining the Logisticsp. 217
Summaryp. 220
For Practicep. 221
Administering, Analyzing, And Improving The Test Or Assessmentp. 222
Assembling the Testp. 222
Packaging the Testp. 223
Reproducing the Testp. 225
Administering the Testp. 225
Scoring the Testp. 227
Analyzing the Testp. 227
Quantitative Item Analysisp. 228
Qualitative Item Analysisp. 234
Item Analysis Modifications for the Criterion-Referenced Testp. 235
Debriefingp. 240
Debriefing Guidelinesp. 241
The Process of Evaluating Classroom Achievementp. 242
Summaryp. 243
For Practicep. 245
Marks And Marking Systemsp. 246
What Is the Purpose of a Mark?p. 246
Why Be Concerned About Marking?p. 246
What Should a Mark Reflect?p. 247
Marking Systemsp. 248
Types of Comparisonsp. 248
Types of Symbolsp. 253
Combining and Weighting the Components of a Markp. 254
Who Is the Better Teacher?p. 255
Combining Grades into a Single Markp. 256
Practical Approaches to Equating Before Weighting in the Busy Classroomp. 259
Front-End Equatingp. 260
Back-End Equatingp. 260
Summaryp. 263
For Practicep. 264
Summarizing Data And Measures Of Central Tendencyp. 265
What Are Statistics?p. 265
Why Use Statistics?p. 266
Tabulating Frequency Datap. 267
The Listp. 267
The Simple Frequency Distributionp. 263
The Grouped Frequency Distributionp. 268
Steps in Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distributionp. 270
Graphing Datap. 273
The Bar Graph, or Histogramp. 274
The Frequency Polygonp. 274
The Smooth Curvep. 276
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 280
The Meanp. 281
The Medianp. 282
The Modep. 287
The Measures of Central Tendency in Various Distributionsp. 289
Summaryp. 290
For Practicep. 292
Variability, The Normal Distribution, And Converted Scoresp. 293
The Rangep. 293
The Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR)p. 294
The Standard Deviationp. 295
The Deviation Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviationp. 299
The Raw Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviationp. 300
The Normal Distributionp. 302
Properties of the Normal Distributionp. 303
Converted Scoresp. 307
z-Scoresp. 309
T-Scoresp. 314
Summaryp. 315
For Practicep. 315
Correlationp. 317
The Correlation Coefficientp. 318
Strength of a Correlationp. 319
Direction of a Correlationp. 319
Scatterplotsp. 320
Where Does r Come From?p. 322
Causalityp. 323
Other Interpretive Cautionsp. 325
Summaryp. 327
For Practicep. 328
Validity Evidencep. 329
Why Evaluate Tests?p. 329
Types of Validity Evidencep. 329
Content Validity Evidencep. 330
Criterion-Related Validity Evidencep. 330
Construct Validity Evidencep. 332
What Have We Been Saying? A Reviewp. 333
Interpreting Validity Coefficientsp. 334
Content Validity Evidencep. 334
Concurrent and Predictive Validity Evidencep. 334
Summaryp. 339
For Practicep. 340
Reliabilityp. 341
Methods of Estimating Reliabilityp. 341
Test-Retest or Stabilityp. 341
Alternate Forms or Equivalencep. 343
Internal Consistencyp. 343
Interpreting Reliability Coefficientsp. 346
Summaryp. 349
For Practicep. 350
Error-What Is It?p. 351
The Standard Error of Measurementp. 353
Using the Standard Error of Measurementp. 354
More Applicationsp. 357
Standard Deviation or Standard Error of Measurement?p. 359
Why All the Fuss About Error?p. 360
Error Within Test-Takersp. 360
Error Within the Testp. 360
Error in Test Administrationp. 361
Error in Scoringp. 361
Sources of Error Influencing Various Reliability Coefficientsp. 362
Test-Retestp. 362
Alternate Formsp. 362
Internal Consistencyp. 363
Band Interpretationp. 364
Steps: Band Interpretationp. 365
A Final Wordp. 369
Summaryp. 369
For Practicep. 371
Standardized Testsp. 372
What Is a Standardized Test?p. 373
Do Test Stimuli, Administration, and Scoring Have to Be Standardized?p. 374
Standardized Testing: Effects of Accommodations and Alternative Assessmentsp. 374
Uses of Standardized Achievement Testsp. 376
Will Performance and Portfolio Assessment Make Standardized Tests Obsolete?p. 377
Administering Standardized Testsp. 377
Types of Scores Offered for Standardized Achievement Testsp. 379
Grade Equivalentsp. 379
Age Equivalentsp. 380
Percentile Ranksp. 381
Standard Scoresp. 382
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Test and Student Factorsp. 384
Test-Related Factorsp. 384
Student-Related Factorsp. 390
Aptitude-Achievement Discrepanciesp. 395
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Parent-Teacher Conferences and Educational Decision Makingp. 398
An Example: Pressure to Change an Educational Placementp. 399
A Second Example: Pressure from the Opposite Directionp. 404
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Score Reports from Publishersp. 407
The Press-On Labelp. 407
A Criterion-Referenced Skills Analysis or Mastery Reportp. 408
An Individual Performance Profilep. 412
Other Publisher Reports and Servicesp. 412
Summaryp. 413
For Practicep. 415
Types of Standardized Testsp. 417
Standardized Achievement Testsp. 417
Achievement Test Batteries, or Survey Batteriesp. 418
Single-Subject Achievement Testsp. 419
Diagnostic Achievement Aptitude Testsp. 420
Standardized Academic Aptitude Tests 420
The History of Academic Aptitude Testingp. 420
Stability of IQ Scoresp. 421
What Do IQ Tests Predict?p. 422
Individually Administered Academic Aptitude Testsp. 423
Group-Administered Academic Aptitude Testsp. 424
Standardized Personality Assessment Instrumentsp. 425
What Is Personality?p. 425
Objective Personality Testsp. 426
Projective Personality Testsp. 427
Summaryp. 428
For Discussionp. 429
In The Classroom: A Summary Dialoguep. 430
High-Stakes Testing and NCLBp. 435
Response-to-intervention (RTI)p. 436
Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Testsp. 436
New Responsibilities for Teachers Under IDEIAp. 437
Instructional Objectivesp. 437
The Test Blueprintp. 438
Essay Items and the Essay Scoring Guidesp. 438
Reliability, Validity Evidence, and Test Statisticsp. 439
Grades And Marksp. 441
Some Final Thoughtsp. 441
Math Skills Reviewp. 443
Preparing For The Praxis II: Principles Of Learning And Teaching Assessmentp. 450
Determining The Median When There Are Multiple Tied Middle Scoresp. 460
Pearson Product-Moment Correlationp. 462
Statistics And Measurement Textsp. 464
Answers for Practice Questionsp. 465
Suggested Readingsp. 471
Referencesp. 475
Creditsp. 481
Indexp. 483
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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