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Educational Testing and Measurement : Classroom Application and Practice,9780471364962
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Educational Testing and Measurement : Classroom Application and Practice

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780471364962

ISBN10:
0471364967
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
John Wiley & Sons Inc
List Price: $83.80
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  • Educational Testing and Measurement : Classroom Application and Practice
    Educational Testing and Measurement : Classroom Application and Practice




Summary

In a jargon-free, conversational style, this bestseller emphasizes teaching strategies that prepare students to deal with the practical problems of testing and measuring classroom behavior and performance. It reflects real-life teaching tasks and features extensive treatment of projective tests, as well as specific chapters on nonbiased assessment, and computer-assisted instruction.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xv
CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Contemporary Educational Testing and Measurement
1(18)
Tests Are Only Tools
1(1)
Tests Are Not Infallible
2(1)
Testing: Part of Assessment
2(2)
Testing and Assessment Skills: Vital to Teachers
4(1)
Recent History in Educational Measurement
5(1)
Current Trends in Educational Measurement
6(6)
1997 Amendments to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA-97)
6(1)
Performance and Portfolio Assessment
7(1)
Education Reform and the Global Economy
7(1)
"High-Stakes" Testing
8(4)
Competency Testing for Teachers
12(1)
Increased Interest from Professional Groups
12(1)
Effects on the Classroom Teacher
13(2)
About the Text
15(1)
What If You're "No Good in Math?"
16(1)
Summary
16(1)
For Discussion
17(2)
CHAPTER 2 The Purpose of Testing
19(14)
Testing, Accountability, and the Classroom Teacher
20(7)
Types of Educational Decisions
22(4)
"Pinching" in the Classroom
26(1)
What to Measure
27(1)
How to Measure
28(1)
Written Tests
28(1)
Summary
29(2)
For Discussion
31(2)
CHAPTER 3 Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
33(12)
Defining Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
33(4)
Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
37(1)
Differences in the Construction of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
38(2)
NRTs, CRTs, and Language, Cultural, and Social Sensitivity
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
For Discussion
42(3)
CHAPTER 4 Instructional Goals and Objectives
45(14)
A Three-Stage Model of Classroom Measurement
46(2)
Why Objectives? Why Not Just Write Test Items?
48(8)
Where Do Goals Come From?
50(1)
Are There Different Kinds of Goals and Objectives?
51(2)
How Can Instructional Objectives Make a Teacher's Job Easier?
53(3)
Summary
56(1)
For Discussion
56(3)
CHAPTER 5 Measuring Learning Outcomes
59(22)
Writing Instructional Objectives
59(5)
Identifying Learning Outcomes
59(2)
Identifying Observable and Directly Measurable Learning Outcomes
61(1)
Stating Conditions
62(1)
Stating Criterion Levels
62(1)
Keeping It Simple and Straightforward
63(1)
Matching Test Items to Instructional Objectives
64(3)
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
67(6)
Cognitive Domain
67(3)
Affective Domain
70(2)
The Psychomotor Domain
72(1)
The Test Blueprint
73(5)
Content Outline
76(1)
Categories
76(1)
Number of Items
76(1)
Functions
76(2)
Summary
78(1)
For Practice
79(2)
CHAPTER 6 Writing Objective Test Items
81(30)
Which Format?
81(23)
True-False Items
83(3)
Suggestions for Writing True-False Items
86(1)
Matching Items
86(3)
Suggestions for Writing Matching Items
89(1)
Multiple-Choice Items
90(6)
Higher Level Multiple-Choice Questions
96(4)
Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Items
100(1)
Completion Items
100(3)
Suggestions for Writing Completion or Supply Items
103(1)
Gender and Racial Bias in Test Items
104(1)
Guidelines for Writing Test Items
105(3)
Summary
108(1)
For Practice
109(2)
CHAPTER 7 Writing Essay Test Items
111(18)
What Is an Essay Item?
112(2)
Extended Response Items
113(1)
Restricted Response Items
114(1)
Essay Items and Instructional Objectives
114(1)
Suggestions for Writing and Using Essay Items
115(2)
Why Use Essay Items?
117(1)
Advantages of the Essay Item
117(1)
Disadvantages of the Essay Item
118(1)
When Should Essay Questions Be Used?
118(1)
Scoring Essays
118(8)
Why Are Essay Scores Unreliable?
119(1)
How To Improve Scoring Reliability (and Save Time!)
119(1)
Scoring Criteria for High-Level Essay Items
120(6)
Summary
126(1)
For Practice
127(2)
CHAPTER 8 Administering, Analyzing, and Improving the Test
129(28)
Assembling the Test
129(4)
Packaging the Test
130(1)
Reproducing the Test
131(2)
Administering the Test
133(2)
Scoring the Test
135(1)
Analyzing the Test
135(14)
Quantitative Item Analysis
136(6)
Qualitative Item Analysis
142(1)
Item Analysis Modifications for the Criterion-Referenced Test
143(6)
Debriefing
149(2)
Debriefing Guidelines
150(1)
The Process of Evaluating Classroom Achievement
151(1)
Summary
152(3)
For Practice
155(2)
CHAPTER 9 Performance-Based Assessment
157(24)
Performance Tests: Direct Measures of Competence
157(1)
Performance Tests Can Assess Processes and Products
158(1)
Performance Tests Can Be Embedded in Lessons
159(1)
Performance Tests Can Assess Affective and Social Skills
160(2)
Developing Performance Tests for Your Learners
162(15)
Step 1: Deciding What To Test
162(6)
Step 2: Designing the Assessment Context
168(1)
Step 3: Specifying the Scoring Rubrics
168(7)
Step 4: Specifying Testing Constraints
175(2)
A Final Word
177(1)
Summary
177(1)
For Discussion and Practice
178(3)
CHAPTER 10 Portfolio Assessment
181(20)
Rationale for the Portfolio
182(17)
Ensuring Validity of the Portfolio
182(17)
Summary
199(1)
For Practice
200(1)
CHAPTER 11 Marks and Marking Systems
201(22)
What Is the Purpose of a Mark?
201(3)
Why Be Concerned About Marking?
201(1)
What Should a Mark Reflect?
202(2)
Marking Systems
204(6)
Types of Comparisons
204(4)
Which System Should You Choose?
208(1)
Types of Symbols
208(2)
Combining and Weighting the Components of a Mark
210(5)
Who Is the Better Teacher?
211(1)
Combining Grades from Quizzes, Tests, Papers, Homework, Etc., into a Single Mark
212(3)
Equating Before Weighting in the Busy Classroom: Combining Performance and Traditional Assessment Scores into a Single Mark
215(4)
Front-end Equating
216(1)
Back-end Equating
216(3)
Summary
219(1)
For Practice
220(3)
CHAPTER 12 Summarizing Data and Measures of Central Tendency
223(32)
What Are Statistics?
223(1)
Why Statistics?
224(1)
Tabulating Frequency Data
225(7)
The List
226(1)
The Simple Frequency Distribution
226(1)
The Grouped Frequency Distribution
227(1)
Steps in Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distribution
227(5)
Graphing Data
232(8)
The Bar Graph, or Histogram
232(1)
The Frequency Polygon
233(2)
The Smooth Curve
235(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
240(10)
The Mean
240(2)
The Median
242(4)
The Mode
246(2)
The Measures of Central Tendency in Various Distributions
248(2)
Summary
250(2)
For Practice
252(3)
CHAPTER 13 Variability, the Normal Distribution, and Converted Scores
255(28)
The Range
255(1)
The Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR)
256(2)
The Standard Deviation
258(7)
The Deviation Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation
261(1)
The Raw Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation
262(3)
The Normal Distribution
265(5)
Properties of the Normal Distribution
266(4)
Converted Scores
270(9)
Z-Scores
273(4)
T-Scores
277(2)
Summary
279(1)
For Practice
280(3)
CHAPTER 14 Correlation
283(14)
The Correlation Coefficient
284(10)
Strength of a Correlation
285(1)
Direction of a Correlation
285(1)
Scatterplots
286(2)
Where Does r Come From?
288(2)
Causality
290(1)
Other Interpretive Cautions
291(3)
Summary
294(1)
For Practice
295(2)
CHAPTER 15 Validity
297(14)
Why Evaluate Tests?
297(1)
Types of Validity
297(5)
Content Validity
298(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
298(2)
Construct Validity
300(1)
What Have We Been Saying? A Review
300(2)
Interpreting Validity Coefficients
302(5)
Content Validity
302(1)
Concurrent and Predictive Validity
302(5)
Summary
307(1)
For Practice
308(3)
CHAPTER 16 Reliability
311(12)
Methods of Estimating Reliability
311(5)
Test-Retest
311(1)
Alternate Forms
312(1)
Internal Consistency
312(4)
Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
316(4)
Summary
320(1)
For Practice
321(2)
CHAPTER 17 Accuracy and Error
323(24)
Error--What Is It?
323(2)
The Standard Error of Measurement
325(8)
Using the Standard Error of Measurement
326(4)
More Applications
330(2)
Standard Deviation or Standard Error of Measurement?
332(1)
Why All the Fuss About Error?
333(2)
Error Within Test Takers
333(1)
Error Within the Test
333(1)
Error in Test Administration
334(1)
Error in Scoring
334(1)
Sources of Error Influencing Various Reliability Coefficients
335(2)
Test-Retest
335(1)
Alternate Forms
336(1)
Internal Consistency
336(1)
Band Interpretion
337(6)
Steps: Band Interpretation
339(3)
A Final Word
342(1)
Summary
343(1)
For Practice
344(3)
CHAPTER 18 Standardized Tests
347(48)
What Is a Standardized Test?
347(2)
Do Test Stimuli, Administration, and Scoring Have To Be Standardized?
349(1)
Standardized Testing: Effects of Accommodations and Alternative Assessments
349(1)
Uses of Standardized Achievement Tests
350(1)
Will Performance and Portfolio Assessment Make Standardized Tests Obsolete?
351(1)
Administering Standardized Tests
352(2)
Types of Scores Offered for Standardized Achievement Tests
354(5)
Grade Equivalents
354(1)
Age Equivalents
355(1)
Percentile Ranks
356(1)
Standard Scores
357(2)
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Test and Student Factors
359(15)
Test-Related Factors
359(7)
Student-Related Factors
366(4)
Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancies
370(4)
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Parent-Teacher Conferences and Educational Decision Making
374(1)
Decision Making
374(9)
An Example: Pressure To Change an Educational Placement
374(5)
A Second Example: Pressure from the Opposite Direction
379(4)
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Score Reports from Publishers
383(7)
The Press-On Label
386(1)
A Criterion-Referenced Skills Analysis or Mastery Report
387(1)
An Individual Performance Profile
388(1)
Other Publisher Reports and Services
389(1)
Summary
390(2)
For Practice
392(3)
CHAPTER 19 Types of Standardized Tests
395(22)
Standardized Achievement Tests
395(5)
Achievement Test Batteries, or Survey Batteries
396(2)
Single-Subject Achievement Tests
398(1)
Diagnostic Achievement Tests
398(2)
Standardized Academic Aptitude Tests
400(4)
The History of Academic Aptitude Testing
400(1)
Stability of IQ Scores
401(1)
What Do IQ Tests Predict?
401(2)
Individually Administered Academic Aptitude Tests
403(1)
Group Administered Academic Aptitude Tests
404(1)
Standardized Personality Assessment Instruments
404(3)
What Is Personality?
405(1)
Objective Personality Tests
406(1)
Projective Personality Tests
407(1)
Planning a School- or District-wide Testing Program
407(6)
Step 1: Ask the Right Question
408(1)
Step 2: Decide on the Purposes for Your Testing Program
408(1)
Step 3: Consider the Program's Integration
408(3)
Step 4: Evaluate and Select the Specific Tests
411(1)
Step 5: Develop a Specific and a District-Wide Testing Schedule
412(1)
Summary
413(2)
For Discussion
415(2)
CHAPTER 20 Testing and Assessing the Special Learner in the Regular Classroom
417(30)
A Brief History of Special Education
420(2)
P.L. 94-142 and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
420(1)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
421(1)
Special Education Service Delivery: An Evolution
422(5)
Evolution: Service Delivery Setting
422(1)
Evolution: Determining Eligibility for Services
423(2)
Evolution: Disability Categories to Developmental Delays
425(2)
IDEA-97 and the Classroom Teacher
427(11)
Testing or Assessment?
427(1)
Child Identification
428(2)
Individual Assessment
430(3)
Individual Educational Plan (IEP) Development
433(3)
Individualized Instruction
436(1)
Reviewing the IEP
436(1)
Manifestation Determinations
437(1)
At the Other End of the Curve: The Gifted Child
438(5)
Defining "Gifted"
438(1)
Assessment and Identification
439(4)
Current Trends in Teaching and Assessing the Gifted and Talented
443(1)
Summary
444(1)
For Discussion
445(2)
CHAPTER 21 Assessing Special Learners in Regular Education Classrooms
447(34)
IDEA-97: Issues and Questions
448(1)
Assistance for Teachers
448(1)
Can Teachers Assess Special Learners?
449(1)
Should Teachers Assess Special Learners?
449(1)
Assessing Academic Performance and Progress
450(2)
Teacher-Made Tests and Assessments
450(1)
Standardized Tests and Assessments
451(1)
Limitations of Accommodations and Alternative Assessments
451(1)
Assessing Behavioral and Attitudinal Factors
452(1)
Assessment, Not Diagnosis
452(2)
Classroom Diversity, Behavior, and Attitudes
453(1)
Behavior Plans Requirements under IDEA-97
454(1)
Teacher-Made Behavior and Attitude Assessments
454(17)
Distinguishing Behavior from Attitude
454(1)
Assessing Behavior
455(7)
Assessing Attitudes
462(9)
Monitoring Special Learners on Medication
471(6)
Medication Use Is Increasing
471(1)
Side Effects Are Always Present
471(1)
The Teacher's Role in Evaluating Medication and Psychosocial Interventions
471(1)
Commonly Used Scales and Checklists
472(5)
Summary
477(1)
For Discussion
478(3)
CHAPTER 22 In the Classroom: A Summary Dialogue
481(12)
Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Tests
485(1)
New Responsibilities for Teachers under IDEA-97
486(1)
Instructional Objectives
486(1)
The Test Blueprint
487(1)
Essay Items and the Essay Scoring Guides
487(1)
Reliability, Validity, and Test Statistics
488(1)
Grades and Marks
489(1)
Some Final Thoughts
490(3)
APPENDIX A: MATH SKILLS REVIEW 493(7)
APPENDIX B: PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION 500(2)
APPENDIX C: STATISTICS AND MEASUREMENT TEXTS 502(1)
APPENDIX D: ANSWERS FOR PRACTICE QUESTIONS 503(6)
SUGGESTED READINGS 509(8)
REFERENCES 517(4)
CREDITS 521(2)
INDEX 523


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