9780321334879

Effective C++ 55 Specific Ways to Improve Your Programs and Designs

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  • ISBN13:

    9780321334879

  • ISBN10:

    0321334876

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-05-12
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
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Summary

"Every C++ professional needs a copy of Effective C++. It is an absolute must-read for anyone thinking of doing serious C++ development. If you've never read Effective C++ and you think you know everything about C++, think again." - Steve Schirripa, Software Engineer, Google "C++ and the C++ community have grown up in the last fifteen years, and the third edition of Effective C++ reflects this. The clear and precise style of the book is evidence of Scott's deep insight and distinctive ability to impart knowledge." - Gerhard Kreuzer, Research and Development Engineer, Siemens AG The first two editions of Effective C++ were embraced by hundreds of thousands of programmers worldwide. The reason is clear: Scott Meyers' practical approach to C++ describes the rules of thumb used by the experts - the things they almost always do or almost always avoid doing - to produce clear, correct, efficient code.The book is organized around 55 specific guidelines, each of which describes a way to write better C++. Each is backed by concrete examples. For this third edition, more than half the content is new, including added chapters on managing resources and using templates. Topics from the second edition have been extensively revised to reflect modern design considerations, including exceptions, design patterns, and multithreading.Important features of Effective C++ include: Expert guidance on the design of effective classes, functions, templates, and inheritance hierarchies. Applications of new "TR1" standard library functionality, along with comparisons to existing standard library components. Insights into differences between C++ and other languages (e.g., Java, C#, C) that help developers from those languages assimilate "the C++ way" of doing things.

Author Biography

Scott Meyers is one of the world's foremost authorities on C++, providing training and consulting services to clients worldwide. He is the author of the best-selling Effective C++ series of books (Effective C++, More Effective C++, and Effective STL) and of the innovative Effective C++ CD. He is consulting editor for Addison Wesley's Effective Software Development Series and is a founding member of the Advisory Board for The C++ Source (http://www.artima.com/cppsource). He holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Brown University. His web site is http://www.aristeia.com.



Table of Contents

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction 1(10)
Accustoming Yourself to C++
11(23)
View C++ as a federation of languages
11(2)
Prefer consts, enums, and inlines to #defines
13(4)
Use const whenever possible
17(9)
Make sure that objects are initialized before they're used
26(8)
Constructors, Destructors, and Assignment Operators
34(27)
Know what functions C++ silently writes and calls
34(3)
Explicitly disallow the use of compiler-generated functions you do not want
37(3)
Declare destructors virtual in polymorphic base classes
40(4)
Prevent exceptions from leaving destructors
44(4)
Never call virtual functions during construction or destruction
48(4)
Have assignment operators return a reference to *this
52(1)
Handle assignment to self in operator=
53(4)
Copy all parts of an object
57(4)
Resource Management
61(17)
Use objects to manage resources
61(5)
Think carefully about copying behavior in resource-managing classes
66(3)
Provide access to raw resources in resource-managing classes
69(4)
Use the same form in corresponding uses of new and delete
73(2)
Store newed objects in smart pointers in standalone statements
75(3)
Designs and Declarations
78(35)
Make interfaces easy to use correctly and hard to use incorrectly
78(6)
Treat class design as type design
84(2)
Prefer pass-by-reference-to-const to pass-by-value
86(4)
Don't try to return a reference when you must return an object
90(4)
Declare data members private
94(4)
Prefer non-member non-friend functions to member functions
98(4)
Declare non-member functions when type conversions should apply to all parameters
102(4)
Consider support for a non-throwing swap
106(7)
Implementations
113(36)
Postpone variable definitions as long as possible
113(3)
Minimize casting
116(7)
Avoid returning ``handles'' to object internals
123(4)
Strive for exception-safe code
127(7)
Understand the ins and outs of inlining
134(6)
Minimize compilation dependencies between files
140(9)
Inheritance and Object-Oriented Design
149(50)
Make sure public inheritance models ``is-a.''
150(6)
Avoid hiding inherited names
156(5)
Differentiate between inheritance of interface and inheritance of implementation
161(8)
Consider alternatives to virtual functions
169(9)
Never redefine an inherited non-virtual function
178(2)
Never redefine a function's inherited default parameter value
180(4)
Model ``has-a'' or ``is-implemented-in-terms-of'' through composition
184(3)
Use private inheritance judiciously
187(5)
Use multiple inheritance judiciously
192(7)
Templates and Generic Programming
199(40)
Understand implicit interfaces and compile-time polymorphism
199(4)
Understand the two meanings of typename
203(4)
Know how to access names in templatized base classes
207(5)
Factor parameter-independent code out of templates
212(6)
Use member function templates to accept ``all compatible types.''
218(4)
Define non-member functions inside templates when type conversions are desired
222(4)
Use traits classes for information about types
226(7)
Be aware of template metaprogramming
233(6)
Customizing new and delete
239(23)
Understand the behavior of the new-handler
240(7)
Understand when it makes sense to replace new and delete
247(5)
Adhere to convention when writing new and delete
252(4)
Write placement delete if you write placement new
256(6)
Miscellany
262(11)
Pay attention to compiler warnings
262(1)
Familiarize yourself with the standard library, including TR1
263(6)
Familiarize yourself with Boost
269(4)
Appendix A: Beyond Effective C++ 273(4)
Appendix B: Item Mappings Between Second and Third Editions 277(3)
Index 280

Excerpts

I wrote the original edition ofEffective C++in 1991. When the time came for a second edition in 1997, I updated the material in important ways, but, because I didn't want to confuse readers familiar with the first edition, I did my best to retain the existing structure: 48 of the original 50 Item titles remained essentially unchanged. If the book were a house, the second edition was the equivalent of freshening things up by replacing carpets, paint, and light fixtures. For the third edition, I tore the place down to the studs. (There were times I wished I'd gone all the way to the foundation.) The world of C++ has undergone enormous change since 1991, and the goal of this book to identify the most important C++ programming guidelines in a small, readable package was no longer served by the Items I'd established nearly 15 years earlier. In 1991, it was reasonable to assume that C++ programmers came from a C background. Now, programmers moving to C++ are just as likely to come from Java or C#. In 1991, inheritance and object-oriented programming were new to most programmers. Now they're well-established concepts, and exceptions, templates, and generic programming are the areas where people need more guidance. In 1991, nobody had heard of design patterns. Now it's hard to discuss software systems without referring to them. In 1991, work had just begun on a formal standard for C++. Now that standard is eight years old, and work has begun on the next version. To address these changes, I wiped the slate as clean as I could and asked myself, "What are the most important pieces of advice for practicing C++ programmers in 2005?" The result is the set of Items in this new edition. The book has new chapters on resource management and on programming with templates. In fact, template concerns are woven throughout the text, because they affect almost everything in C++. The book also includes new material on programming in the presence of exceptions, on applying design patterns, and on using the new TR1 library facilities. (TR1 is described in Item54.) It acknowledges that techniques and approaches that work well in single-threaded systems may not be appropriate in multithreaded systems. Well over half the material in the book is new. However, most of the fundamental information in the second edition continues to be important, so I found a way to retain it in one form or another. (You'll find a mapping between the second and third edition Items in Appendix B.) I've worked hard to make this book as good as I can, but I have no illusions that it's perfect. If you feel that some of the Items in this book are inappropriate as general advice; that there is a better way to accomplish a task examined in the book; or that one or more of the technical discussions is unclear, incomplete, or misleading, please tell me. If you find an error of any kind technical, grammatical, typographical,whatever please tell me that, too. I'll gladly add to the acknowledgments in later printings the name of the first person to bring each problem to my attention. Even with the number of Items expanded to 55, the set of guidelines in this book is far from exhaustive. But coming up with good rules ones that apply to almost all applications almost all the time is harder than it might seem. If you have suggestions for additional guidelines, I would be delighted to hear about them. I maintain a list of changes to this book since its first printing, including bug fixes, clarifications, and technical updates. The list is available at theEffective C++ Errataweb page, http://aristeia.com/BookErrata/ec++3e-errata.html . If you&am

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