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Effective Group Discussion : Theory and Practice,9780073135236

Effective Group Discussion : Theory and Practice

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780073135236

ISBN10:
0073135232
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/13/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $111.85

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Summary

Combining the most recent research findings with practical tools students need to become productive group members, this leading text covers secondary groups of all kinds: work groups, committees, task forces, self-directed work teams, and other small groups whose objectives include finding solutions to problems, producing goods, and creating policies. New lead author Gloria Galanes brings to this edition a vast knowledge of computer-mediated group communication and culture.

Table of Contents

Brief Table of Contents

Part I: Foundations of Communicating in Groups

Chapter 1. The Small Groups in Everyones Life

Chapter 2. Human Communication Processes in Small Groups

Chapter 3. Verbal and Nonverbal Messages in Small Group Communication

Chapter 4. The Small Group as a System

Part II: Developing the Group

Chapter 5. Diversity and the Effects of Culture

Chapter 6. The Members and their Roles

Part III: Observing and Evaluating Groups

Chapter 7. Tools for Assessment and Evaluation

Part IV: Small Group Throughput Processes

Chapter 8. Communication and Group Culture: Tensions, Fantasy, Socialization, Norms, and Climate

Chapter 9. Perspectives on Leadership in Small Groups

Internal Appendix: Preparing for Problem-Solving Discussions: Informational Resources for the Small Group

Part V: Improving Group Outputs

Chapter 10. Problem Solving and Decision Making 1: Defining a Problem, Finding and Evaluating Options

Chapter 11. Problem Solving and Decision Making II: Deciding and Implementing

Chapter 12. Managing Conflict in the Small Group

Chapter 13. Guidelines for Effective Group Leaders

Appendix A: Making Public Presentations of the Groups Output

Glossary

Author Index

Subject Index

Detailed Table of Contents

Part I: Foundations of Communicating in Groups

Chapter 1. The Small Groups in Everyones Life

Central Message

Study Objectives

What Is Small Group Discussion?

Types of Small Groups

Activity Groups
Personal Growth Groups
Educational Groups
Problem-Solving Groups

Ethical Behavior of Group Members

The Participant-Observer Perspective

Chapter 2. Human Communication Processes in Small Groups

Central Message

Study Objectives

What is Communication?

Principles of Communication
Myths about Communication
A Description of a Communication Transaction
Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face
Communication in Small Groups

Listening and Responding during Discussions

Listening Preferences
Pitfalls to Listening Effectively
Effective Listening in the Small Group

Chapter 3. Verbal and Nonverbal Messages in Small Group Communication

Central Message

Study Objectives

The Nature of Language

Language and Culture
Language, Culture, and Gender
Problems Resulting from Language Choices

Nonverbal Behaviors in Small Group Communication

Principles of Nonverbal Communication
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
Types of Nonverbal Signals

Chapter 4. The Small Group as a System

Central Message

Study Objectives

The Systems Perspective

Principles of a System
Variables of a System
A System and its Environment
Communicating across Boundaries

Characteristics of Effectiveness Problem-Solving Groups

Input Variables
Throughput Variables
Output Variables
Environmental Factors

Part II: Developing the Group

Chapter 5. Diversity and the Effects of Culture

Central Message

Study Objectives

What is Culture?

Cultural Characteristics that Affect Communication

Worldview
Individualism versus Collectivism
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Masculinity versus Femininity
Low-versus High-Context Communication

Communication Challenges Posed by Co-Cultures

Co-Cultural Differences Based on Race: African American Communication Patterns
Co-Cultural Differences Based on Age
Co-Cultural Differences Based on Socioeconomic Class
Challenges for Co-Cultural Group Members

Behaving Ethically in Intercultural Interactions

Chapter 6. The Members and their Roles

Central Message

Study Objectives

Group Size

Traits and Personality Characteristics

Communication Apprehension
Cognitive Complexity
Self-Monitoring
Preference for Procedural Order
Egalitarianism-Authoritarianism

Communicative Attitudes and Behaviors

Grouphate
Sense of Responsibility for the Group's Success
Willingness to Communicate
Open-mindedness

Development of Member Roles

Formal versus Informal Roles
Role Emergence
Classifying Group Roles
Role Management across Groups

Part III: Observing and Evaluating Groups

Chapter 7. Tools for Observing and Evaluating Small Groups

Central Message

Study Objectives

Internal Assessment: Members Evaluate the Group

Self-Assessment
Member and Group Assessment

Calling for Outside Help: The Consultant

Practice First
Ethical Principles for Consultants
Planning the Consultation

Instruments for Observing and Consulting

Verbal Interaction Analysis
Content Analysis
SYMLOG

Part IV: Small Group Throughput Processes

Chapter 8. Communication and Group Culture: Tensions, Fantasy, Socialization, Norms, and Climate

Central Message

Study Objectives

The Interplay between Communication and Group Culture

Structuration Theory and Group Culture
Negotiating Task and Social Concerns
Fantasy Themes

Groups Socialization of Members

Phases of Group Socialization

Development of Group Norms

Changing a Norm

Development of a Group's Climate

Cohesiveness
Supportiveness
Teambuilding

Chapter 9. Perspectives on Leadership in Small Groups

Central Message

Study Objectives

Leadership and Leaders

Leadership
Leaders

Theoretical Approaches to Leadership

Traits Approaches
Styles Approaches
Functions Approaches
Contingency Approaches

The Relationship Between Leaders and Followers

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model
Transformational Leadership

The Case for Distributed Leadership

Internal Appendix: Preparing for Problem-Solving Discussions: Informational Resources for the Small Group

Review and Organize Your Present Stock of Information

Problem Mapping

Gather Information You Need

Notetaking
Reading
Direct Observation
Surveys
Individual and Group Interviews
Other Information Sources

Evaluate the Information and Ideas You Have Collected

Organize Your Information and Ideas

Part V: Improving Group Outputs

Chapter 10. Problem Solving and Decision Making 1: Defining a Problem, Finding and Evaluating Options

Central Message

Study Objectives

Questions for Review

Problem Solving and Decision Making

Group versus Individual Problem Solving and Decision Making
Factors Affecting Quality of Group Outputs

The Need for Structure in Group Problem Solving and Decision Making

The Functional Perspective of Group Problem Solving and Decision Making

Problem-Solving Guidelines

The Procedural Model of Problem Solving (P-MOPS)
The Single Question Format
The Ideal Solution Format

Using P-MOPS to Address Complex Problems

Step 1 of P-MOPS: Problem Description and Analysis

1A: Understanding the charge and area of freedom
1B: Understanding the type of question to be addressed
IC: Focusing on the problem
ID: Stating the problem appropriately
IE: Map the problem
Using the Problem Census to discover problems

Step 2 of P-MOPS: Generating and Elaborating on Possible Solutions

2A: Identify as may good ideas as you can using Brainstorming to discover alternatives
2B: Defer judgment during discussion to identify options
2C: Discuss criteria for evaluating solutions

Step 3 of P-MOPS: Evaluating Possible Solutions

3A: Establish a collaborative climate for evaluation
3B: Establish norms that promote critical thinking
Evaluating information
Evaluating reasoning
Evaluating information and reasoning from the World Wide Web

Chapter 11. Problem Solving and Decision Making II: Deciding and Implementing

Central Message

Study Objectives

Using P-MOPS to Address Complex Problems, continued

Step 4 of P-MOPS: Consensus Decision Making

4A: Decide what decision-making method to use
4B: Understand phasic progression during decision making
Fisher's Models of Group Phases
4C: Understand what can go wrong during decision making
4D: Second-guess the tentative choice before fully committing to it
Using the RISK technique to second-guess the choice

Step 5 of P-MOPS: Implementing the Solution Chosen

Using PERT to keep track of implementation details

Tailoring P-MOPS to Fit a Specific Problem

Problem Characteristics

Using Technology to Improve Group Problem Solving and

Decision Making
Teleconferences
Group Support Systems (or Group Decision Support Systems)

Chapter 12. Managing Conflict in the Small Group

Central Message

Study Objectives

A Definition of Conflict

Positive and Negative Outcomes of Conflict
Expressing Disagreement in a Group
Types of Conflict

Managing Conflict

Basic Approaches toward Conflict Management
Conflict Management Styles and Tactics
Expressing Disagreement Ethically
Negotiating Principled Agreement
When Negotiating Fails: Alternatives Procedures
Common Ground Approaches

Chapter 13. Guidelines for Effective Group Leaders

Central Message

Study Objectives

Group-Centered Democratic Leadership

Leader as Completer

Responsibilities and Techniques of Discussion Leaders and Chairs

Administrative Duties
Leading Discussion
Developing the Group

Ethical Principles for Group Leaders

Appendix A: Making Public Presentations of the Groups Output

The Planning Stage
The Organizing Stage
The Presenting Stage
Public Meetings
Notes

Glossary

Author Index

Subject Index



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