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Effective Teaching Methods : Research-Based Practice,9780131367180
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Effective Teaching Methods : Research-Based Practice

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131367180

ISBN10:
0131367188
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/15/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

For graduate and undergraduate courses in general K-12 methods.   The new edition of this popular text clearly achieves its stated goal: to prepare prospective teachers to meet the challenges of today's changing classrooms by providing effective, practical, research-based practices in an accessible, conversational style. Material is based on a quarter-century of actual, in-classroom research that makes it possible to replace anecdotal suggestions for good teaching with solidly research-grounded strategies empirically related to positive outcomes. The author shows future teachers not only ;what ; to do to meet today's teaching challenges, but ;how ; to do it through the experiences of real teachers in real classrooms.

Author Biography

Gary Borich is professor and a Cissy McDaniel Parker Endowed Fellow at The University of Texas at Austin. He is author of 13 books in Teacher Education and Educational Psychology, including Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice, 7e (Allyn & Bacon, 2010); Observation Skills for Effective Teaching, 6e (Allyn & Bacon, 2010) and Educational Testing and Measurement: Classroom Applications and Practice, 9e (Wiley, 2009)

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: The Effective Teacher 

What Is an Effective Teacher? 

            The Role-Model Definition 

            The Psychological Characteristics Definition 

            A New Direction 

Key Behaviors Contributing to Effective Teaching 

            Lesson Clarity 

            Instructional Variety 

            Teacher Task Orientation 

            Engagement in the Learning Process 

            Student Success Rate 

            Summary of Five Key Behaviors 

Some Helping Behaviors Related to Effective Teaching 

            Using Student Ideas and Contributions 

            Structuring 

            The Art of Questioning 

            Probing 

            Teacher Affect 

Teaching Effectively with Diverse Learners and Content 

            How Does Effective Teaching Differ with Learners Who Have Different Socioeconomic Levels, Culture, and Ethnicity? 

            How Does Effective Teaching Differ Across Content Areas? 

The Complexity of Teaching 

Professional Teaching Standards 

Your Transition to the Real World of Teaching 

For Further Information 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation

 

CHAPTER 2: Understanding Your Students 

Why Pay Attention to Individual Differences? 

            Adaptive Teaching 

            Differentiated Instruction

The Effects of General Intelligence on Learning 

            The Environmentalist Position 

            The Hereditarian Position 

            General Versus Specific Ability 

The Effects of Specific Abilities on Learning 

            Multiple Intelligences 

            Sternberg’s Definition of Intelligence 

The Effects of Prior Achievement on Learning 

            The Effects of Culture, SES and Language on Learning 

            The Effects of Culture on Learning

            The Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Learning

            The Effects of Language on Learning

The Effects of Personality and Learning Style 

            Erikson’s Crises of the School Years 

            Learning Style

The Effects of the Peer Group on Learning 

The Effects of Home Life and Social Context on Learning 

The Teacher’s Role in Improving the Academic Success of All Learners

Cultural, Linguistic, and SES Biases in the Classroom 

Final Word 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 3: Goals, Standards and Objectives 

Goals, Standards and Objectives 

            Tyler’s Goal Development Approach 

The Origin of Educational Standards 

            The Purpose of Objectives 

            What Does Behavioral Mean? 

Steps in Preparing Behavioral Objectives 

            Specifying the Learning Outcomes 

            Identifying the Conditions 

            Stating Criterion Levels 

            Keeping Objectives Simple 

The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains 

            The Cognitive Domain 

            The Affective Domain 

            The Psychomotor Domain 

Some Misunderstandings About Behavioral Objectives 

            Are Some Behaviors More Desirable Than Others? 

            What Is an Authentic Behavior? 

            Are Less Complex Behaviors Easier to Teach? 

            Are Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Behaviors Mutually Exclusive? 

The Cultural Roots of Objectives 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation

 

CHAPTER 4: Unit and Lesson Planning 

Teacher as Decision Maker 

            Knowledge of Instructional Goals and Objectives 

            Knowledge of the Learner 

            Knowledge of Subject Matter 

            Knowledge of Teaching Methods 

            Summary of Inputs to Planning 

Reflective Practice and Tacit Knowledge  

Unit and Lesson Plans 

Making Planning Decisions 

            Standards and Objectives 

            Learners 

Content 

Outcomes 

Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Unit Planning 

            Disciplinary (Vertical) Unit Plans 

            Interdisciplinary (Lateral) Unit Plans 

Making Lesson Plans 

            Determining Where to Start 

            Providing for Differentiated Instruction with Tutorial and Communication Technologies 

Events of Instruction 

            Getting Started: Some Lesson Planning Questions

            1. Gaining Attention (Anticipatory Set) 

            2. Informing Learners of the Objective (Anticipatory Set, Objectives, and Pur-  pose) 

            3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learning (Review) 

            4. Presenting the Content (Input, Modeling) 

            5. Eliciting the Desired Behavior (Checking for Understanding, Guided Prac-tice) 

            6. Providing Feedback (Guided Practice, Closure) 

            7. Assessing the Behavior (Independent Practice) 

Example Lesson Plans 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activity 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 5: Classroom Management I: Establishing the Learning Climate 

Earning Trust and Becoming a Leader the Old-Fashioned Way 

            Expert Power 

            Referent Power 

            Legitimate Power 

            Reward Power 

            Coercive Power 

            Using Power 

Stages of Group Development 

            Stage 1: Forming 

            Stage 2: Storming 

            Stage 3: Norming 

            Stage 4: Performing 

Establishing an Effective Classroom Climate 

            The Social Environment 

            The Organizational Environment 

            Establishing Rules and Procedures 

Problem Areas in Classroom Management 

            Monitoring Students 

            Making Transitions 

            Giving Assignments 

            Bringing Closure 

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management I

Planning Your First Day 

            Before the Bell 

            Introducing Yourself 

            Administrative Business 

            Rules and Expectations 

            Introducing Your Subject 

            Closure 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activity 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 6: Classroom Management II: Promoting Student Engagement 

Systems of Classroom Management 

The Humanist Tradition in Classroom Management 

            Ginott’s Congruent Communication 

            Glasser’s Cooperative Learning 

The Applied Behavior Analysis Tradition in Classroom Management 

            Behavior Modification 

The Classroom Management Tradition 

An Integrated Approach to Classroom Management 

            Low-Profile Classroom Management 

            Dealing with Persistent Disruptive Behavior 

            Responses to Misbehavior 

            Reinforcement Theory Applied in the Classroom 

            Punishment 

The Parent—Teacher Conference 

            Conducting the Parent Conference 

            Evaluating the Parent Conference 

The Influence of Home and Family on Classroom Behavior Problems 

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management II

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 7: Teaching Strategies for Direct Instruction 

Categories of Teaching and Learning 

Introduction to Direct Instruction Strategies 

When Is Direct Instruction Appropriate? 

An Example of Direct Instruction 

Daily Review and Checking the Previous Day’s Work 

Presenting and Structuring 

            Part—Whole Relationships 

            Sequential Relationships 

            Combinations of Relationships 

            Comparative Relationships 

            Using the Methods 

Guided Student Practice 

            Prompting 

            Modeling 

Feedback and Correctives 

            Correct, Quick, and Firm 

            Correct but Hesitant 

            Incorrect Because of Carelessness 

            Incorrect Because of Lack of Knowledge 

            Strategies for Incorrect Responses 

Independent Practice  

Weekly and Monthly Reviews 

Other Forms of Direct Instruction 

Culturally Response Direct Instruction 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities  

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 8: Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction 

The Cognitive Processes of Learning 

            Reading 

            Writing 

            Mathematics and Science 

            Social Studies 

Comparing Direct and Indirect Instruction 

Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction 

An Example of Indirect Instruction 

Content Organization 

            Concept Learning 

            Inquiry Learning 

            Problem-Centered Learning 

Conceptual Movement: Induction and Deduction 

            Applying Induction and Deduction 

Using Examples and Nonexamples 

The Use of Questions 

Learner Experience and Use of Student Ideas 

            The Changing View 

            Productively Using Student Ideas 

Student Self-Evaluation 

Use of Group Discussion 

Comparison of Direct and Indirect Instruction 

Culturally Responsive Indirect Instruction

A Final Word 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 9: Questioning Strategies 

What Is a Question? 

            What Consumes 80% of Class Time? 

            Are We Asking the Right Questions? 

What Are the Purposes of Questions? 

What Are Convergent and Divergent Questions? 

What Does the Research Say About Asking Convergent and Divergent Questions? 

Who Are the Targets of Questions? 

What Sequences of Questions Are Used? 

What Levels of Questions Are Used? 

            Knowledge 

            Comprehension 

            Application 

            Analysis 

            Synthesis 

            Evaluation 

            Summary of Question Types 

What Is a Probe? 

How Should You Use Wait Time? 

What is Culturally Responsive Questioning? 

            Wait Time 

            Rhythm 

            Participation Structure 

            Language 

What Are Common Problems in Using Questions? 

            Do You Use Complex, Ambiguous, or Double Questions? 

            Do You Accept Only the Answers You Expect? 

            Why Are You Asking This Question? 

            Do You Answer the Question Yourself? 

            Do You Use Questions as Punishment? 

Summing Up

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities

Digital Portfolio Activities

Classroom Observation Activity

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation

 

CHAPTER 10: Self-Directed Learning 

Self-Directed Learning 

Metacognition 

Teacher Mediation 

            The Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity 

            Hitting the Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity 

Functional Errors 

Reciprocal Teaching 

Social Dialogue Versus Class Discussion 

The Role of Inner Speech 

Sample Dialogues of Self-Directed Learning 

            Steps in Teaching Self-Directed Inquiry to Individual Learners 

Other Cognitive Strategies 

            Mnemonics 

            Elaboration/Organization (Note Taking) 

            Comprehension Monitoring 

            Problem-Solving Strategies 

Project-Based Learning 

            The Role of Tasks in Project-Based Learning 

            The Role of the Learner in Project-Based Learning 

            The Role of the Teacher in Project-Based Learning 

Culturally Responsive Self-directed Learning

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 11: Cooperative Learning and the Collaborative Process 

Outcomes of Cooperation 

            Attitudes and Values 

            Prosocial Behavior 

            Alternative Perspectives and Viewpoints 

            Integrated Identity 

            Higher Thought Processes 

Components of a Cooperative Learning Activity 

            Teacher—Student Interaction 

            Student—Student Interaction 

            Task Specialization and Materials 

            Role Expectations and Responsibilities 

Establishing a Cooperative Task Structure in Your Classroom 

            1. Specifying the Goal 

            2. Structuring the Task 

            3. Teaching and Evaluating the Collaborative Process 

            4. Monitoring Group Performance 

            5. Debriefing 

Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities 

            Student Teams–Achievement Division 

            Teams-Games-Tournaments 

            Jigsaw II 

            Team-Assisted Individualization 

            Overview of Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities 

Culturally Responsive Cooperative Learning 

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activity 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

CHAPTER 12: Assessing Learners 

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests 

Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests 

The Test Blueprint 

Objective Test Items 

            True-False Items 

            Matching Items 

            Multiple-Choice Items 

            Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questions 

            Completion Items 

            Advantages and Disadvantages of Objective-Item Formats 

Essay Test Items 

            Extended-Response Questions 

            Restricted-Response Questions 

            When Should You Use Essay Questions? 

            Some Criteria for Scoring Essay Items 

Validity and Reliability 

            Types of Validity 

            Types of Reliability 

Marks and Marking Systems 

            Comparison with Other Students 

            Comparison with Established Standards 

            Comparison with Aptitude 

            Comparison of Achievement with Effort 

            Comparison of Achievement with Improvement 

Standardized Tests 

            Helping Students Prepare for Standardized Tests 

Performance Assessment 

The Portfolio 

            Rationale for the Portfolio 

            Step 1: Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfolio 

            Step 2: Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositions 

            Step 3: Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfolio 

            Step 4: Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Product 

            Step 5: Building the Portfolio Rubrics 

            Performance and Portfolio Assessment and Report Card Grades 

            Plan a Portfolio Conference 

Assessing the Academic Progress of Special Learners in the Heterogeneous Classroom

Summing Up 

Key Terms 

Review Questions 

Field Experience and Practice Activities 

Digital Portfolio Activities 

Classroom Observation Activities 

Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation 

 

Appendix A: Teacher Concerns Checklist 

Appendix B: Answers to Chapter Questions 

Appendix C: Higher-Order Thinking and Problem-Solving Checklist 

Appendix D: Answers to Short-Answer and Discrete Multiple-Choice Questions 

Glossary 

References 

Name Index 

Subject Index 



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