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Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice,9780131714960
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Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780131714960

ISBN10:
0131714961
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $92.77
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Summary

Use the sixth edition of Effective Teaching Methods and experience K-12 general teaching methods in a whole new way! Now the practical, research-based instructional methods you've come to expect from Dr. Borich are included in the text and demonstrated on DVD by master teachers in today's classrooms. For example, don't just read about how instructional methods can support student learning and achievement but see how it is done. To help prepare preservice teachers for the world of teaching, the sixth edition also includes significant discussion of standardized tests as well as exercises for PRAXIS preparation, field experience, portfolio building, and classroom observation. Book jacket.

Author Biography

Gary Borich is professor and a Kellogg Endowed Fellow in the College of Education at the University of Texas at Austin.

Table of Contents

The Effective Teacher
1(40)
What Is an Effective Teacher?
2(7)
The Role-Model Definition
2(1)
The Psychological Characteristics Definition
2(3)
A New Direction
5(4)
Key Behaviors Contributing to Effective Teaching
9(8)
Lesson Clarity
10(1)
Instructional Variety
10(3)
Teacher Task Orientation
13(1)
Engagement in the Learning Process
14(1)
Student Success Rate
15(2)
Summary of Five Key Behaviors
17(1)
Some Helping Behaviors Related to Effective Teaching
17(10)
Using Student Ideas and Contributions
18(2)
Structuring
20(1)
The Art of Questioning
21(3)
Probing
24(1)
Teacher Affect
25(2)
Teaching Effectively with Diverse Learners and Content
27(3)
How Does Effective Teaching Differ with Learners Who Have Different Socioeconomic Levels, Culture, and Ethnicity?
27(1)
How Does Effective Teaching Differ Across Content Areas?
28(2)
The Complexity of Teaching
30(1)
Professional Teaching Standards
30(2)
Your Transition to the Real World of Teaching
32(2)
For Further information
34(1)
Summing Up
34(1)
Key Terms
35(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
35(1)
Field Experience Activities
36(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
37(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
38(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
38(3)
Understanding Your Students
41(38)
Why Pay Attention to Individual Differences?
43(2)
Adaptive Teaching
43(2)
The Effects of General Intelligence on Learning
45(2)
The Environmentalist Position
45(1)
The Hereditarian Position
46(1)
General Versus Specific Intelligence
46(1)
The Efffects of Specific Abilities on Learning
47(5)
Multiple Intelligences
47(4)
Sternberg's Definition of Intelligence
51(1)
The Effects of Prior Achievement on Learning
52(2)
The Effects of Cultural Differences on Learning
54(5)
Socioeconomic and Cultural Diversity
55(1)
Language and Cultural Diversity
56(1)
The Teacher's Role in Improving Achievement Among Culturally and Language-Diverse Learners
57(2)
The Effects of Personality and Learning Style
59(5)
Erikson's Crises of the School Years
59(2)
Learning Style
61(1)
Field Dependence Versus Field Independence
61(3)
The Effects of the Peer Group on Learning
64(2)
The Effects of Home Life and Social Context on Learning
66(4)
Cultural, Linguistic, and SES Biases in the Classroom
70(2)
Final Word
72(1)
Summing Up
73(1)
Key Terms
74(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
74(1)
Field Experience Activities
75(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
75(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
76(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
76(3)
Goals and Objectives
79(32)
Standards, Goals, and Objectives
80(2)
Tyler's Goal Development Approach
81(1)
Societal Goals for Education
82(4)
The Purpose of Objectives
85(1)
What Does Behavioral Mean?
85(1)
An Overview of Behavioral Objectives
86(6)
Specifying the Learning Outcomes
86(2)
Identifying the Conditions
88(1)
Stating Criterion Levels
89(2)
Keeping Objectives Simple
91(1)
The Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains
92(10)
The Cognitive Domain
92(4)
The Affective Domain
96(4)
The Psychomotor Domain
100(2)
Some Misunderstandings About Behavioral Objectives
102(2)
Are Some Behaviors More Desirable Than Others?
103(1)
What Is an Authentic Behavior?
103(1)
Are Less Complex Behaviors Easier to Teach?
103(1)
Are Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Behaviors Mutually Exclusive?
104(1)
The Cultural Roots of Objectives
104(1)
Summing Up
105(1)
Key Terms
106(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
106(1)
Field Experience Activities
107(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
107(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
108(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
108(3)
Unit and Lesson Planning
111(47)
Teacher as Decision Maker
112(2)
Knowledge of Instructional Goals and Objectives
112(1)
Knowledge of the Learner
112(1)
Knowledge of Subject Matter
113(1)
Knowledge of Teaching Methods
113(1)
Summary of Inputs to Planning
113(1)
Reflective Practice and Tacit Knowledge
114(1)
Unit and Lesson Plans
114(1)
Making Planning Decisions
115(3)
Goals
115(2)
Learners
117(1)
Content
117(1)
Organization
118(1)
Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Unit Planning
118(12)
Disciplinary (Vertical) Unit Plans
119(3)
Interdisciplinary (Lateral) Unit Plans
122(8)
Making Lesson Plans
130(7)
Determining Where to Start
131(1)
Providing for Learner Diversity with Alternative Methods and New Technologies
132(5)
Events of Instruction
137(8)
Gaining Attention (Anticipatory Set)
138(1)
Informing Learners of the Objective (Anticipatory Set, Objectives, and Purpose)
139(1)
Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learning (Review)
140(1)
Presenting the Stimulus Material (Input, Modeling)
141(2)
Eliciting the Desired Behavior (Checking for Understanding, Guided Practice)
143(1)
Providing Feedback (Guided Practice, Closure)
144(1)
Assessing the Behavior (Independent Practice)
145(1)
Example Lesson Plans
145(8)
Summing Up
153(1)
Key Terms
154(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
154(1)
Field Experience Activities
155(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
155(1)
Classroom Observation Activity
155(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
156(2)
Classroom Management I: Establishing the Learning Climate
158(34)
Earning Trust and Becoming a Leader the Old-Fashioned Way
159(2)
Expert Power
159(1)
Referent Power
160(1)
Legitimate Power
160(1)
Reward Power
160(1)
Coercive Power
161(1)
Using Power
161(1)
Stages of Group Development
161(6)
Stage 1: Forming
161(1)
Stage 2: Storming
162(1)
Stage 3: Norming
163(2)
Stage 4: Performing
165(2)
Establishing an Effective Classroom Climate
167(8)
The Social Environment
167(3)
The Organizational Environment
170(2)
Establishing Rules and Procedures
172(3)
Problem Areas in Classroom Management
175(5)
Monitoring Students
175(1)
Making Transitions
176(1)
Giving Assignments
176(3)
Bringing Closure
179(1)
Learner Diversity and Classroom Management
180(3)
Planning Your First Day
183(2)
Before the Bell
183(1)
Introducing Yourself
184(1)
Administrative Business
184(1)
Rules and Expectations
184(1)
Introducing Your Subject
184(1)
Closure
185(1)
Summing Up
185(2)
Key Terms
187(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
187(1)
Field Experience Activities
187(1)
Digital Portfolio Activity
188(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
188(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
189(3)
Classroom Management II: Promoting Student Engagement
192(29)
Systems of Classroom Management
193(1)
The Humanist Tradition in Classroom Management
194(3)
Ginott's Congruent Communication
194(2)
Glasser's Cooperative Learning
196(1)
The Applied Behavior Analysis Tradition in Classroom Management
197(2)
Behavior Modification
197(2)
The Classroom Management Tradition
199(2)
An Integrated Approach to Classroom Management
201(9)
Low-Profile Classroom Management
201(2)
Dealing with Persistent Disruptive Behavior
203(1)
Responses to Misbehavior
203(1)
Reinforcement Theory Applied in the Classroom
204(4)
Punishment
208(2)
The Parent-Teacher Conference
210(3)
Conducting the Parent Conference
210(1)
Evaluating the Parent Conference
211(2)
The Influence of Home and Family on Classroom Behavior Problems
213(1)
Culturally Responsive Classroom Management
214(1)
Summing Up
215(2)
Key Terms
217(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
217(1)
Field Experience Activities
218(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
218(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
218(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
219(2)
Teaching Strategies for Direct Instruction
221(36)
Categories of Teaching and Learning
223(3)
Introduction to Direct Instruction Strategies
226(2)
When Is Direct Instruction Appropriate?
228(3)
An Example of Direct Instruction
231(2)
Daily Review and Checking the Previous Day's Work
233(1)
Presenting and Structuring
234(3)
Part--Whole Relationships
235(1)
Sequential Relationships
235(1)
Combinations of Relationships
235(1)
Comparative Relationships
236(1)
Using the Methods
237(1)
Guided Student Practice
237(4)
Prompting
238(1)
Modeling
239(2)
Feedback and Correctives
241(2)
Correct, Quick, and Firm
242(1)
Correct but Hesitant
242(1)
Incorrect Because of Carelessness
242(1)
Incorrect Because of Lack of Knowledge
242(1)
Strategies for Incorrect Responses
243(1)
Independent Practice
243(3)
Weekly and Monthly Reviews
246(1)
Other Forms of Direct Instruction
247(2)
Promoting the Goals of Direct Instruction in the Culturally Diverse Classroom
249(1)
Summing Up
250(2)
Key Terms
252(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
252(1)
Field Experience Activities
253(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
253(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
254(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
254(3)
Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction
257(44)
The Cognitive Processes of Learning
262(2)
Reading
262(1)
Writing
262(1)
Mathematics and Science
263(1)
Social Studies
264(1)
Comparing Direct and Indirect Instruction
264(2)
Teaching Strategies for Indirect Instruction
266(2)
An Example of Indirect Instruction
268(2)
Content Organization
270(9)
Concept Learning
272(1)
Inquiry Learning
273(4)
Problem-Centered Learning
277(2)
Conceptual Movement: Induction and Deduction
279(2)
Applying Induction and Deduction
280(1)
Using Examples and Nonexamples
281(2)
The Use of Questions
283(1)
Learner Experience and Use of Student Ideas
284(3)
The Changing View
284(1)
Productively Using Student Ideas
285(2)
Student Self-Evaluation
287(1)
Use of Group Discussion
287(4)
Comparison of Direct and Indirect Instruction
291(2)
Promoting the Goals of Indirect Instruction in the Culturally Diverse Classroom
293(1)
A Final Word
294(1)
Summing Up
294(2)
Key Terms
296(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
296(1)
Field Experience Activities
297(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
297(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
297(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
298(3)
Questioning Strategies
301(34)
What Is a Question?
302(2)
What Consumes 80% of Class Time?
303(1)
Are We Asking the Right Questions?
303(1)
What Are the Purposes of Questions?
304(1)
What Are Convergent and Divergent Questions?
304(1)
What Does the Research Say About Asking Convergent and Divergent Questions?
305(2)
Who Are the Targets of Questions?
307(1)
What Sequences of Questions Are Used?
307(2)
What Levels of Questions Are Used?
309(7)
Knowledge
310(1)
Comprehension
311(1)
Application
312(1)
Analysis
313(1)
Synthesis
313(1)
Evaluation
314(1)
Summary of Question Types
315(1)
What Is a Probe?
316(2)
How Should You Use Wait Time?
318(4)
Are Questioning Techniques Culture Specific?
322(2)
Wait Time
322(1)
Rhythm
322(1)
Participation Structure
323(1)
Language
323(1)
What Are Common Problems in Using Questions?
324(5)
Do You Use Complex, Ambiguous, or Double Questions?
324(2)
Do You Accept Only the Answers You Expect?
326(1)
Why Are You Asking This Question?
326(1)
Do You Answer the Question Yourself?
327(1)
Do You Use Questions as Punishment?
328(1)
Summing Up
329(2)
Key Terms
331(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
331(1)
Field Experience Activities
331(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
332(1)
Classroom Observation Activity
332(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
333(2)
Self-Directed Learning
335(35)
Self-Directed Learning
336(3)
Metacognition
339(1)
Teacher Mediation
340(4)
The Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity
340(2)
Hitting the Zone of Maximum Response Opportunity
342(2)
Functional Errors
344(2)
Reciprocal Teaching
346(2)
Social Dialogue Versus Class Discussion
348(1)
The Role of Inner Speech
349(1)
Sample Dialogues of Self-Directed Learning
350(4)
Steps in Teaching Self-Directed Inquiry to Individual Learners
353(1)
Other Cognitive Strategies
354(5)
Mnemonics
354(1)
Elaboration/Organization (Note Taking)
355(2)
Comprehension Monitoring
357(1)
Problem-Solving Strategies
357(2)
Project-Based Learning
359(3)
The Role of Tasks in Project-Based Learning
359(1)
The Role of the Learner in Project-Based Learning
360(1)
The Role of the Teacher in Project-Based Learning
360(2)
Promoting the Goals of Self-Directed Learning in the Culturally Diverse Classroom
362(2)
Summing Up
364(1)
Key Terms
365(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
366(1)
Field Experience Activities
366(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
366(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
367(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
367(3)
Cooperative Learning and the Collaborative Process
370(29)
Outcomes of Cooperation
371(2)
Attitudes and Values
371(1)
Prosocial Behavior
372(1)
Alternative Perspectives and Viewpoints
372(1)
Integrated Identity
372(1)
Higher Thought Processes
372(1)
Components of a Cooperative Learning Activity
373(2)
Teacher-Student Interaction
374(1)
Student-Student Interaction
374(1)
Task Specialization and Materials
374(1)
Role Expectations and Responsibilities
375(1)
Establishing a Cooperative Task Structure in Your Classroom
375(13)
Specifying the Goal
375(2)
Structuring the Task
377(5)
Teaching and Evaluating the Collaborative Process
382(2)
Monitoring Group Performance
384(1)
Debriefing
384(4)
Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities
388(2)
Student Teams---Achievement Division
388(1)
Teams-Games-Tournaments
389(1)
Jigsaw II
389(1)
Team-Assisted Individualization
389(1)
Overview of Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities
390(1)
Promoting the Goals of Cooperative Learning in the Culturally Diverse Classroom
390(3)
Summing Up
393(1)
Key Terms
394(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
395(1)
Field Experience Activities
395(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
395(1)
Classroom Observation Activity
396(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
396(3)
Assessing Learners
399(45)
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
400(2)
Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
402(1)
The Test Blueprint
403(1)
Objective Test Items
403(10)
True-False Items
404(1)
Matching Items
405(2)
Multiple-Choice Items
407(1)
Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questions
408(3)
Completion Items
411(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Objective-Item Formats
412(1)
Essay Test Items
413(4)
Extended-Response Questions
413(1)
Restricted-Response Questions
414(1)
When Should You Use Essay Questions?
414(2)
Some Criteria for Scoring Essay Items
416(1)
Validity and Reliability
417(3)
Types of Validity
417(2)
Types of Reliability
419(1)
Marks and Marking Systems
420(2)
Comparison with Other Students
420(1)
Comparison with Established Standards
421(1)
Comparison with Aptitude
421(1)
Comparison of Achievement with Effort
422(1)
Comparison of Achievement with Improvement
422(1)
Standardized Tests
422(3)
Helping Students Prepare for Standardized Tests
423(2)
Performance Assessment
425(3)
The Portfolio
428(10)
Rationale for the Portfolio
428(2)
Step 1: Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfolio
430(1)
Step 2: Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositions
430(1)
Step 3: Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfolio
430(1)
Step 4: Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Product
431(1)
Step 5: Building the Portfolio Rubrics
432(5)
Performance and Portfolio Assessment and Report Card Grades
437(1)
Plan a Portfolio Conference
438(1)
Summing Up
438(2)
Key Terms
440(1)
Discussion and Practice Questions
440(1)
Field Experience Activities
440(1)
Digital Portfolio Activities
441(1)
Classroom Observation Activities
441(1)
Chapter Case History and Praxis Test Preparation
442(2)
Appendix A: Teacher Concerns Checklist 444(2)
Appendix B: Answers to Chapter Questions 446(7)
Appendix C: Higher-Order Thinking and Problem-Solving Checklist 453(5)
Appendix D: Answers to Short-Answer and Discrete Multiple-Choice Questions 458(10)
Glossary 468(7)
References 475(15)
Name Index 490(5)
Subject Index 495


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