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Electric Power Systems : A First Course,9781118074794
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Electric Power Systems : A First Course

by
Edition:
1
ISBN13:

9781118074794

ISBN10:
1118074793
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/18/2012
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $164.75

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Summary

Author Ned Mohan has been a leader in EES education and research for decades. His three-book series on Power Electronics focuses on three essential topics in the power sequence based on applications relevant to this age of sustainable energy such as wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The three topics include power electronics, power systems and electric machines. Key features in the first Edition build on Mohans successful MNPERE texts; his systems approach which puts dry technical detail in the context of applications; and substantial pedagogical support including PPTs, video clips, animations, clicker questions and a lab manual. It follows a top-down systems-level approach to power electronics to highlight interrelationships between these sub-fields. Its intended to cover fundamental and practical design. This book also follows a building-block approach to power electronics that allows an in-depth discussion of several important topics that are usually left. Topics are carefully sequenced to maintain continuity and interest.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

CHAPTER 1 POWER SYSTEMS: A CHANGING LANDSCAPE 1

1.1 Nature of Power Systems 1

1.2 Changing Landscape of Power Systems and Utility Deregulation 2

1.3 Topics in Power Systems 3

References 4

Problems 5

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF BASIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTS 6

2.1 Introduction [1] 6

2.2 Phasor Representation in Sinusoidal Steady State 6

2.3 Power, Reactive Power, and Power Factor 9

2.4 Three-Phase Circuits 15

2.5 Real and Reactive Power Transfer Between AC Systems 21

2.6 Apparatus Ratings, Base Values, and Per-Unit Quantities 22

2.7 Energy Efficiencies of Power System Apparatus 24

2.8 Electromagnetic Concepts 24

Reference 33

Problems 33

Appendix 2A 35

CHAPTER 3 ELECTRIC ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Choices and Consequences 39

3.3 Hydro Power 40

3.4 Fossil FuelBased Power Plants 41

3.5 Nuclear Power 43

3.6 Renewable Energy 45

3.7 Distributed Generation (DG) 52

3.8 Environmental Consequences and Remedial Actions 52

3.9 Resource Planning 53

References 55

Problems 55

CHAPTER 4 AC TRANSMISSION LINES AND UNDERGROUND CABLES 57

4.1 Need for Transmission Lines and Cables 57

4.2 Overhead AC Transmission Lines 57

4.3 Transposition of Transmission Line Phases 59

4.4 Transmission Lines Parameters 59

4.5 Distributed-Parameter Representation of Transmission Lines in Sinusoidal Steady State 66

4.6 Surge Impedance Zc and the Surge Impedance Loading (SII) 68

4.7 Lumped Transmission Line Models in Steady State 70

4.8 Cables [8] 72

References 73

Problems 74

Appendix 4A Long Transmission Lines 75

CHAPTER 5 POWER FLOW IN POWER SYSTEM NETWORKS 78

5.1 Introduction 78

5.2 Description of the Power System 79

5.3 Example Power System 79

5.4 Building the Admittance Matrix 80

5.5 Basic Power Flow Equations 82

5.6 Newton-Raphson Procedure 83

5.7 Solution of Power Flow Equations Using N-R Method 85

5.8 Fast Decoupled N-R Method for Power Flow 89

5.9 Sensitivity Analysis 90

5.10 Reaching the Bus Var Limit 90

5.11 Synchronized Phasor Measurements, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), and Wide-Area Measurement Systems 91

References 91

Problems 91

Appendix 5A Gauss-Seidel Procedure for Power Flow Calculations 92

CHAPTER 6 TRANSFORMERS IN POWER SYSTEMS 94

6.1 Introduction 94

6.2 Basic Principles of Transformer Operation 94

6.3 Simplified Transformer Model 99

6.4 Per-Unit Representation 101

6.5 Transformer Efficiencies and Leakage Reactances 103

6.6 Regulation in Transformers 104

6.7 Auto-Transformers 104

6.8 Phase-Shift Introduced by Transformers 106

6.9 Three-Winding Transformers 107

6.10 Three-Phase Transformers 108

6.11 Representing Transformers with Off-Nominal Turns Ratios, Taps, and Phase-Shift 108

References 110

Problems 110

CHAPTER 7 HIGH VOLTAGE DC (HVDC) TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS 113

7.1 Introduction 113

7.2 Power Semiconductor Devices and Their Capabilities 113

7.3 HVDC Transmission Systems 114

7.4 Current-Link HVDC Systems 115

7.5 Voltage-Link HVDC Systems 125

References 129

Problems 130

CHAPTER 8 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM, LOADS, AND POWER QUALITY 132

8.1 Introduction 132

8.2 Distribution Systems 132

8.3 Power System Loads 133

8.4 Power Quality Considerations 137

8.5 Load Management [6,7] and Smart Grid 148

8.6 Price of Electricity [3] 149

References 149

Problems 149

CHAPTER 9 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 151

9.1 Introduction 151

9.2 Structure 152

9.3 Induced EMF in the Stator Windings 154

9.4 Power Output, Stability, and the Loss of Synchronism 159

9.5 Field Excitation Control to Adjust Reactive Power 160

9.6 Field Exciters for Automatic Voltage Regulation (AVR) 162

9.7 Synchronous, Transient, and Subtransient Reactances 162

References 164

Problems 165

CHAPTER 10 VOLTAGE REGULATION AND STABILITY IN POWER SYSTEMS 166

10.1 Introduction 166

10.2 Radial System as an Example 166

10.3 Voltage Collapse 169

10.4 Prevention of Voltage Instability 170

References 176

Problems 176

CHAPTER 11 TRANSIENT AND DYNAMIC STABILITY OF POWER SYSTEMS 178

11.1 Introduction 178

11.2 Principle of Transient Stability 178

11.3 Transient Stability Evaluation in Large Systems 186

11.4 Dynamic Stability 187

References 188

Problems 188

Appendix 11A Inertia, Torque and Acceleration in Rotating Systems 188

CHAPTER 12 CONTROL OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM AND ECONOMIC DISPATCH 192

12.1 Control Objectives 192

12.2 Voltage Control by Controlling Excitation and the Reactive Power 193

12.3 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 194

12.4 Economic Dispatch and Optimum Power Flow 201

References 206

Problems 206

CHAPTER 13 TRANSMISSION LINE FAULTS, RELAYING, AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 208

13.1 Causes of Transmission Line Faults 208

13.2 Symmetrical Components for Fault Analysis 209

13.3 Types of Faults 211

13.4 System Impedances for Fault Calculations 215

13.5 Calculation of Fault Currents in Large Networks 218

13.6 Protection against Short-Circuit Faults 219

References 227

Problems 227

CHAPTER 14 TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES, SURGE PROTECTION, AND INSULATION COORDINATION 229

14.1 Introduction 229

14.2 Causes of Overvoltages 229

14.3 Transmission Line Characteristics and Representation 230

14.4 Insulation to Withstand Overvoltages 233

14.5 Surge Arresters and Insulation Coordination 234

References 235

Problems 235



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