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Electrical Energy Conversion and Transpor : An Interactive Computer-Based Approach,9780470936993
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Electrical Energy Conversion and Transpor : An Interactive Computer-Based Approach

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780470936993

ISBN10:
0470936991
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
6/10/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-IEEE Press
List Price: $159.94

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Summary

Designed to support interactive teaching and computer assisted self-learning, this second edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important together with the deregulation of the industry. New content explores different power generation methods, including renewable energy generation (solar, wind, fuel cell) and includes new sections that discuss the upcoming Smart Grid and the distributed power generation using renewable energy generation, making the text essential reading material for students and practicing engineers.

Author Biography

GEORGE G. KARADY received his doctorate in electrical engineering from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1960. He also received an honorary doctorate from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics in 1996. He is currently the Chair Professor for the Salt River Project at Arizona State University.

KEITH E. HOLBERT earned his PhD in nuclear engineering at the University of Tennessee. He is presently the Director of the Nuclear Power Generation program in the School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering at Arizona State University. He is a registered professional engineer and a senior member of the IEEE.

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments xv

1 ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS 1

1.1. Electric Networks 2

1.1.1. Transmission Systems 4

1.1.2. Distribution Systems 6

1.2. Traditional Transmission Systems 6

1.2.1. Substation Components 8

1.2.2. Substations and Equipment 9

1.2.3. Gas Insulated Switchgear 17

1.2.4. Power System Operation in Steady-State Conditions 18

1.2.5. Network Dynamic Operation (Transient Condition) 20

1.3. Traditional Distribution Systems 20

1.3.1. Distribution Feeder 21

1.3.2. Residential Electrical Connection 24

1.4. Intelligent Electrical Grids 26

1.4.1. Intelligent High-Voltage Transmission Systems 26

1.4.2. Intelligent Distribution Networks 28

1.5. Exercises 28

1.6. Problems 29

2 ELECTRIC GENERATING STATIONS 30

2.1. Fossil Power Plants 34

2.1.1. Fuel Storage and Handling 34

2.1.2. Boiler 35

2.1.3. Turbine 41

2.1.4. Generator and Electrical System 43

2.1.5. Combustion Turbine 47

2.1.6. Combined Cycle Plants 48

2.2. Nuclear Power Plants 49

2.2.1. Nuclear Reactor 50

2.2.2. Pressurized Water Reactor 53

2.2.3. Boiling Water Reactor 55

2.3. Hydroelectric Power Plants 56

2.3.1. Low Head Hydroplants 59

2.3.2. Medium- and High-Head Hydroplants 60

2.3.3. Pumped Storage Facility 62

2.4. Wind Farms 63

2.5. Solar Power Plants 66

2.5.1. Photovoltaics 66

2.5.2. Solar Thermal Plants 70

2.6. Geothermal Power Plants 72

2.7. Ocean Power 73

2.7.1. Ocean Tidal 74

2.7.2. Ocean Current 75

2.7.3. Ocean Wave 75

2.7.4. Ocean Thermal 76

2.8. Other Generation Schemes 76

2.9. Electricity Generation Economics 77

2.9.1. O&M Cost 79

2.9.2. Fuel Cost 79

2.9.3. Capital Cost 80

2.9.4. Overall Generation Costs 81

2.10. Load Characteristics and Forecasting 81

2.11. Environmental Impact 85

2.12. Exercises 86

2.13. Problems 86

3 SINGLE-PHASE CIRCUITS 89

3.1. Circuit Analysis Fundamentals 90

3.1.1. Basic Defi nitions and Nomenclature 90

3.1.2. Voltage and Current Phasors 91

3.1.3. Power 92

3.2. AC Circuits 94

3.3. Impedance 96

3.3.1. Series Connection 100

3.3.2. Parallel Connection 100

3.3.3. Impedance Examples 104

3.4. Loads 109

3.4.1. Power Factor 111

3.4.2. Voltage Regulation 116

3.5. Basic Laws and Circuit Analysis Techniques 116

3.5.1. Kirchhoff’s Current Law 117

3.5.2. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 123

3.5.3. Thévenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 127

3.6. Applications of Single-Phase Circuit Analysis 128

3.7. Summary 140

3.8. Exercises 141

3.9. Problems 141

4 THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 145

4.1. Three-Phase Quantities 146

4.2. Wye-Connected Generator 151

4.3. Wye-Connected Loads 155

4.3.1. Balanced Wye Load (Four-Wire System) 156

4.3.2. Unbalanced Wye Load (Four-Wire System) 158

4.3.3. Wye-Connected Three-Wire System 160

4.4. Delta-Connected System 162

4.4.1. Delta-Connected Generator 162

4.4.2. Balanced Delta Load 163

4.4.3. Unbalanced Delta Load 166

4.5. Summary 168

4.6. Three-Phase Power Measurement 174

4.6.1. Four-Wire System 175

4.6.2. Three-Wire System 175

4.7. Per-Unit System 177

4.8. Symmetrical Components 182

4.8.1. Calculation of Phase Voltages from Sequential Components 182

4.8.2. Calculation of Sequential Components from Phase Voltages 183

4.8.3. Sequential Components of Impedance Loads 184

4.9. Application Examples 188

4.10. Exercises 203

4.11. Problems 204

5 TRANSMISSION LINES AND CABLES 207

5.1. Construction 208

5.2. Components of the Transmission Lines 215

5.2.1. Towers and Foundations 215

5.2.2. Conductors 216

5.2.3. Insulators 218

5.3. Cables 223

5.4. Transmission Line Electrical Parameters 224

5.5. Magnetic Field Generated by Transmission Lines 225

5.5.1. Magnetic Field Energy Content 229

5.5.2. Single Conductor Generated Magnetic Field 230

5.5.3. Complex Spatial Vector Mathematics 233

5.5.4. Three-Phase Transmission Line-Generated Magnetic Field 234

5.6. Transmission Line Inductance 239

5.6.1. External Magnetic Flux 240

5.6.2. Internal Magnetic Flux 241

5.6.3. Total Conductor Magnetic Flux 243

5.6.4. Three-Phase Line Inductance 244

5.7. Transmission Line Capacitance 249

5.7.1. Electric Field Generation 249

5.7.2. Electrical Field around a Conductor 250

5.7.3. Three-Phase Transmission Line Generated Electric Field 256

5.7.4. Three-Phase Line Capacitance 271

5.8. Transmission Line Networks 273

5.8.1. Equivalent Circuit for a Balanced System 273

5.8.2. Long Transmission Lines 277

5.9. Concept of Transmission Line Protection 282

5.9.1. Transmission Line Faults 282

5.9.2. Protection Methods 285

5.9.3. Fuse Protection 285

5.9.4. Overcurrent Protection 285

5.9.5. Distance Protection 288

5.10. Application Examples 289

5.10.1. Mathcad® Examples 289

5.10.2. PSpice®: Transient Short-Circuit Current in Transmission Lines 302

5.10.3. PSpice: Transmission Line Energization 304

5.11. Exercises 307

5.12. Problems 308

6 ELECTROMECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION 313

6.1. Magnetic Circuits 314

6.1.1. Magnetic Circuit Theory 315

6.1.2. Magnetic Circuit Analysis 317

6.1.3. Magnetic Energy 323

6.1.4. Magnetization Curve 324

6.1.5. Magnetization Curve Modeling 329

6.2. Magnetic and Electric Field Generated Forces 336

6.2.1. Electric Field-Generated Force 336

6.2.2. Magnetic Field-Generated Force 337

6.3. Electromechanical System 343

6.3.1. Electric Field 344

6.3.2. Magnetic Field 345

6.4. Calculation of Electromagnetic Forces 347

6.5. Applications 352

6.5.1. Actuators 353

6.5.2. Transducers 356

6.5.3. Permanent Magnet Motors and Generators 362

6.5.4. Microelectromechanical Systems 365

6.6. Summary 368

6.7. Exercises 368

6.8. Problems 369

7 TRANSFORMERS 375

7.1. Construction 376

7.2. Single-Phase Transformers 381

7.2.1. Ideal Transformer 382

7.2.2. Real Transformer 391

7.2.3. Determination of Equivalent Transformer Circuit Parameters 399

7.3. Three-Phase Transformers 408

7.3.1. Wye–Wye Connection 410

7.3.2. Wye–Delta Connection 415

7.3.3. Delta–Wye Connection 418

7.3.4. Delta–Delta Connection 420

7.3.5. Summary 420

7.3.6. Analysis of Three-Phase Transformer Configurations 421

7.3.7. Equivalent Circuit Parameters of a Three-Phase Transformer 429

7.3.8. General Program for Computing Transformer Parameters 432

7.3.9. Application Examples 435

7.3.10. Concept of Transformer Protection 447

7.4. Exercises 450

7.5. Problems 451

8 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES 456

8.1. Construction 456

8.1.1. Round Rotor Generator 457

8.1.2. Salient Pole Generator 459

8.1.3. Exciter 462

8.2. Operating Concept 465

8.2.1. Main Rotating Flux 465

8.2.2. Armature Flux 468

8.3. Generator Application 472

8.3.1. Loading 472

8.3.2. Reactive Power Regulation 472

8.3.3. Synchronization 473

8.3.4. Static Stability 474

8.4. Induced Voltage and Armature Reactance Calculation 487

8.4.1. Induced Voltage Calculation 488

8.4.2. Armature Reactance Calculation 496

8.5. Concept of Generator Protection 507

8.6. Application Examples 511

8.7. Exercises 535

8.8. Problems 536

9 INDUCTION MACHINES 541

9.1. Introduction 541

9.2. Construction 543

9.2.1. Stator 543

9.2.2. Rotor 546

9.3. Three-Phase Induction Motor 547

9.3.1. Operating Principle 547

9.3.2. Equivalent Circuit 553

9.3.3. Motor Performance 556

9.3.4. Motor Maximum Output 557

9.3.5. Performance Analyses 560

9.3.6. Determination of Motor Parameters by Measurement 570

9.4. Single-Phase Induction Motor 591

9.4.1. Operating Principle 592

9.4.2. Single-Phase Induction Motor Performance Analysis 595

9.5. Induction Generators 603

9.5.1. Induction Generator Analysis 603

9.5.2. Doubly Fed Induction Generator 606

9.6. Concept of Motor Protection 608

9.7. Exercises 610

9.8. Problems 611

10 DC MACHINES 616

10.1. Construction 616

10.2. Operating Principle 620

10.2.1. DC Motor 620

10.2.2. DC Generator 623

10.2.3. Equivalent Circuit 625

10.2.4. Excitation Methods 628

10.3. Operation Analyses 629

10.3.1. Separately Excited Machine 630

10.3.2. Shunt Machine 637

10.3.3. Series Motor 645

10.3.4. Summary 651

10.4. Application Examples 652

10.5. Exercises 669

10.6. Problems 669

11 INTRODUCTION TO POWER ELECTRONICS AND MOTOR CONTROL 673

11.1. Concept of DC Motor Control 674

11.2. Concept of AC Induction Motor Control 678

11.3. Semiconductor Switches 685

11.3.1. Diode 685

11.3.2. Thyristor 687

11.3.3. Gate Turn-Off Thyristor 692

11.3.4. Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor 693

11.3.5. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor 695

11.3.6. Summary 696

11.4. Rectifi ers 697

11.4.1. Simple Passive Diode Rectifiers 697

11.4.2. Single-Phase Controllable Rectifiers 709

11.4.3. Firing and Snubber Circuits 726

11.4.4. Three-Phase Rectifiers 728

11.5. Inverters 729

11.5.1. Voltage Source Inverter with Pulse Width Modulation 732

11.5.2. Line-Commutated Thyristor-Controlled Inverter 735

11.5.3. High-Voltage DC Transmission 738

11.6. Flexible AC Transmission 739

11.6.1. Static VAR Compensator 740

11.6.2. Static Synchronous Compensator 744

11.6.3. Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor 744

11.6.4. Unifi ed Power Controller 747

11.7. DC-to-DC Converters 747

11.7.1. Boost Converter 748

11.7.2. Buck Converter 754

11.8. Application Examples 757

11.9. Exercises 773

11.10. Problems 774

Appendix A Introduction to Mathcad® 777

A.1. Worksheet and Toolbars 777

A.1.1. Text Regions 780

A.1.2. Calculations 780

A.2. Functions 783

A.2.1. Repetitive Calculations 784

A.2.2. Defining a Function 785

A.2.3. Plotting a Function 786

A.2.4. Minimum and Maximum Function Values 788

A.3. Equation Solvers 788

A.3.1. Root Equation Solver 789

A.3.2. Find Equation Solver 789

A.4. Vectors and Matrices 790

Appendix B Introduction to MATLAB® 794

B.1. Desktop Tools 794

B.2. Operators, Variables, and Functions 796

B.3. Vectors and Matrices 797

B.4. Colon Operator 799

B.5. Repeated Evaluation of an Equation 799

B.6. Plotting 800

B.7. Basic Programming 803

Appendix C Fundamental Units and Constants 805

C.1. Fundamental Units 805

C.2. Fundamental Physical Constants 809

Appendix D Introduction to PSpice® 810

D.1. Obtaining and Installing PSpice 810

D.2. Using PSpice 811

D.2.1. Creating a Circuit 811

D.2.2. Simulating a Circuit 812

D.2.3. Analyzing Simulation Results 813

Problem Solution Key 815

Bibliography 822

Index 824



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