9780471669852

Electromagnetic Metamaterials : Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471669852

  • ISBN10:

    0471669857

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-08-12
  • Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
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Summary

Electromagnetic metamaterials-from fundamental physics to advanced engineering applications This book presents an original generalized transmission line approach associated with non-resonant structures that exhibit larger bandwidths, lower loss, and higher design flexibility. It is based on the novel concept of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line metamaterials (MMs), which has led to the development of novel guided-wave, radiated-wave, and refracted-wave devices and structures. The authors introduced this powerful new concept and are therefore able to offer readers deep insight into the fundamental physics needed to fully grasp the technology. Moreover, they provide a host of practical engineering applications. The book begins with an introductory chapter that places resonant type and transmission line metamaterials in historical perspective. The next six chapters give readers a solid foundation in the fundamentals and practical applications: * Fundamentals of LH MMs describes the fundamental physics and exotic properties of left-handed metamaterials * TL Theory of MMs establishes the foundations of CRLH structures in three progressive steps: ideal transmission line, LC network, and real distributed structure * Two-Dimensional MMs develops both a transmission matrix method and a transmission line method to address the problem of finite-size 2D metamaterials excited by arbitrary sources * Guided-Wave Applications and Radiated-Wave Applications present a number of groundbreaking applications developed by the authors * The Future of MMs sets forth an expert view on future challenges and prospects This engineering approach to metamaterials paves the way for a new generation of microwave and photonic devices and structures. It is recommended for electrical engineers, as well as physicists and optical engineers, with an interest in practical negative refractive index structures and materials.

Author Biography

CHRISTOPHE CALOZ, PhD, is a Professor at the École Polytechnique de Montréal and a member of the university's Poly-Grames Research Center. Dr. Caloz has authored or coauthored more than one hundred technical conference and journal papers, and three book chapters. He is also the holder of several patents as well as the Canada Research Chair.

TATSUO ITOH, PhD, is Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of California, Los Angeles. He has authored hundreds of book chapters and journal articles. He is also the author of a number of prominent publications, including RF Technologies for Low Power Wireless Communications.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Acronyms xvii
Introduction
1(26)
Definition of Metamaterials (MTMs) and Left-Handed (LH) MTMs
1(2)
Theoretical Speculation by Viktor Veselago
3(1)
Experimental Demonstration of Left-Handedness
4(5)
Further Numerical and Experimental Confirmations
9(1)
``Conventional'' Backward Waves and Novelty of LH MTMs
10(2)
Terminology
12(1)
Transmission Line (TL) Approach
12(4)
Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) MTMs
16(1)
MTMs and Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) Structures
17(3)
Historical ``Germs'' of MTMs
20(7)
References
22(5)
Fundamentals of LH MTMs
27(32)
Left-Handedness from Maxwell's Equations
28(5)
Entropy Conditions in Dispersive Media
33(5)
Boundary Conditions
38(1)
Reversal of Doppler Effect
39(2)
Reversal of Vavilov-Cerenkov Radiation
41(2)
Reversal of Snell's Law: Negative Refraction
43(3)
Focusing by a ``Flat LH Lens''
46(2)
Fresnel Coefficients
48(2)
Reversal of Goos-Hanchen Effect
50(1)
Reversal of Convergence and Divergence in Convex and Concave Lenses
51(2)
Subwavelength Diffraction
53(6)
References
57(2)
TL Theory of MTMs
59(74)
Ideal Homogeneous CRLH TLs
59(20)
Fundamental TL Characteristics
60(7)
Equivalent MTM Constitutive Parameters
67(3)
Balanced and Unbalanced Resonances
70(4)
Lossy Case
74(5)
LC Network Implementation
79(40)
Principle
79(4)
Difference with Conventional Filters
83(2)
Transmission Matrix Analysis
85(15)
Input Impedance
100(3)
Cutoff Frequencies
103(3)
Analytical Dispersion Relation
106(7)
Bloch Impedance
113(2)
Effect of Finite Size in the Presence of Imperfect Matching
115(4)
Real Distributed 1D CRLH Structures
119(8)
General Design Guidelines
120(2)
Microstrip Implementation
122(2)
Parameters Extraction
124(3)
Experimental Transmission Characteristics
127(4)
Conversion from Transmission Line to Constitutive Parameters
131(2)
References
131(2)
Two-Dimensional MTMs
133(59)
Eigenvalue Problem
134(9)
General Matrix System
134(4)
CRLH Particularization
138(1)
Lattice Choice, Symmetry Points, Brillouin Zone, and 2D Dispersion Representations
139(4)
Driven Problem by the Transmission Matrix Method (TMM)
143(11)
Principle of the TMM
144(1)
Scattering Parameters
145(2)
Voltage and Current Distributions
147(7)
Interest and Limitations of the TMM
154(1)
Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Modeling Method
154(8)
TLM Modeling of the Unloaded TL Host Network
155(3)
TLM Modeling of the Loaded TL Host Network (CRLH)
158(1)
Relationship between Material Properties and the TLM Model Parameters
159(2)
Suitability of the TLM Approach for MTMs
161(1)
Negative Refractive Index (NRI) Effects
162(8)
Negative Phase Velocity
162(1)
Negative Refraction
163(2)
Negative Focusing
165(2)
RH-LH Interface Surface Plasmons
167(2)
Reflectors with Unusual Properties
169(1)
Distributed 2D Structures
170(22)
Description of Possible Structures
171(2)
Dispersion and Propagation Characteristics
173(5)
Parameter Extraction
178(5)
Distributed Implementation of the NRI Slab
183(7)
References
190(2)
Guided-Wave Applications
192(69)
Dual-Band Components
193(17)
Dual-Band Property of CRLH TLs
193(4)
Quarter-Wavelength TL and Stubs
197(4)
Passive Component Examples: Quadrature Hybrid and Wilkinson Power Divider
201(1)
Quadrature Hybrid
201(1)
Wilkinson Power Divider
202(3)
Nonlinear Component Example: Quadrature Subharmonically Pumped Mixer
205(5)
Enhanced-Bandwidth Components
210(7)
Principle of Bandwidth Enhancement
211(4)
Rat-Race Coupler Example
215(2)
Super-compact Multilayer ``Vertical'' TL
217(10)
``Vertical'' TL Architecture
219(2)
TL Performances
221(4)
Diplexer Example
225(2)
Tight Edge-Coupled Coupled-Line Couplers (CLCs)
227(22)
Generalities on Coupled-Line Couplers
228(1)
TEM and Quasi-TEM Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures with Small Interspacing: Impedance Coupling (IC)
228(4)
Non-TEM Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures with Relatively Large Spacing: Phase Coupling (PC)
232(1)
Summary on Symmetric Coupled-Line Structures
233(1)
Asymmetric Coupled-Line Structures
234(1)
Advantages of MTM Couplers
235(1)
Symmetric Impedance Coupler
235(10)
Asymmetric Phase Coupler
245(4)
Negative and Zeroth-Order Resonator
249(12)
Principle
249(2)
LC Network Implementation
251(2)
Zeroth-Order Resonator Characteristics
253(3)
Circuit Theory Verification
256(2)
Microstrip Realization
258(1)
References
259(2)
Radiated-Wave Applications
261(55)
Fundamental Aspects of Leaky-Wave Structures
262(8)
Principle of Leakage Radiation
262(4)
Uniform and Periodic Leaky-Wave Structures
266(1)
Uniform LW Structures
266(2)
Periodic LW Structures
268(1)
Metamaterial Leaky-Wave Structures
269(1)
Backfire-to-Endfire (BE) Leaky-Wave (LW) Antenna
270(5)
Electronically Scanned BE LW Antenna
275(7)
Electronic Scanning Principle
276(1)
Electronic Beamwidth Control Principle
277(2)
Analysis of the Structure and Results
279(3)
Reflecto-Directive Systems
282(8)
Passive Retro-Directive Reflector
283(3)
Arbitrary-Angle Frequency Tuned Reflector
286(1)
Arbitrary-Angle Electronically Tuned Reflector
287(3)
Two-Dimensional Structures
290(7)
Two-Dimensional LW Radiation
290(2)
Conical-Beam Antenna
292(4)
Full-Space Scanning Antenna
296(1)
Zeroth Order Resonating Antenna
297(3)
Dual-Band CRLH-TL Resonating Ring Antenna
300(4)
Focusing Radiative ``Meta-Interfaces''
304(12)
Heterodyne Phased Array
305(5)
Nonuniform Leaky-Wave Radiator
310(3)
References
313(3)
The Future of MTMs
316(31)
``Real-Artificial'' Materials: the Challenge of Homogenization
316(3)
Quasi-Optical NRI Lenses and Devices
319(4)
Three-Dimensional Isotropic LH MTMs
323(5)
Optical MTMs
328(1)
``Magnetless'' Magnetic MTMs
329(1)
Terahertz Magnetic MTMs
330(1)
Surface Plasmonic MTMs
331(7)
Antenna Radomes and Frequency Selective Surfaces
338(1)
Nonlinear MTMs
339(2)
Active MTMs
341(1)
Other Topics of Interest
341(6)
References
342(5)
Index 347

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