9780813804224

Electronic Media and Industrialized Nations : A Comparative Study

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780813804224

  • ISBN10:

    0813804221

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-06-28
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Summary

Electronic Media and Industrialized Nations considers the approaches that industrialized nations have taken to introduce, develop, control, and use electronic media. Browne compares and contrasts through detailed case studies, the experiences of several nations--France, Germany (both East and West), the Soviet Union and Russia, and the Netherlands--by presenting them in light of the political, economic, cultural, geographical, and demographic factors that both shape and reflect society. He then compares the pros and cons of those experiences, adds specific examples from still other industrialized nations, and proposes an "ideal" system as a way of focusing attention on what the media could and should do to play supportive roles in society. Browne readily acknowledges his own biases. He makes it abundantly clear that he believes those who regulate, administer, produce, and receive have an obligation to understand how the electronic media function and how the media should and can follow standards that will better ensure their responsibility for the development of healthy societies. While the present work is based on Browne's award-winning Comparing Broadcast Systems, it goes much further in terms of its coverage of such subjects as government-media relationships, minorities and the media, uses of the Internet, and the possible influence of "media barons," the European Union, and transnational corporations. Where the two Germanys and the Soviet Union/Russia are concerned, he provides an account of the role of the media before, during, and after both German unification and the collapse of the Soviet Union. He also places greater emphasis on how media portrayal of religion, class, language, ethnicity, and political affiliation provide us with images of the relative health of civil society.

Author Biography

Dr. Donald R. Browne is a professor and chair of the Department of Speech-Communication at the University of Minnesota. He has studied and written about broadcast systems, drawing on his experience as an overseas correspondent for the Voice of America and an international broadcast consultant. In addition to teaching at the University of Minnesota, Browne has taught courses in comparative and international broadcasting at Boston University, Purdue University, and the American University of Beirut.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Comparing Electronic Media Systems
3(76)
The Comparative Study of Systems
4(1)
Basic Factors
5(18)
Geographic
6(1)
Demographic/Linguistic
7(1)
Economic
8(3)
Cultural
11(2)
Political
13(9)
Technological
22(1)
Other Perspectives
23(1)
Financing
23(15)
Advertising
24(2)
Annual License Fees
26(2)
Subscriber Fees
28(2)
Annual Governmental Appropriations
30(2)
Institutional Support
32(2)
Corporate and Individual Contributions
34(1)
Sales of Goods and Services
34(2)
Ownership of Closely Related Enterprises
36(1)
Odds and Ends
36(2)
Supervision, Control and Influence
38(18)
Internal Controls and Influences
38(6)
External Controls and Influences
44(12)
Communications Policy
56(6)
Short-Term Policies
58(1)
Medium-Term Policies
58(1)
Long-Term Policies
59(2)
Policy-Making Purposes
61(1)
Media-Audience Interaction
62(7)
Audience Research
63(1)
Solicitation/Reception of Audience Mail and Telephone Calls
64(1)
Public Meetings
65(1)
Program-Making by the Audience
66(3)
Programming
69(9)
The Programming Philosophy of Public Service Broadcasting
74(1)
The Influence of Cable, Satellite and Commercial Services
75(1)
Minorities and Programming
76(2)
Conclusion
78(1)
France: From Competition to Monopoly and Back Again
79(78)
Basic Factors
79(3)
Geographic
79(1)
Demographic
80(1)
Economic
80(1)
Cultural
81(1)
Political
82(1)
A Brief History
82(30)
Monopoly in the Fourth Republic (1944-58)
86(2)
The Fifth Republic Begins (1958-64)
88(2)
The ORTF (1964-1974)
90(6)
The Decentralized ORTF (1975-1981)
96(2)
The Socialist Reform (1981-1986)
98(5)
The ``New Conservative'' Era (1986-1988)
103(3)
The Return of the Socialists (1989-1993)
106(3)
Being French in the 1990s
109(3)
The Threads of History
112(1)
Financing
112(3)
Governance and Administration---Internal
115(2)
Governance and Administration---External
117(9)
Governmental
117(5)
Nongovernmental
122(4)
Programming
126(12)
Philosophies
126(2)
Radio
128(3)
Television
131(7)
The Audience
138(2)
Minorities and the Media
140(3)
Problem Areas
143(2)
Foreign Influences on Programming
145(1)
Relations with Other Media
145(3)
International Cooperation
148(2)
The New Media
150(4)
Conclusion
154(3)
The Netherlands: Plurality in an Era of Competition
157(58)
Basic Factors
157(3)
Geographic
157(1)
Demographic
158(1)
Economic
159(1)
Political
159(1)
Cultural
159(1)
A Brief History
160(20)
The Growth of Television
163(3)
The New Broadcasting Act and Its Effects (1964-1970)
166(3)
After the 1967 Act (1970-1988)
169(4)
The 1987 Act and Its Consequences (1988-1998)
173(6)
The Threads of History
179(1)
Financing
180(4)
Governance and Administration---Internal
184(3)
The Decision-Making Structure
184(3)
Governance and Administration---External
187(4)
The National Government
187(2)
Regional and Local Government
189(1)
Nongovernmental
190(1)
Programming
191(8)
Philosophies
191(1)
Radio
192(3)
Television
195(4)
The Audience
199(3)
Minorities and the Media
202(3)
Problem Areas
205(2)
Foreign Influences on Programming
207(1)
Relations with Other Media
208(1)
International Cooperation
209(1)
The New Media
210(2)
Conclusion
212(3)
Germany: States' Rights, National Goals and Unification
215(88)
Basic Factors
215(5)
Geographic
215(1)
Demographic
216(1)
Economic
217(1)
Political
218(1)
Cultural
219(1)
Technological
220(1)
A Brief History
220(24)
The Thousand-Year Reich (1933-1945)
222(4)
Broadcasting under the Occupation (1945-1949)
226(3)
The Republics Establish Themselves (1949-1961)
229(4)
From the Wall to the Treaty (1961-1972)
233(3)
Politics, the Economy and the New Media (1972-1987)
236(3)
The Final Years of East German Broadcasting (1988-1990)
239(1)
The Effects of Unification (1990-1992)
240(1)
Competition and Expansion (1992-Present)
241(2)
The Threads of History
243(1)
Financing
244(5)
East Germany
249(1)
Governance and Administration---Internal
249(5)
The Decision-Making Structure
249(5)
Governance and Administration---External
254(5)
The National Government
254(2)
State Government
256(1)
East Germany
257(1)
Local Government
257(1)
Nongovernmental
258(1)
Programming---West Germany and Unified Germany
259(11)
Philosophies
259(2)
Radio
261(3)
Television
264(6)
Programming---East Germany
270(5)
Philosophies
270(1)
Radio
271(1)
Television
272(3)
The Audience
275(3)
East Germany
277(1)
Minorities and the Media
278(5)
Problem Areas
283(9)
Foreign Influences on Programming
292(2)
East Germany
293(1)
Relations with Other Media
294(2)
International Cooperation
296(1)
The New Media
297(3)
East Germany
300(1)
Conclusion
300(3)
The Soviet Union and Russia: From Communism to Capitalism?
303(94)
Basic Factors
304(7)
Geographic
304(1)
Demographic
305(1)
Economic
306(1)
Cultural
307(2)
Political
309(1)
Technological
310(1)
The Soviet Union
311(1)
A Brief History
311(17)
World War II
315(1)
From Stalin to Khruschev
316(3)
Handling Competition and Diversity (1965-1985)
319(3)
Glasnost Comes and (Partially) Goes (1985-1991)
322(4)
The Demise of the Soviet Union (1991)
326(2)
The Threads of History
328(1)
Financing
328(1)
Governance and Administration---Internal
329(2)
The Decision-Making Structure
330(1)
Governance and Administration---External
331(4)
Government and Party
331(3)
Nongovernmental
334(1)
Programming
335(10)
Philosophies
335(1)
Radio
336(3)
Television
339(6)
The Audience
345(4)
Minorities and the Media
349(1)
Problem Areas
350(3)
Foreign Influences on Programming
353(1)
Relations with Other Media
354(1)
International Cooperation
355(1)
The New Media
356(2)
Conclusion
358(1)
The Russian Federation
359(1)
A Brief History
359(12)
Financing
371(2)
Governance and Administration---Internal
373(1)
Governance and Administration---External
374(3)
National Government
374(2)
Regional and Local Government
376(1)
Programming
377(6)
Philosophy
377(1)
Radio
377(1)
Television
378(5)
The Audience
383(1)
Minorities and the Media
384(1)
Problem Areas
385(5)
Relations with Other Media
390(1)
International Cooperation
390(1)
The New Media
391(2)
Conclusion
393(4)
What's Comparable, What Isn't and What It May Mean
397(68)
Basic Factors
397(2)
Models
399(1)
Governments and the Electronic Media
400(8)
Governmental Administrations
401(2)
Legislatures
403(2)
The Judiciary
405(1)
Regulatory Agencies
406(2)
Internal Relationships
408(3)
Relationships between Publics and Media Systems
411(4)
Relationships among the Mass Media
415(3)
Regulation, Communication Policy and the ``Media Explosion''
418(1)
Paying for the Media
419(6)
Programming Practices and Issues
425(6)
Toward an ``Ideal'' Electronic Media System
431(16)
Governments and Electronic Media
431(5)
Internal Relationships
436(2)
Relationships between Publics and Media Systems
438(2)
Programming Practices
440(6)
Paying for the ``Ideal'' System
446(1)
Toward the Year 2000
447(5)
The Nation-State and the Electronic Media
452(2)
The European Union as Supranational Model?
454(1)
Moguls, Mergers and Multinationals
455(3)
The Role of the Public Broadcasting Services
458(2)
Ethical Issues in a Multichannel World
460(1)
A Few Comparative Whys
461(1)
A Final Word on Behalf of History
462(3)
Notes 465(62)
Bibliography 527(8)
Index 535

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