Electronics A Physical Approach

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 9/30/2014
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Electronics: A Physical Approach  de-mystifies electronics by filling the gap between physical principles and pragmatic circuit design. The authors introduce students to the physics behind the electronics, rather than presenting various tips on circuit building. As a result, students develop an intuition about how devices actually work by building a strong conceptual foundation.

Author Biography

David W. Snoke (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1990) is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Pittsburgh. Prior to coming to Pittsburgh in 1994 he was a postdoc at the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart with Manuel Cardona, and also worked in industry. In 2006 Professor Snoke was elected a Fellow of the American Physical Society, "for his pioneering work on the experimental and theoretical understanding of dynamical optical processes in semiconductor systems.'' His present research focuses on Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons and polaritons in two and three dimensions. Professor Snoke’s diverse experience has given him strong feelings about the present needs in solid state physics education. In particular, his experience in the fundamental semiconductor optics community as given him a deep appreciation for the unifying theoretical methods which run through solid state physics, while his interaction with the Bose-Einstein condensation community has given him an appreciation for the underlying unity of coherent phenomena as diverse as superconductors, superfluids, and lasers.

Table of Contents



1 Linear DC Circuits 15


1.1 Circuit Elements. The Water Analogy       

1.2 Ohm’s Law and Power Loss in Resistors

1.3 The Voltage Divider. Circuit Inputs and Outputs

1.4 Kirchhoż’s Laws 

1.5 Equivalent Circuits and Current Sources 

1.6 Understanding the Equipment: Multimeter

1.7 Application: Four-Lead Measurements

1.8 The Physics and Chemistry of Batteries

1.9 Extra Problems


2 Linear AC Circuits


2.1 The Water Analogy for AC Circuit Elements

2.2 Derivation of Capacitor Behavior

2.3 Derivation of Inductor Behavior

2.4 Intrinsic Time Constants

2.5 Complex Impedance

2.6 Decibels and Signal Level 

2.7 Advanced Topic. Fourier Transforms

2.8 Resonant Circuits and Bandpass Filters

2.9 Understanding the Equipment: Oscilloscope

2.10 Understanding the Equipment: Function Generator

2.11 Extra Problems


3 Transmission Lines and Signal Propagation


3.1 Circuit Model of a Transmission Line

3.2 Impedance of a Transmission Line

3.3 Re ection of Signals at Interfaces. Impedance Matching

3.4 Advanced Topic. Degradation of Signals in Transmission Lines

3.4.1 A Cable with Resistance

3.4.2 A Cable with Dispersion

3.5 Understanding the Equipment: Pulse Generator

3.6 Transformers

3.6.1 Inductive Transformers

3.6.2 Capacitive Field Coupling

3.7 Generators and Three-Phase Power

3.8 Antennas and Radiation Loss

3.9 Noise Reduction Methods

3.9.1 Balanced-Unbalanced Conversion. Ground Loops

3.9.2 Shielding

3.10 Advanced Topic. Spectral Analysis and Electrical Noise


3.10.1 Thermal Noise

3.10.2 Shot Noise

3.10.3 Phase Fluctuations

3.11 Understanding the Equipment: Spectral Analyzer

3.12 Extra Problems


4 Introduction to Nonlinear Circuit Elements


4.1 Water Analogy for Diodes

4.2 Bands and Band Gaps 

4.3 Semiconductors

4.3.1 Electrons in Periodic Crystals

4.3.2 Holes

4.3.3 Semiconductor Doping

4.4 Interfaces and Band Bending

4.4.1 Metal-to-Metal Junctions. Thermocouples

4.4.2 Doped Semiconductor Interfaces

4.4.3 Metal Contacts and Surface States

4.4.4 Junctions with Undoped Semiconductors

4.5 Diodes and Recti ers

4.5.1 Recti ers

4.5.2 The Concept of Dynamic Resistance

4.5.3 Zener Diodes

4.5.4 Tunnel Diodes. Negative Dynamic Resistance

4.5.5 Schottky Diodes. Recovery Time of Diodes

4.6 Advanced Topic. Chaos in Diode Circuits

4.7 Varistors. Tunneling Resistance

4.8 Fuses

4.9 Extra Problems


5 Transistors


5.1 Water Analogy for Transistors

5.2 Bipolar Transistors

5.3 Basic Bipolar Transistor Circuits

5.3.1 Follower. Input and Output Impedance

5.3.2 Current Source. The Concept of Negative Feedback

5.3.3 Inverting Ampli er

5.3.4 Diżerential Ampli er

5.3.5 Advanced Topic. Push-Pull. Ampli er Classes

5.3.6 Advanced Topic. Temperature Compensation

5.4 Field-Eżect Transistors

5.4.1 JFETs .

5.4.2 MOSFETs

5.4.3 Advanced Topic. Estimation of the Saturation Current in FETs


5.4.4 General properties of FETs

5.5 Understanding the Equipment: I-V Curve Tracer

5.6 Thyristors

5.7 Extra Problems


6 Operational Ampli ers and Comparators


6.1 Hierarchies of Circuits. Op-Amps

6.2 Negative Feedback. Simple Ampli er Circuits

6.3 Analog Math with Ampli ers. Mixers

6.4 Positive Feedback. Comparators and Triggers

6.5 Oscillators

6.5.1 Relaxation Oscillator

6.5.2 Advanced Topic. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

6.5.3 Advanced Topic. Crystal Oscillators

6.6 Active Frequency Filters

6.6.1 Arti cial Inductors

6.6.2 Single Op-Amp Filters

6.6.3 Advanced Topic. Cascaded and Optimized Filters

6.6.4 Advanced Topic. Tunable Bandpass Filter

6.7 Application: Feedback to Keep a Signal Constant

6.8 Open-Collector Comparators and Transistor Logic

6.9 Understanding the Equipment: Timing Electronics

6.10 The Physics of Lithography

6.11 Extra Problems


7 Digital Logic


7.1 Combinatorial Logic

7.2 Bistable Circuits and Dynamic Memory

7.3 Flip Flops

7.4 Registers. The Concept of Information

7.5 Binary Math. Addition Registers

7.6 Counters and Sequential Logic. Timing Diagrams

7.6.1 Ripple Counter

7.6.2 Advanced Topic. 555 Timer

7.7 Analog Versus Digital Information

7.8 D/A and A/D Conversion. Successive Approximation Register

7.9 Advanced Topic. Phase-Locked Loop

7.10 Application: Homodyne and Heterodyne Experiments

7.11 AM and FM Communication

7.12 Understanding the Equipment: Lock-In Detector

7.13 Understanding the Equipment: Sampling Scope

7.14 Extra Problems


8 Processors and Computers


8.1 State Machines and Turing Machines

8.2 Buses, Three-State Logic, and Handshaking

8.3 Memory Addressing

8.4 Basic CPU Elements

8.5 Advanced Topic. Machine Language Programming

8.6 Memory

8.6.1 RAM and ROM

8.6.2 Magnetic Memory

8.7 Advanced Topic. Energy Cost of Information

8.8 Understanding the Equipment: Parallel and Serial Buses

8.9 Error Correction in Communication

8.10 Application: General Concepts of Computer Control of Equipment

8.11 Extra Problems


9 Interfaces to the Non-Electronic World


9.1 Light Detection and Emission

9.1.1 Wave Quantization and Photons

9.1.2 Incandescent Light Sources

9.1.3 Fluorescent Light Sources and Spark Gaps

9.1.4 Photodiodes and LEDs

9.1.5 Solar Cells

9.1.6 Lasers

9.1.7 Avalanche Photon Detectors

9.2 Understanding the Equipment: Discriminators and Counters

9.3 Application: Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting

9.4 Particle Detectors

9.5 Understanding the Equipment: Multichannel Analyzer

9.6 Imaging

9.6.1 CCD Imagers

9.6.2 LCD Displays

9.6.3 Other Displays

9.7 Electrical Control of Motion

9.7.1 AC motors

9.7.2 Solenoids, Stepper Motors, and Galvos

9.7.3 Sound systems

9.7.4 Piezoelectrics

9.8 Touch Sensors

9.9 Extra Problems


10 Coherent Electronics


10.1 Basic Wave Properties of Electrons

10.1.1 Time-Dependent Schr¨odinger Equation

10.1.2 Electron Coherence Length

10.1.3 Fermi Velocity of Electrons

10.2 Ohm’s Law Revisited. Bloch Oscillations and Dephasing

10.2.1 Drude Model for a Fermi Gas

10.2.2 Bragg Re ection and Bloch Oscillations

10.2.3 Advanced Topic. Quantitative Derivation of Bloch Oscillations

10.3 Advanced Topic. Anderson Localization

10.4 Electron Interference in Mesoscopic Circuits

10.4.1 Controlled Electron Interference

10.4.2 The Aharanov-Bohm Eżect

10.4.3 Advanced Topic. Equivalence of the Electric and Magnetic AB Eżects

10.5 Superconductors

10.5.1 Boson Coherence and Fermion Pairing 

10.5.2 Cooper Pairing

10.5.3 Josephson Junctions

10.5.4 Magnetic Properties of Superconductors

10.5.5 Flux Quantization and SQUIDs 

10.5.6 Type I and Type II Superconductors

10.6 Extra Problems 621


11 Nanoelectronics


11.1 Quantum Con nement

11.2 MOSFETs and the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

11.3 Quantum Hall Eżects

11.3.1 Cyclotron Orbitals and Magnetoresistance

11.3.2 Landau Levels in Magnetic Field

11.3.3 Shubnikov-De Haas and de Haas-van Alphen Oscillations

11.3.4 The Integer Quantum Hall Eżect

11.3.5 Advanced Topic. The Fractional Quantum Hall Eżect

11.4 Quantum Wires 

11.5 Quantum Dots

11.5.1 Coulomb Blockade

11.5.2 Single Photon Emitters

11.6 Spin Electronics

11.7 Advanced Topic. Quantum Computing Concepts

11.8 Extra Problems

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