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Elementary Science Methods With Infotrac: A Constructivist Approach,9780534556495

Elementary Science Methods With Infotrac: A Constructivist Approach

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534556495

ISBN10:
0534556493
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/16/2002
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $90.33

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Summary

This popular text is the first science methods book to truly practice what it preaches, using a constructivist approach to guide students in learning how to teach in a constructivist manner. The text includes a wealth of open-ended inquiry activities, such as "Constructing Your Ideas," for students to complete in class. These activities help students to construct their own personal conceptualizations about teaching science in the elementary school. This text also features over 170 process-oriented activities for children, including "Constructing Science in the Classroom" and "In the Schools," each keyed to grade levels, and each open-ended, so teachers can encourage children to develop and perform their own investigations. All activities are linked to National Science Education Standards for appropriate content, professional development, assessment, and teaching, and the activities contain suggestions of appropriate accompanying children's literature. Martin's text takes the approach that it is more important for children to learn how to do science than it is for them to learn about science. Children learn how to do science by mastering the scientific processes and applying them in inquiries into scientific questions. Employing the constructivist approach, teachers help children form personally-constructed meanings from their own experience and thought. The text is predicated on the reality that teachers of elementary science do not need to know a great deal of science to be good science teachers, but need to be co-inquirers with their students.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
To the Student xvii
PART 1 Constructing the Elementary Science Program 1(350)
The Science Education Imperative
3(33)
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?
4(6)
Amount of Science Known Today
5(1)
Obsolescence of Scientific Knowledge
6(1)
Changing Scientific Knowledge
7(1)
How Much Science Does the Elementary Science Teacher Need to Know?
7(3)
Right and Wrong
10(6)
Recognizing the Unexpected
11(2)
Perception
13(2)
Listening
15(1)
The Processes of Science
16(5)
Using the Processes of Science
17(1)
History of the Process Approach to Science Education
18(3)
Ownership of Knowledge and Thought
21(7)
Mystery Box
22(2)
Ownership
24(1)
Valuing Children's Thinking
24(4)
Attitudes About Science and Attitudes About Science Teaching
28(4)
Teacher Beliefs
28(4)
Metaphors
32(1)
Research in Science Education
32(1)
Conclusion
33(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
33(1)
Notes
33(1)
References
33(3)
Science Education Today
36(24)
The Nature of Science
37(12)
Characteristics of the Scientific Enterprise
37(2)
Products of Science
39(9)
Attitudes Toward Science
48(1)
Interdisciplinary Nature of Science
49(1)
Goals of Elementary Science Education
49(6)
National Science Teachers Association
50(1)
American Association for the Advancement of Science
51(1)
National Science Education Standards
51(2)
Goals 2000: Educate America Act
53(2)
National Association for the Education of Young Children
55(1)
What do You Think?
55(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
56(1)
Notes
57(1)
References
57(3)
The Processes of Science
60(108)
Observing
61(13)
Classifying
74(12)
Communicating
86(5)
Measuring
91(15)
Length
91(3)
Volume
94(1)
Weight or Mass
95(2)
Temperature
97(1)
Time
98(2)
Metric Versus Conventional Units
100(6)
Predicting
106(6)
Inferring
112(7)
Interrelationships Among the Basic Process
119(1)
The Integrated Processes
119(1)
The Pendulum
120(6)
Identifying and Controlling Variables
126(5)
Formulating and Testing Hypotheses
131(8)
Interpreting Data
139(9)
Defining Operationally
148(3)
Experimenting
151(4)
Constructing Models
155(7)
The Process-Oriented Objective
162(1)
Conclusion
163(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
163(1)
Notes
163(1)
References
164(4)
Constructivism in Elementary Science Education
168(37)
Constructivism
170(8)
Prior Beliefs
172(1)
Conceptual Change
173(1)
Cognitive Disequilibration
174(2)
Validity of Self-Constructed Conceptualizations
176(2)
Inquiry
178(2)
Constructivism and Science Learning
178(2)
Piaget, the Constructivist
180(16)
Mechanism of Constructing Knowledge
180(3)
Brain Research and the Construction of Knowledge
183(1)
Stages of Cognitive Development
183(13)
Dinosaurs and the Solar System
196(6)
Conclusion
202(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
202(1)
Notes
202(1)
References
203(2)
Inquiry
205(33)
The Expository-Discovery Continuum
206(11)
Expository Methodology
207(1)
Free-Discovery Methodology
208(3)
Guided-Inquiry Methodology
211(2)
Process-Oriented Inquiry
213(1)
Ausubel's Instructional Model
214(3)
The Expository-Discovery Continuum Revisied
217(1)
The Guided-Inquiry Lesson Plan
217(8)
Microteaching
225(2)
Is Learning Taking Place?
227(5)
Is Hands-On Minds-On?
227(1)
Deductive Versus Inductive Teaching Stylels
228(1)
Who Owns the Knowledge?
229(3)
A Different Kind of Bloom
232(3)
Conclusion
235(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
236(1)
Notes
236(1)
References
236(2)
Learner Differences
238(44)
Positions of National Organizations
239(1)
Some Differences in the Ways Children Learn
239(1)
Learning Styles
240(16)
Visual, Auditory, and Tactile/Kinesthetic Learning Modalities
241(9)
Locus of Control
250(3)
Field Dependence/Field Independence
253(2)
Teachers' Learning Styles
255(1)
Multiple Intelligences
256(2)
Science Education for Children with Disabilities
258(4)
Gender Bias
262(2)
Science Education for Language-Minority Children
264(3)
Science Education for Gifted and Talented Children
267(1)
Multicultural Factors
268(9)
Attitude in Multicultural Education
270(1)
Multicultural Methodology
270(2)
Multicultural Curriculum
272(5)
Conclusion
277(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
277(1)
Notes
277(1)
References
278(4)
Assessment
282(37)
Authentic Assessment
283(2)
What is Assessed in Elementary Science Education?
285(13)
Assessment of Process Skills
285(7)
Assessment of Inquiry
292(3)
Assessment of Attitude
295(2)
Assessment of Content
297(1)
Authentic Assessment Techniques
298(11)
Interviewing
298(2)
Journals
300(1)
Portfolios
301(6)
Assessment Techniques for Children With Special Needs
307(2)
Report Cards
309(2)
High-Stakes Testing and the Standardized Achievement Test
311(3)
Assessment of the Elementary Science Teacher and Program
314(1)
Conclusion
315(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
316(1)
Notes
316(1)
References
317(2)
The Elementary Science Classroom
319(32)
Trust
320(6)
Strategies for Successful Science Activities
326(1)
Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom
327(6)
Equipment and Materials
333(1)
Animals and Plants in the Classroom
334(1)
Family Involvement
335(1)
Classroom Organization
336(3)
Outdoor Classrooms
339(2)
Cooperative Teaching and Cooperative Learning
341(1)
Time Management
342(2)
Classroom Management
344(3)
Conclusion
347(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
347(1)
Notes
347(1)
References
348(3)
PART 2 Beyond the Science Classroom 351(158)
Reading, Writing, and Interdisciplinary Aspects
353(45)
Reading, Writing, and Literature
354(23)
Integrating Children's Literature and Science
356(12)
Science Textbooks
368(7)
The Role of Reading and Writing in Elementary Science
375(2)
Interdisciplinary Aspects
377(17)
Two Interdisciplinary Models
380(3)
Science, Technology, and Society
383(2)
Personal Bias in STS Projects
385(2)
Science Beyond the Classroom
387(7)
Conclusion
394(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
394(1)
Notes
394(1)
References
394(4)
Technology in Elementary Science Education
398(33)
Why Use Advanced Technology in Elementary Science Education?
401(2)
Computers in the Elementary Science Classroom
403(21)
A Technology Inquiry Continuum
404(1)
Tutoring Uses of Computers
405(1)
Interactive Uses of Computers
406(14)
Experimenting Uses of Computers
420(2)
Evaluating Computer Software
422(2)
Sources of Computer Software
424(1)
Video in the Elementary Science Classroom
424(1)
Technology for Teachers
425(1)
Getting Started
426(1)
Conclusion
427(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
428(1)
Notes
428(1)
References
429(2)
Concept Mapping in Elementary Science
431(16)
Exploring Concept Mapping
432(7)
Concept Mapping Technique
439(1)
Uses of Concept Maps in Elementary Science Education
440(5)
Using Concept Maps for Lesson Planning
440(2)
Using Concept Maps in Instruction
442(2)
Using Concept Maps for Assessment
444(1)
Uses of Concept Maps by Children
444(1)
Conclusion
445(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
445(1)
References
446(1)
Basic Concepts and Principles for the Elementary Science Program
447(42)
Physical Science Principles
448(18)
Force and Motion
448(5)
Heat Energy and States of Matter
453(4)
Sound
457(2)
Light
459(2)
Electricity and Magnetism
461(3)
Nuclear Energy
464(1)
Matter and Chemical Energy
465(1)
Life Science Principles
466(9)
The Nature and Diversity of Life
466(1)
The Cellular Theory of Life
467(3)
Structure and Function of Plants
470(1)
Structure and Function of Animals
471(1)
Reproduction, Life Cycles, and Heredity
471(1)
Genetics and Evolution
472(1)
Ecology
473(2)
Earth and Space Science Principles
475(13)
Structure of the Earth
475(1)
Plate Tectonics
476(1)
Constructive and Destructive Forces
477(1)
The Rock Cycle
478(2)
Weather and the Water Cycle
480(2)
Oceanography
482(1)
Historical Geology
483(2)
The Solar System
485(2)
The Universe
487(1)
Space Exploration
488(1)
References
488(1)
The Elementary Science Education Professional
489(20)
Decisions About Methodology
490(1)
Decisions About Curriculum
491(4)
The Elementary Science Teacher as Researcher
495(4)
Professional Organizations
499(3)
Science Education Organizations
500(1)
Early Childhood Education Organizations
501(1)
Professional Workshops and Seminars
502(1)
Grants
503(2)
Excellence in Science Teaching
505(1)
Conclusion
506(1)
Additional Questions for Discussion
506(1)
Notes
506(1)
Web Site Addresses for Professional Science Education Organizations
507(1)
References
507(2)
PART 3 Back to the Future 509(18)
A Model of Teaching by Listening
511(16)
The Need for a Different Model
513(1)
A Model of Teaching by Listening
514(9)
Topic Selection Phase
516(1)
Plan of Action Phase
517(2)
Activity Phase
519(1)
Evaluation Phase
520(1)
The Next Cycle
520(3)
Management
523(1)
Concluding Remarks
523(2)
Notes
525(1)
References
525(2)
Appendix A Activities Cross-Referenced To Basic Scientific Concepts and Principles 527(3)
Appendix B Listing of Children's Literature 530(3)
Appendix C Prominent Women in Science 533(3)
Glossary 536(5)
Index 541


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