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Elementary Statistics

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534356767

ISBN10:
0534356761
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/27/1999
Publisher(s):
Duxbury Press

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 8th edition with a publication date of 8/27/1999.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

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Summary

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS, Eighth Edition offers comprehensive coverage of elementary statistics in a language that speaks to today's students. This text goes beyond formulas, offering 'real-world' data and examples that present statistics as a useful tool in real-world applications, e.g. physical and social sciences, business, and engineering. The authors promote the learning of statistics in a context that relates to personal experience. ELEMENTARY STATISTICS features modern ideas by integrating the use of computer output and instruction for every exercise.

Table of Contents

Part One DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 1(29)
Sir Francis Galton
Statistics
4(25)
Chapter Outline
4(1)
Chapter Case Study Americans, Here's Looking at You
5(1)
Chapter Objectives
6(1)
What is Statistics?
6(5)
Measuring Physical Discomfort
6(1)
Explaining One of Life's Mysteries
7(1)
Telling Us ``What We Think''
8(1)
Statistics Is Tricky Business
8(1)
Describing Our Romance With the Road
9(2)
Introduction to Basic Terms
11(8)
Eating Together: Still Important
16(3)
Measurability and Variability
19(1)
Data Collection
19(7)
Rain Again This Weekend!
21(1)
Are We Treated Equally?
22(4)
Comparison of Probability and Statistics
26(1)
Statistics and Technology
27(2)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 29(7)
In Retrospect
29(1)
Chapter Exercises
30(1)
Vocabulary and Key Concepts
31(1)
Chapter Practice Test
32(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
32(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
33(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
33(1)
Descriptive Analysis and Presentation of Single-Variable Data
34(2)
Chapter Outline
34(1)
Chapter Case Study Describing the Commute to Work Is Not Simple
35(1)
Chapter Objectives
36(1)
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF DATA 36(30)
Graphs, Pareto Diagrams, and Stem-and-Leaf Displays
36(15)
Qualitative Data
37(4)
Quantitative Data
41(10)
Frequency Distributions and Histograms
51(15)
The Age of Talk
53(13)
NUMERICAL DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 66(46)
Measures of Central Tendency
66(9)
``Average'' Means Different Things
71(4)
Measures of Dispersion
75(9)
Mean and Standard Deviation of Frequency Distribution
84(8)
Measures of Position
92(10)
Interpreting and Understanding Standard Deviation
102(6)
Test for Normality
104(4)
The Art of Statistical Deception
108(4)
Good Arithmetic, Bad Statistics
109(1)
Insufficient Information
109(1)
The Information That Was Almost Presented
109(1)
Truncated Vertical Scale
110(1)
Claiming Rapid Growth
110(1)
Nonhorizontal Horizontal Axis
110(1)
Increasing the Increase
110(1)
Variable Scales
111(1)
S-t-r-e-t-c-h-i-n-g the Graph
111(1)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 112(54)
In Retrospect
112(1)
Chapter Exercises
113(11)
Vocabulary List
124(1)
Chapter Practice Test
124(4)
PART I: Knowing the Definitions
124(1)
PART II: Applying the Concepts
125(1)
PART III: Understanding the Concepts
126(2)
Descriptive Analysis and Presentation of Bivariate Data
128(38)
Chapter Outline
128(1)
Chapter Case Study How Do You Spend Your Time?
129(1)
Chapter Objectives
130(1)
Bivariate Data
131(14)
Two Qualitative Variables
131(1)
Percentages Based on the Grand Total (Entire Sample)
132(1)
Percentages Based on Row Totals
133(1)
Percentages Based on Column Totals
134(1)
One Qualitative and One Quantitative Variable
134(3)
Two Quantitative Variables
137(1)
Paid Vacation Days
138(7)
Linear Correlation
145(8)
Understanding the Linear Correlation Coefficient
149(1)
Points and Fouls in Basketball
150(3)
Linear Regression
153(13)
Making Predictions
159(2)
Understanding the Line of Best Fit
161(1)
Thirty-five Years of Car Prices and Income
162(4)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 166
In Retrospect
166(1)
Chapter Exercises
167(4)
Vocabulary List
171(1)
Chapter Practice Test
171(3)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
171(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
172(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
173(1)
Working with Your Own Data
174
Single Variable Data
174(1)
Bivariate Data
174
Part Two PROBABILITY 177(200)
Karl Pearson
Probability
178(22)
Chapter Outline
178(1)
Chapter Case Study Lotteries Are Big Business
179(1)
Chapter Objectives
180(1)
Concepts of Probability
180(1)
The Nature of Probability
180(3)
Probability of Events
183(5)
Simple Sample Spaces
188(6)
Rules of Probability
194(6)
Odds
196(1)
Trying to Beat the Odds
197(1)
Complement of an Event
197(3)
CALCULATING PROBABILITIES OF COMPOUND EVENTS 200(25)
Mutually Exclusive Events and the Addition Rule
200(6)
Mutually Exclusive Events
200(2)
Addition Rule
202(4)
Independence, the Multiplication Rule, and Conditional Probability
206(10)
Independence and Conditional Probabilities
207(3)
Multiplication Rule
210(2)
New York PICK 10
212(4)
Combining the Rules of Probability
216(9)
Is What You Read, What Was Printed?
222(3)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 225(44)
In Retrospect
226(1)
Chapter Exercises
226(6)
Vocabulary List
232(1)
Chapter Practice Test
232(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
232(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
232(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
233(1)
Probability Distributions (Discrete Variables)
234(35)
Chapter Outline
234(1)
Family Values and Family Togetherness
235(1)
Chapter Objectives
236(1)
Random Variables
236(2)
Probability Distributions of a Discrete Random Variable
238(8)
Who Needs the Ambulance?
242(4)
Mean and Variance of a Discrete Probability Distribution
246(4)
The Binomial Probability Distribution
250(14)
Mean and Standard Deviation of the Binomial Distribution
264(5)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 269(41)
In Retrospect
269(1)
Chapter Exercises
270(3)
Vocabulary List and Key Concepts
273(1)
Chapter Practice Test
274(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
274(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
274(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
274(2)
Normal Probability Distributions
276(34)
Chapter Outline
276(2)
Measures of Intelligence
278(1)
Chapter Objectives
278(1)
Normal Probability Distributions
278(1)
The Standard Normal Distribution
279(7)
Applications of Normal Distributions
286(13)
A Predictive Failure Cost Tool
288(11)
Notation
299(5)
Normal Approximation of the Binomial
304(6)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 310(27)
In Retrospect
310(1)
Chapter Exercises
311(3)
Vocabulary List
314(1)
Chapter Practice Test
315(1)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
315(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
315(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
315(1)
Sample Variability
316(21)
Chapter Outline
316(1)
Galluping Attitudes
317(1)
Chapter Objectives
318(1)
Sampling Distributions
318(6)
Average Aircraft Age
322(2)
The Central Limit Theorem
324(7)
Application of the Central Limit Theorem
331(6)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 337
In Retrospect
337(1)
Chapter Exercises
338(4)
Vocabulary List
342(1)
Chapter Practice Test
342(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
342(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
343(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
343(1)
Working with Your Own Data
344
The Population
344(1)
The Sampling Distribution, Theoretically
344(1)
The Sampling Distribution, Empirically
344
Part Three INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 347(404)
William Gosset
Introduction to Statistical Inferences
348(56)
Chapter Outline
348(1)
Holiday Spending
349(1)
Chapter Objectives
350(1)
The Nature of Estimation
350(4)
Gallup Report: Sampling Tolerances
353(1)
Estimation of Mean μ (σ Known)
354(12)
Rockies Snow Brings Little Water
359(3)
Sample Size
362(4)
The Nature of Hypothesis Testing
366(7)
Evaluation of Teaching Techniques
369(4)
Hypothesis Test of Mean μ (σ Known): A Probability-Value Approach
373(16)
Hypothesis Test of Mean μ (σ Known): A Classical Approach
389(15)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 404(59)
In Retrospect
405(1)
Chapter Exercises
406(5)
Vocabulary List
411(1)
Chapter Practice Test
412(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
412(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
412(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
413(1)
Inferences Involving One Population
414(49)
Chapter Outline
414(1)
Paying Their Own Way
415(1)
Chapter Objectives
416(1)
Inferences About Mean μ (σ Unknown):
416(18)
Confidence Interval Procedure
421(3)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
424(5)
Mother's Use of Personal Pronouns When Talking with Toddlers
429(5)
Inferences About the Binomial Probability of Success
434(17)
Confidence Interval Procedure
436(4)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
440(4)
The Methods Behind the Polling Madness
444(7)
Inferences About Variance and Standard Deviation
451(12)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
454(9)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 463(62)
In Retrospect
463(2)
Chapter Exercises
465(3)
Vocabulary List
468(1)
Chapter Practice Test
469(3)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
469(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
469(2)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
471(1)
Inferences Involving Two Populations
472(53)
Chapter Outline
472(1)
Who Knows the American Flag?
473(1)
Chapter Objectives
474(1)
Independent and Dependent Samples
474(3)
Exploring the Traits of Twins
476(1)
Inferences Concerning the Mean Difference Using Two Dependent Samples
477(13)
Confidence Interval Procedure
479(2)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
481(9)
Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Means Using Two Independent Samples
490(16)
Confidence Interval Procedure
491(2)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
493(6)
An Empirical Study of Faculty Evaluation Systems: Business Faculty Perceptions
499(7)
Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Proportions Using Two Independent Samples
506(8)
Confidence Interval Procedure
507(2)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
509(3)
Smokers Need More Time in Recovery Room
512(2)
Inferences Concerning the Ratio of Variances Using Two Independent Samples
514(11)
Personality Characteristics of Police Academy Applicants
522(3)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 525
In Retrospect
525(1)
Chapter Exercises
526(5)
Vocabulary List
531(1)
Chapter Practice Test
532(1)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
532(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
532(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
533(1)
Working with Your Own Data
534
A High-Speed Filling Operation
535(1)
Your Own Investigation
535
Part Four MORE INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 537(566)
Sir Ronald A. Fisher
Applications of Chi-Square
538(28)
Chapter Outline
538(1)
Cooling Your Mouth After a Great Hot Taste
539(1)
Chapter Objectives
539(1)
Chi-Square Statistic
540(2)
Inferences Concerning Multionmial Experiments
542(11)
Why We Rearrange Furniture
547(1)
Why People Volunteer
548(5)
Inferences Concerning Contingency Tables
553(13)
Test of Independence
553(5)
Test of Homogeneity
558(1)
Westerners Bake Their Spuds
559(1)
Why We Don't Exercise
560(6)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 566(29)
In Retrospect
566(1)
Chapter Exercises
567(5)
Vocabulary List
572(1)
Chapter Practice Test
572(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
572(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
572(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
573(1)
Analysis of Variance
574(21)
Chapter Outline
574(1)
Time Spent Reading the Newspaper
575(1)
Chapter Objectives
576(1)
Introduction to the Analysis of Variance Technique
576(6)
The Logic Behind Anova
582(2)
Applications of Single-Factor Anova
584(11)
High School Homework Time
584(1)
A Time for Giving
585(10)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 595(54)
In Retrospect
596(1)
Chapter Exercises
596(7)
Vocabulary List
603(1)
Chapter Practice Test
603(3)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
603(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
604(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
605(1)
Linear Correlation and Regression Analysis
606(43)
Chapter Outline
606(1)
Charting the Pounds
607(1)
Chapter Objectives
608(1)
Linear Correlation Analysis
608(6)
Inferences About the Linear Correlation Coefficient
614(9)
Confidence Interval Procedure
614(2)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
616(2)
DNA Quantitation by Image Cytometry of Touch Preparation from Fresh and Frozen Tissue
618(5)
Linear Regression Analysis
623(6)
Inferences Concerning the Slope of the Regression Line
629(10)
Confidence Interval Procedure
630(1)
Hypothesis-Testing Procedure
631(1)
Reexamining the Use of Seriousness Weights in an Index of Crime
631(8)
Confidence Interval Estimates for Regression
639(9)
Understanding the relationship Between Correlation and Regression
648(1)
Hotel Chains Cutting Staff to Boost Profits
649(1)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 649(51)
In Retrospect
649(1)
Chapter Exercises
650(5)
Vocabulary List
655(1)
Chapter Practice Test
656(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
656(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
656(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
657(1)
Elements of Nonparametric Statistics
658(42)
Chapter Outline
658(1)
Men and Women in the Workplace
659(1)
Chaper Objectives
660(1)
Nonparametric Statistics
660(1)
Comparing Statistical Tests
660(1)
The Sign Test
661(13)
Single-Sample Confidence Interval Procedure
662(1)
Single-Sample Hypothesis Test Procedure
662(3)
Two-Sample Hypothesis Test Procedure
665(2)
Normal Approximation
667(7)
The Mann-Whitney U Test
674(10)
Hypothesis Test Procedure
674(4)
Normal Approximation
678(4)
Health Beliefs and Practices of Runners versus Nonrunners
682(2)
The Runs Test
684(7)
Normal Approximation
687(4)
Rank Correlation
691(9)
Effects of Therapeutic Touch on Tension Headache Pain
697(3)
RETURN TO CHAPTER CASE STUDY 700(11)
In Retrospect
701(1)
Chapter Exercises
701(5)
Vocabulary List
706(1)
Chapter Practice Test
707(2)
Part I: Knowing the Definitions
707(1)
Part II: Applying the Concepts
707(1)
Part III: Understanding the Concepts
708(1)
Working with Your Own Data
709(2)
The Age and Value of Peggy's Car
709(1)
Your Own Investigation
710(1)
APPENDIX A BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COUNTING 711(8)
APPENDIX B TABLES 719
1. Random Numbers
719(2)
2. Binomial Probabilities
721(3)
3. Areas of the Standard Normal Distribution
724(1)
4. Critical Values of Standard Normal Distribution
725(1)
5. P-Values for Standard Normal Distribution
726(1)
6. Critical Values of Student's t-Distribution
727(1)
7. Probability-Values for Student's t-Distribution
728(1)
8. Critical Values of x2 (Chi-Square) Distribution
729(1)
9a. Critical Values of the F Distribution (α = 0.05)
730(2)
9b. Critical Values of the F Distribution (α = 0.025)
732(2)
9c. Critical Values of the F Distribution (α = 0.01)
734(2)
10. Confidence Belts for the Correlation Coefficient, 1-α = 0.95
736(1)
11. Critical Values of r When p = 0
737(1)
12. Critical Values of the Sign Test
738(1)
13. Critical Values of U in the Mann-Whitney Test
739(1)
14. Critical Values for Total Number of Runs (V)
740(1)
15. Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient
741
Answers to Selected Exercises A1(1)
Answers to Practice Tests A42(1)
Computer and Calculator Instructions I1(1)
Index I2(1)
Credits I8(1)
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