Preface 

vii  

The Nature of Probability and Statistics 


1  (22) 

Are We Improving Our Diet? 


2  (1) 


2  (2) 


4  (1) 

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 


4  (3) 


5  (1) 


6  (1) 

Variables and Types of Data 


7  (3) 


8  (2) 

Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 


10  (5) 


11  (1) 

Surviving Bad Days at Work 


12  (1) 


12  (1) 

How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home Together? 


13  (1) 


13  (1) 


13  (1) 


14  (1) 


15  (1) 

Computers and Calculators 


15  (1) 


15  (8) 

Frequency Distributions and Graphs 


23  (48) 


24  (1) 


25  (1) 


25  (11) 

Categorical Frequency Distributions 


26  (1) 

Ungrouped Frequency Distributions 


27  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions 


28  (8) 

Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 


36  (11) 


37  (1) 


38  (1) 


39  (3) 

Computer Applications for Histograms 


42  (1) 

Relative Frequency Graphs 


42  (5) 


47  (13) 


47  (2) 


49  (1) 

Pennsylvania Coal Production 


50  (1) 


51  (3) 


54  (4) 

Costliest Big Cities for Driving 


58  (2) 


60  (11) 


61  (10) 


71  (75) 

Who is a Typical FirstTime Home Buyer? 


72  (1) 


73  (1) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


74  (24) 


74  (1) 


75  (2) 


77  (4) 


81  (4) 


85  (1) 

Study: Pittsburgh Has Lowest Median Rents 


86  (3) 


89  (1) 


89  (1) 


90  (3) 


93  (5) 


98  (17) 


98  (2) 

Variance and Standard Deviation 


100  (2) 


102  (2) 

Finding the Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 


104  (3) 


107  (1) 


108  (2) 

The Empirical (Normal) Rule 


110  (5) 


115  (12) 


115  (1) 


116  (7) 


123  (1) 


123  (2) 

Computer Applications for Descriptive Statistics 


125  (2) 

Exploratory Data Analysis 


127  (8) 


128  (2) 

Computer Applications for Stem and Leaf Displays 


130  (1) 


130  (4) 

Computer Application for Box Plots 


134  (1) 


135  (11) 


146  (18) 

Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers? 


147  (1) 


148  (1) 

Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Counting Tree Diagrams 


148  (5) 


148  (2) 

The Multiplication Rule for Counting 


150  (3) 

Permutations and Combinations 


153  (6) 


153  (1) 


153  (2) 


155  (4) 


159  (5) 


164  (41) 


165  (1) 


166  (1) 

Sample Spaces and Probability 


166  (13) 


166  (3) 


169  (1) 

Rounding Rule for Probabilities 


170  (1) 


171  (2) 


173  (2) 


175  (1) 


176  (3) 

The Addition Rules for Probability 


179  (7) 

The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 


186  (12) 


186  (4) 


190  (3) 

Probabilities for ``At Least'' 


193  (5) 


198  (7) 

Probability Distributions 


205  (20) 


206  (1) 


206  (1) 

Probability Distributions 


207  (4) 

Mean, Variance, and Expectation 


211  (9) 


211  (1) 


212  (2) 


214  (2) 


216  (4) 

The Binomial Distribution 


220  (8) 


228  


225  (55) 


236  (1) 


236  (2) 

Properties of the Normal Distribution 


238  (2) 

The Standard Normal Distribution 


240  (13) 

Finding Areas under the Normal Distribution Curve 


241  (8) 

The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 


249  (4) 

Applications of the Normal Distribution 


253  (9) 

Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 


257  (5) 

The Central Limit Theorem 


262  (9) 

Distribution of Sample Means 


262  (9) 

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 


271  (6) 


277  (3) 

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 


280  (42) 

Would You Change the Channel? 


285  (1) 


286  (1) 

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ Known or n ≥ 30) and Sample Size 


287  (10) 


287  (6) 

Computer Applications for z Confidence Interval for a Mean 


293  (1) 


294  (3) 

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ Unknown and n < 30) 


297  (6) 

Computer Applications for t Confidence Interval for a Mean 


301  (2) 

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 


303  (7) 


304  (1) 


305  (1) 

Sample Size for Proportions 


306  (2) 


308  (2) 

Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 


310  (4) 


314  (8) 


322  (54) 

How Much Better Is Better? 


323  (1) 


324  (1) 

Steps in Hypothesis Testing 


324  (11) 


335  (11) 

Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacks 


336  (4) 


340  (3) 

Computer Application for a z Test for a Single Mean 


343  (3) 


346  (7) 

Computer Application for a t Test for a Single Mean 


351  (2) 


353  (5) 

Variance or Standard Deviation Test 


358  (7) 

Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 


365  (3) 


368  (8) 

Testing the Difference among Means, Variances, and Proportions 


376  (56) 

To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? Small or Large? 


377  (1) 


377  (1) 

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samples 


378  (7) 

Testing the Difference between Two Variances 


385  (7) 

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 


392  (7) 

Computer Application for t Test for the Difference of Two Means: Independent Samples 


397  (2) 

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 


399  (11) 

Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boys 


400  (7) 

Computer Applications for t Test for Dependent Samples 


407  (1) 


408  (2) 

Testing the Difference between Proportions 


410  (6) 


411  (5) 


416  (16) 


417  (14) 

HypothesisTesting Summary 1 


431  (1) 

Correlation and Regression 


432  (41) 

Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health? 


433  (1) 


433  (1) 


434  (4) 


438  (10) 


438  (3) 

The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 


441  (3) 

Correlation and Causation 


444  (1) 

Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Says 


445  (3) 


448  (8) 


448  (1) 

Determination of the Regression Line Equation 


449  (4) 


453  (3) 

Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimate 


456  (9) 

Types of Variation for the Regression Model 


456  (2) 

Coefficient of Determination 


458  (1) 

Standard Error of Estimate 


459  (2) 


461  (2) 

Computer Applications for Correlation and Regression 


463  (2) 


465  (8) 

ChiSquare and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 


473  (43) 


474  (1) 


474  (1) 


475  (10) 


481  (2) 

Computer Applications for the GoodnessofFit Test 


483  (2) 

Test Using Contingency Tables 


485  (13) 


485  (1) 


486  (1) 

Computation of Expected Frequencies 


486  (1) 


486  (5) 

Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 


491  (2) 

Computer Applications for the Independence and Homogeneity of Proportions Tests 


493  (1) 

At Least They're Checking for Radon 


494  (4) 

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 


498  (9) 

Computer Applications for OneWay ANOVA 


504  (3) 


507  (9) 

HypothesisTesting Summary 2 


516  
Appendix A Algebra Review 

A  
Appendix B Writing the Research Report 

B1  
Appendix C Tables 

C  
Appendix D Data Bank 

D  
Appendix E Glossary 

E  
Appendix F Bibliography 

F1  
Appendix G Photo Credits 

G1  
Appendix H Selected Answers 

H  
Index 
