Preface 

xiii  

The Nature of Probability and Statistics 


1  (30) 


2  (1) 

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 


3  (3) 

Variables and Types of Data 


6  (2) 

Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 


8  (4) 


10  (1) 


10  (1) 


11  (1) 


11  (1) 


12  (1) 

Observational and Experimental Studies 


12  (3) 

Uses and Misuses of Statistics 


15  (2) 


15  (1) 


15  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (1) 

Computers and Calculators 


17  (6) 


23  (8) 

Frequency Distributions and Graphs 


31  (68) 


33  (1) 


33  (12) 

Categorical Frequency Distributions 


34  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions 


35  (10) 

Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 


45  (16) 


47  (1) 


47  (2) 


49  (2) 

Relative Frequency Graphs 


51  (3) 


54  (7) 


61  (22) 


61  (1) 


62  (2) 


64  (4) 


68  (3) 


71  (12) 

Paired Data and Scatter Plots 


83  (7) 

Analyzing the Scatter Plot 


84  (6) 


90  (9) 


99  (72) 


100  (1) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


101  (17) 


102  (3) 


105  (2) 


107  (2) 


109  (1) 


110  (2) 


112  (6) 


118  (17) 


119  (1) 

Population Variance and Standard Deviation 


120  (2) 

Sample Variance and Standard Deviation 


122  (2) 

Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 


124  (3) 


127  (1) 


128  (2) 

The Empirical (Normal) Rule 


130  (5) 


135  (19) 


135  (1) 


136  (7) 


143  (1) 


144  (10) 

Exploratory Data Analysis 


154  (8) 

The FiveNumber Summary and Boxplots 


154  (8) 


162  (9) 

Probability and Counting Rules 


171  (58) 


172  (1) 

Sample Spaces and Probability 


173  (14) 


173  (3) 


176  (3) 


179  (1) 


180  (2) 


182  (1) 


183  (1) 

Probability and Risk Taking 


183  (4) 

The Addition Rules for Probability 


187  (10) 

The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 


197  (11) 


197  (5) 


202  (2) 

Probabilities for ``At Least'' 


204  (4) 


208  (10) 

The Fundamental Counting Rule 


209  (2) 


211  (1) 


211  (1) 


212  (6) 

Probability and Counting Rules 


218  (4) 


222  (7) 

Discrete Probability Distributions 


229  (34) 


230  (1) 

Probability Distributions 


231  (4) 

Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Expectation 


235  (10) 


235  (3) 

Variance and Standard Deviation 


238  (2) 


240  (5) 

The Binomial Distribution 


245  (13) 


258  (5) 


263  (58) 


264  (2) 

Properties of the Normal Distribution 


266  (1) 

The Standard Normal Distribution 


267  (16) 

Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 


269  (7) 

The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 


276  (7) 

Applications of the Normal Distribution 


283  (14) 

Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 


287  (2) 


289  (8) 

The Central Limit Theorem 


297  (10) 

Distribution of Sample Means 


297  (7) 

Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) 


304  (3) 

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 


307  (6) 


313  (8) 

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 


321  (40) 


322  (1) 

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ Known or n ≥ 30) and Sample Size 


323  (13) 


324  (6) 


330  (6) 

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ Unknown and n < 30) 


336  (6) 

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 


342  (8) 


344  (1) 

Sample Size for Proportions 


345  (5) 

Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 


350  (5) 


355  (6) 


361  (64) 


362  (1) 

Steps in Hypothesis TestingTraditional Method 


363  (11) 


374  (14) 

pValue Method for Hypothesis Testing 


379  (9) 


388  (9) 


397  (7) 

x2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation 


404  (12) 

Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 


416  (2) 


418  (7) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions 


425  (62) 


426  (1) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Large Samples 


427  (11) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Variances 


438  (10) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 


448  (10) 

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 


458  (12) 

Testing the Difference Between Proportions 


470  (7) 


477  (10) 

HypothesisTesting Summary 1 


484  (3) 

Correlation and Regression 


487  (40) 


488  (1) 


489  (11) 


491  (1) 

Correlation and Causation 


492  (1) 

The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 


493  (7) 


500  (13) 


500  (2) 

Determination of the Regression Line Equation 


502  (11) 

Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of the Estimate 


513  (7) 

Types of Variation for the Regression Model 


513  (2) 

Coefficient of Determination 


515  (1) 

Standard Error of the Estimate 


516  (2) 


518  (2) 


520  (7) 

ChiSquare and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 


527  (48) 


528  (1) 


529  (12) 

Test of Normality (Optional) 


534  (7) 

Tests Using Contingency Tables 


541  (14) 


541  (5) 

Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 


546  (9) 

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 


555  (12) 


567  (8) 

HypothesisTesting Summary 2 


574  (1) 
appendix A Algebra Review 

575  (6) 
appendix B1 Writing the Research Report 

581  (2) 
appendix B2 Alternate Approach to the Standard Normal Distribution 

583  (4) 
appendix C Tables 

587  (18) 
appendix D Data Bank 

605  (8) 
appendix E Glossary 

613  (6) 
appendix F Bibliography 

619  (2) 
appendix G Photo Credits 

621  (2) 
appendix H Selected Answers 

623  (34) 
index 

657  
instructor's section Instructor's Edition Only 

1  