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Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research,9780205333738
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Elementary Statistics in Criminal Justice Research

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205333738

ISBN10:
0205333737
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $126.00
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Summary

The best-selling book, Elementary Statistics in Social Research, 7/e, has been adapted to provide a broad and accessible introduction to statistics for criminal justice enthusiasts. This straightforward book written specifically for criminal justice helps readers who do not have a strong background in mathematics, make sense of statistics. For anyone interested in statistics related to criminal justice.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Why the Criminal Justice Researcher Uses Statistics
1(22)
The Nature of Criminal Justice Research
1(5)
Major Data Sources in Criminology and Criminal Justice
6(1)
Why Test Hypotheses?
7(1)
The Stages of Criminal Justice Research
8(1)
Using Series of Numbers to Do Criminal Justice Research
9(4)
Functions of Statistics
13(5)
Summary
18(1)
Terms to Remember
19(1)
Questions and Problems
19(4)
Looking at the Larger Picture A Student Survey
21(2)
PART ONE Description 23(98)
Organizing the Data
25(48)
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
25(1)
Comparing Distributions
26(1)
Proportions and Percentages
27(1)
Ratios and Rates
28(3)
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
31(1)
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
32(3)
Cumulative Distributions
35(2)
Percentile Ranks
37(6)
Dealing with Decimal Data
43(2)
Flexible Class Intervals
45(1)
Cross-Tabulations
46(7)
Graphic Presentations
53(14)
Summary
67(1)
Terms to Remember
68(1)
Questions and Problems
68(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
73(22)
The Mode
73(1)
The Median
74(1)
The Mean
75(4)
Taking One Step at a Time
79(1)
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
80(4)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution
84(3)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
87(2)
Summary
89(1)
Terms to Remember
90(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores
90(1)
Questions and Problems
91(4)
Measures of Variability
95(26)
The Range
96(1)
The Mean Deviation
97(2)
The Variance and Standard Deviation
99(4)
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
103(2)
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
105(3)
Comparing Measures of Variability
108(1)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution
109(3)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
112(2)
Summary
114(1)
Terms to Remember
114(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores
114(1)
Questions and Problems
115(6)
Looking at the Larger Picture Describing Data
118(3)
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 121(72)
Probability and the Normal Curve
123(33)
Rules of Probability
124(3)
Probability Distributions
127(4)
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
131(1)
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
131(1)
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
132(2)
The Area under the Normal Curve
134(6)
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
140(3)
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
143(4)
Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
147(4)
Summary
151(1)
Terms to Remember
151(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve
151(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
151(1)
Questions and Problems
152(4)
Samples and Populations
156(37)
Sampling Methods
157(4)
Sampling Error
161(1)
Sampling Distribution of Means
162(7)
Standard Error of the Mean
169(1)
Confidence Intervals
170(6)
The t Distribution
176(7)
Estimating Proportions
183(3)
Summary
186(1)
Terms to Remember
186(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z
186(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Usin t
187(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion
188(1)
Questions and Problems
188(5)
Looking at the Larger Picture Generalizing from Samples to Populations
191(2)
PART THREE Decision Making 193(114)
Testing Differences between Means
195(43)
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
197(1)
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
198(1)
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
198(4)
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
202(4)
Levels of Significance
206(4)
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
210(1)
Testing the Difference between Means
211(4)
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
215(4)
Two Sample Tests of Proportions
219(2)
One-Tailed Tests
221(7)
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
228(1)
Summary
229(1)
Terms to Remember
230(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups
230(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice
231(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions
232(1)
Questions and Problems
232(6)
Analysis of Variance
238(25)
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
239(2)
The Sum of Squares
241(6)
Mean Square
247(2)
The F Ratio
249(6)
A Multiple Comparison of Means
255(2)
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
257(1)
Summary
258(1)
Test to Remember
258(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance
259(1)
Questions and Problems
260(3)
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
263(44)
One-Way Chi-Square Test
264(5)
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
269(19)
The Median Test
288(3)
The Mann-Whitney U Test
291(3)
Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
294(3)
Summary
297(1)
Terms to Remember
298(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Nominal-Level Data Using Chi-Square
298(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Mann-Whitney U Test
299(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Several Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Kruskal-Wallis Test
299(1)
Questions and Problems
300(7)
Looking at the Larger Picture Testing for Differences
305(2)
PART FOUR From Decision Making to Association 307(112)
Correlation
309(25)
Strength of Correlation
309(1)
Direction of Correlation
310(1)
Curvilinear Correlation
311(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
312(1)
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
313(8)
The Importance of Scatter Plots
321(2)
Partial Correlation
323(6)
Summary
329(1)
Terms to Remember
329(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Interval-Level Variables Using Pearson's Correlation
329(1)
Questions and Problems
330(4)
Regression Analysis
334(26)
The Regression Model
335(5)
Interpreting the Regression Line
340(2)
Prediction Errors
342(4)
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
346(1)
Regression and Analysis of Variance
347(5)
Multiple Regression
352(2)
Summary
354(1)
Terms to Remember
355(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis
355(1)
Questions and Problems
356(4)
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
360(32)
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
360(7)
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
367(5)
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 X 2 Table
372(2)
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 X 2 Tables
374(3)
Lambda
377(3)
Elaboration
380(5)
Summary
385(1)
Terms to Remember
385(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Ordinal-Level Variables Using Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation
386(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Cross-Tabulated, Ordinal-Level Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
386(1)
Questions and Problems
387(5)
Looking at the Larger Picture Measuring Association
391(1)
Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
392(27)
Research Situations
394(15)
Research Solutions
409(10)
APPENDIXES 419(33)
Appendix A Selected Criminal Justice Sites on the World Wide Web
421(3)
Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
424(5)
Appendix C Tables
429(16)
Appendix D List of Formulas
445(7)
Glossary 452(7)
Answers to Problems 459(7)
Index 466


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