Preface 

xiii  

Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 


1  (22) 

The Nature of Social Research 


1  (5) 


6  (1) 

The Stages of Social Research 


7  (1) 

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research 


8  (4) 


12  (6) 


18  (1) 


18  (1) 


18  (5) 

Looking at the Larger Picture A Student Survey 


20  (3) 
PART ONE Description 

23  (100) 


25  (48) 

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data 


25  (1) 


26  (1) 

Proportions and Percentages 


27  (1) 


28  (3) 

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data 


31  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data 


32  (4) 


36  (2) 


38  (6) 

Dealing with Decimal Data 


44  (1) 


45  (2) 


47  (7) 


54  (11) 


65  (1) 


66  (1) 


66  (7) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


73  (23) 


73  (1) 


74  (1) 


75  (3) 

Taking One Step at a Time 


78  (2) 

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean 


80  (3) 

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution 


83  (3) 

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution 


86  (3) 


89  (1) 


90  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores 


90  (1) 


91  (5) 


96  (27) 


97  (1) 


98  (2) 

The Variance and Standard Deviation 


100  (4) 

The RawScore Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation 


104  (2) 

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation 


106  (3) 

Comparing Measures of Variability 


109  (1) 

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution 


110  (3) 

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution 


113  (2) 


115  (1) 


115  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores 


115  (1) 


116  (7) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Describing Data 


120  (3) 
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 

123  (72) 

Probability and the Normal Curve 


125  (33) 


126  (3) 

Probability Distributions 


129  (4) 

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution 


133  (1) 

Characteristics of the Normal Curve 


133  (1) 

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve 


134  (2) 

The Area under the Normal Curve 


136  (5) 

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve 


141  (4) 

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve 


145  (4) 

Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve 


149  (3) 


152  (1) 


152  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve 


153  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve 


153  (1) 


153  (5) 


158  (37) 


159  (4) 


163  (2) 

Sampling Distribution of Means 


165  (7) 

Standard Error of the Mean 


172  (1) 


173  (6) 


179  (6) 


185  (3) 


188  (1) 


188  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z 


188  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t 


189  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion 


190  (1) 


190  (5) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Generalizing from Samples to Populations 


193  (2) 
PART THREE Decision Making 

195  (114) 

Testing Differences between Means 


197  (43) 

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means 


199  (1) 

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means 


199  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means 


200  (4) 

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means 


204  (3) 


207  (5) 

Standard Error of the Difference between Means 


212  (1) 

Testing the Difference between Means 


213  (4) 

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice 


217  (3) 

Two Sample Tests of Proportions 


220  (3) 


223  (6) 

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means 


229  (1) 


230  (1) 


231  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups 


231  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice 


232  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions 


233  (1) 


233  (7) 


240  (25) 

The Logic of Analysis of Variance 


241  (2) 


243  (6) 


249  (2) 


251  (5) 

A Multiple Comparison of Means 


256  (3) 

Requirements for Using the F Ratio 


259  (1) 


259  (1) 


260  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance 


260  (1) 


261  (4) 

Nonparametric Tests of Significance 


265  (44) 


266  (4) 


270  (19) 


289  (2) 


291  (4) 

KruskalWallis OneWay Analysis of Variance by Ranks 


295  (3) 


298  (1) 


298  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for NominalLevel Data Using ChiSquare 


299  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for OrdinalLevel Data Using the MannWhitney U Test 


299  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Several Groups for OrdinalLevel Data Using the KruskalWallis Test 


300  (1) 


300  (9) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Testing for Differences 


307  (2) 
PART FOUR From Decision Making to Association 

309  (110) 


311  (26) 


311  (1) 


312  (1) 


313  (1) 

The Correlation Coefficient 


314  (1) 

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 


315  (8) 

The Importance of Scatter Plots 


323  (3) 


326  (5) 


331  (1) 


331  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between IntervalLevel Variables Using Pearson's Correlation 


332  (1) 


332  (5) 


337  (26) 


338  (5) 

Interpreting the Regression Line 


343  (2) 


345  (3) 

Regression and Pearson's Correlation 


348  (2) 

Regression and Analysis of Variance 


350  (4) 


354  (3) 


357  (1) 


357  (1) 

StepbyStep Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis 


358  (1) 


359  (4) 

Nonparametric Measures of Correlation 


363  (33) 

Spearman's RankOrder Correlation Coefficient 


363  (7) 

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


370  (5) 

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table 


375  (2) 

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables 


377  (3) 


380  (3) 


383  (5) 


388  (1) 


388  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between OrdinalLevel Variables Using Spearman's RankOrder Correlation 


388  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between CrossTabulated, OrdinalLevel Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


389  (1) 


389  (7) 

Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems 


396  (23) 


398  (12) 


410  (9) 
APPENDIXES 

419  (31) 

Appendix A Social Science Data on the Internet 


421  (1) 

Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics 


422  (5) 


427  (16) 

Appendix D List of Formulas 


443  (7) 
Glossary 

450  (7) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

457  (6) 
Index 

463  