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Elementary Statistics in Social Research,9780321044600
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Elementary Statistics in Social Research

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321044600

ISBN10:
0321044606
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $90.00
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Summary

This best-selling text in the field provides a broad, fluent introduction to statistics for students in the social sciences especially those with a limited background in mathematics. Focusing on the hows and whys of statistics, Levin and Fox integrate theory and practice with detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures. Clear explanations of statistical concepts are also provided. A review of basic mathematics, statistical tables, a list of formulas, and a glossary of terms are located in the appendixes at the end of the book.

Author Biography

Jack Levin is The Brudnick Professor of Sociology at Northeastern University, where he directs its Brudnick Center on Violence and Conflict. A prolific author, he appears frequently on national television, has given numerous keynote addresses to college, professional, and community audiences (including the White House), and has served as an expert witness or consultant in various trials. In 1992, the Council for Advancement and Support of Education named him Professor of the Year in Massachusetts. James Alan Fox is The Lipman Family Professor of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University. A nationally recognized authority on homicide, he often gives expert testimony and has spoken before the U.S. Congress and at the White House on many occasions. Dubbed the "Dean of Death" in a USA Today cover story, Fox also appears regularly on national television and is frequently quoted by the press. He has published numerous books, articles, and newspaper columns on a variety of topics related to crime and justice.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics
1(22)
The Nature of Social Research
1(5)
Why Test Hypotheses?
6(1)
The Stages of Social Research
7(1)
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research
8(4)
Functions of Statistics
12(6)
Summary
18(1)
Terms to Remember
18(1)
Problems
18(5)
Looking at the Larger Picture A Student Survey
20(3)
PART ONE Description 23(100)
Organizing the Data
25(48)
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
25(1)
Comparing Distributions
26(1)
Proportions and Percentages
27(1)
Ratios and Rates
28(3)
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
31(1)
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
32(4)
Cumulative Distributions
36(2)
Percentile Ranks
38(6)
Dealing with Decimal Data
44(1)
Flexible Class Intervals
45(2)
Cross-Tabulations
47(7)
Graphic Presentations
54(11)
Summary
65(1)
Terms to Remember
66(1)
Problems
66(7)
Measures of Central Tendency
73(23)
The Mode
73(1)
The Median
74(1)
The Mean
75(3)
Taking One Step at a Time
78(2)
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
80(3)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution
83(3)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
86(3)
Summary
89(1)
Terms to Remember
90(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores
90(1)
Problems
91(5)
Measures of Variability
96(27)
The Range
97(1)
The Mean Deviation
98(2)
The Variance and Standard Deviation
100(4)
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
104(2)
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
106(3)
Comparing Measures of Variability
109(1)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution
110(3)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
113(2)
Summary
115(1)
Terms to Remember
115(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores
115(1)
Problems
116(7)
Looking at the Larger Picture Describing Data
120(3)
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 123(72)
Probability and the Normal Curve
125(33)
Rules of Probability
126(3)
Probability Distributions
129(4)
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
133(1)
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
133(1)
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
134(2)
The Area under the Normal Curve
136(5)
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
141(4)
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
145(4)
Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
149(3)
Summary
152(1)
Terms to Remember
152(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve
153(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
153(1)
Problems
153(5)
Samples and Populations
158(37)
Sampling Methods
159(4)
Sampling Error
163(2)
Sampling Distribution of Means
165(7)
Standard Error of the Mean
172(1)
Confidence Intervals
173(6)
The t Distribution
179(6)
Estimating Proportions
185(3)
Summary
188(1)
Terms to Remember
188(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z
188(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t
189(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion
190(1)
Problems
190(5)
Looking at the Larger Picture Generalizing from Samples to Populations
193(2)
PART THREE Decision Making 195(114)
Testing Differences between Means
197(43)
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
199(1)
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
199(1)
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
200(4)
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
204(3)
Levels of Significance
207(5)
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
212(1)
Testing the Difference between Means
213(4)
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
217(3)
Two Sample Tests of Proportions
220(3)
One-Tailed Tests
223(6)
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
229(1)
Summary
230(1)
Terms to Remember
231(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups
231(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice
232(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions
233(1)
Problems
233(7)
Analysis of Variance
240(25)
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
241(2)
The Sum of Squares
243(6)
Mean Square
249(2)
The F Ratio
251(5)
A Multiple Comparison of Means
256(3)
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
259(1)
Summary
259(1)
Terms to Remember
260(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance
260(1)
Problems
261(4)
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
265(44)
One-Way Chi-Square Test
266(4)
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
270(19)
The Median Test
289(2)
The Mann-Whitney U Test
291(4)
Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
295(3)
Summary
298(1)
Terms to Remember
298(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Nominal-Level Data Using Chi-Square
299(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Mann-Whitney U Test
299(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Several Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Kruskal-Wallis Test
300(1)
Problems
300(9)
Looking at the Larger Picture Testing for Differences
307(2)
PART FOUR From Decision Making to Association 309(110)
Correlation
311(26)
Strength of Correlation
311(1)
Direction of Correlation
312(1)
Curvilinear Correlation
313(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
314(1)
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
315(8)
The Importance of Scatter Plots
323(3)
Partial Correlation
326(5)
Summary
331(1)
Terms to Remember
331(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Interval-Level Variables Using Pearson's Correlation
332(1)
Problems
332(5)
Regression Analysis
337(26)
The Regression Model
338(5)
Interpreting the Regression Line
343(2)
Prediction Errors
345(3)
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
348(2)
Regression and Analysis of Variance
350(4)
Multiple Regression
354(3)
Summary
357(1)
Terms to Remember
357(1)
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis
358(1)
Problems
359(4)
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
363(33)
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
363(7)
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
370(5)
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table
375(2)
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables
377(3)
Lambda
380(3)
Elaboration
383(5)
Summary
388(1)
Terms to Remember
388(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Ordinal-Level Variables Using Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation
388(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Cross-Tabulated, Ordinal-Level Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
389(1)
Problems
389(7)
Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
396(23)
Research Situations
398(12)
Research Solutions
410(9)
APPENDIXES 419(31)
Appendix A Social Science Data on the Internet
421(1)
Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
422(5)
Appendix C Tables
427(16)
Appendix D List of Formulas
443(7)
Glossary 450(7)
Answers to Selected Problems 457(6)
Index 463


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