Preface 

xv  

Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 


1  (24) 

The Nature of Social Research 


1  (5) 


6  (2) 

The Stages of Social Research 


8  (1) 

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research 


9  (4) 

The Functions of Statistics 


13  (5) 


18  (1) 


19  (1) 


19  (6) 

Looking at the Larger Picture A Student Survey 


22  (3) 
PART ONE Description 

25  (108) 


27  (50) 

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data 


27  (1) 


28  (1) 

Proportions and Percentages 


29  (1) 


30  (3) 

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data 


33  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data 


34  (4) 


38  (2) 


40  (6) 

Dealing with Decimal Data 


46  (1) 


47  (2) 


49  (7) 


56  (11) 


67  (1) 


68  (1) 


68  (9) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


77  (26) 


78  (1) 


78  (1) 


79  (4) 

Taking One Step at a Time 


83  (1) 

StepByStep Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean 


83  (1) 

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean 


84  (4) 

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution 


88  (3) 

Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution 


91  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Median for Grouped Frequency Distribution 


92  (1) 

StepByStep Illustration: Mean for Grouped Frequency Distribution 


93  (1) 


94  (1) 


95  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores 


95  (1) 


95  (8) 


103  (30) 


104  (1) 


105  (2) 

StepByStep Illustration: Mean Deviation 


106  (1) 

The Variance and Standard Deviation 


107  (4) 

StepByStep Illustration: Standard Deviation 


110  (1) 

The RawScore Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation 


111  (2) 

StepByStep Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores 


111  (2) 

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation 


113  (3) 

Comparing Measures of Variability 


116  (1) 

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution 


117  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation of a Simple Frequency Distribution 


118  (2) 

Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution 


120  (2) 

StepByStep Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation of a Grouped Frequency Distribution 


120  (2) 

Visualizing Distributions 


122  (2) 


124  (1) 


124  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores 


125  (1) 


125  (8) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Describing Data 


130  (3) 
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 

133  (74) 

Probability and the Normal Curve 


135  (34) 


136  (3) 

Probability Distributions 


139  (4) 

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution 


143  (1) 

Characteristics of the Normal Curve 


144  (1) 

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve 


144  (2) 

The Area under the Normal Curve 


146  (6) 

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve 


152  (2) 

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve 


154  (5) 

StepByStep Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve 


155  (4) 

Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve 


159  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Percentile Rank for Score above the Mean 


160  (1) 

StepByStep Illustration: Percentile Rank for Score below the Mean 


161  (1) 


162  (1) 


163  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve 


163  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve 


163  (1) 


163  (6) 


169  (38) 


170  (4) 


174  (2) 

Sampling Distribution of Means 


176  (7) 

Standard Error of the Mean 


183  (1) 


184  (6) 

StepByStep Illustration: 95% Confidence Interval Using z 


188  (1) 

StepByStep Illustration: 99% Confidence Interval Using z 


189  (1) 


190  (6) 

StepByStep Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t 


194  (2) 


196  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions 


198  (1) 


199  (1) 


199  (2) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z 


199  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t 


200  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion 


201  (1) 


201  (6) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Generalizing from Samples to Populations 


205  (2) 
PART THREE Decision Making 

207  (108) 

Testing Differences between Means 


209  (46) 

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means 


211  (1) 

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means 


212  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means 


213  (4) 

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means 


217  (3) 


220  (5) 

Standard Error of the Difference between Means 


225  (1) 

Testing the Difference between Means 


226  (4) 

StepByStep Illustration: Test of Difference between Means 


227  (3) 

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice 


230  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice 


231  (2) 

Two Sample Tests of Proportions 


233  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions 


234  (2) 


236  (6) 

StepByStep Illustration: OneTailed Test of Measure for Same Sample Measured Twice 


238  (2) 

StepByStep Illustration: Independent Groups, OneTailed Test 


240  (2) 

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means 


242  (1) 


243  (1) 


244  (2) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups 


244  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice 


245  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions 


246  (1) 


246  (9) 


255  (26) 

The Logic of Analysis of Variance 


256  (2) 


258  (6) 


264  (2) 


266  (5) 

StepByStep Illustration: Analysis of Variance 


268  (3) 

A Multiple Comparison of Means 


271  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: HSD for Analysis of Variance 


272  (2) 

Requirements for Using the F Ratio 


274  (1) 


274  (1) 


275  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance 


275  (1) 


276  (5) 

Nonparametric Tests of Significance 


281  (34) 


282  (4) 

StepByStep Illustration: OneWay ChiSquare 


285  (1) 


286  (16) 

StepByStep Illustration: TwoWay ChiSquare Test of Significance 


292  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Comparing Several Groups 


295  (7) 


302  (3) 

StepByStep Illustration: Median Test 


302  (3) 


305  (1) 


305  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for NominalLevel Data Using ChiSquare 


305  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for OrdinalLevel Data Using the Median Test 


306  (1) 


306  (9) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Testing for Differences 


312  (3) 
PART FOUR from Decision Making to Association 

315  (92) 


317  (28) 


317  (1) 


318  (1) 


319  (1) 

The Correlation Coefficient 


320  (1) 

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 


321  (8) 

StepByStep Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 


327  (2) 

The Importance of Scatter Plots 


329  (3) 


332  (5) 


337  (1) 


337  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between IntervalLevel Variables Using Pearson's Correlation 


338  (1) 


338  (7) 


345  (28) 


346  (5) 

Interpreting the Regression Line 


351  (2) 


353  (3) 

Regression and Pearson's Correlation 


356  (2) 

Regression and Analysis of Variance 


358  (4) 

StepByStep Illustration: Regression Analysis 


359  (3) 


362  (3) 


365  (1) 


365  (2) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis 


366  (1) 


367  (6) 

Nonparametric Measures of Correlation 


373  (34) 

Spearman's RankOrder Correlation Coefficient 


373  (7) 

StepByStep Illustration: Spearman's RankOrder Correlation Coefficient 


377  (3) 

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


380  (5) 

StepByStep Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


381  (4) 

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 X 2 Table 


385  (2) 

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 X 2 Tables 


387  (3) 


390  (3) 


393  (5) 


398  (1) 


398  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between OrdinalLevel Variables Using Spearman's RankOrder Correlation 


398  (1) 

StepByStep Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between CrossTabulated, OrdinalLevel Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


399  (1) 


399  (8) 

Looking at the Larger Picture Measuring Association 


406  (1) 
PART FIVE Applying Statistics 

407  (26) 

Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems 


409  (24) 


411  (12) 


423  (10) 
APPENDIXES 

433  (30) 

Appendix A Social Science Data on the Internet 


435  (1) 

Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics 


436  (5) 


441  (14) 

Appendix D List of Formulas 


455  (8) 
Glossary 

463  (8) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

471  (7) 
Index 

478  