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Elementary Statistics in Social Research,9780205362707
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Elementary Statistics in Social Research

by ;
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780205362707

ISBN10:
0205362702
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $108.20
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Summary

This best-selling introduction to statistical analysis in the social sciences provides the right balance of conceptual understanding and step-by-step computational techniques.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics
1(24)
The Nature of Social Research
1(5)
Why Test Hypotheses?
6(2)
The Stages of Social Research
8(1)
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research
9(4)
The Functions of Statistics
13(5)
Summary
18(1)
Terms to Remember
19(1)
Questions and Problems
19(6)
Looking at the Larger Picture A Student Survey
22(3)
PART ONE Description 25(108)
Organizing the Data
27(50)
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
27(1)
Comparing Distributions
28(1)
Proportions and Percentages
29(1)
Ratios and Rates
30(3)
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
33(1)
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
34(4)
Cumulative Distributions
38(2)
Percentile Ranks
40(6)
Dealing with Decimal Data
46(1)
Flexible Class Intervals
47(2)
Cross-Tabulations
49(7)
Graphic Presentations
56(11)
Summary
67(1)
Terms to Remember
68(1)
Questions and Problems
68(9)
Measures of Central Tendency
77(26)
The Mode
78(1)
The Median
78(1)
The Mean
79(4)
Taking One Step at a Time
83(1)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean
83(1)
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
84(4)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution
88(3)
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
91(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Median for Grouped Frequency Distribution
92(1)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Mean for Grouped Frequency Distribution
93(1)
Summary
94(1)
Terms to Remember
95(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores
95(1)
Questions and Problems
95(8)
Measures of Variability
103(30)
The Range
104(1)
The Mean Deviation
105(2)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Mean Deviation
106(1)
The Variance and Standard Deviation
107(4)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation
110(1)
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
111(2)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores
111(2)
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
113(3)
Comparing Measures of Variability
116(1)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution
117(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation of a Simple Frequency Distribution
118(2)
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
120(2)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation of a Grouped Frequency Distribution
120(2)
Visualizing Distributions
122(2)
Summary
124(1)
Terms to Remember
124(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard Deviation for Raw Scores
125(1)
Questions and Problems
125(8)
Looking at the Larger Picture Describing Data
130(3)
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 133(74)
Probability and the Normal Curve
135(34)
Rules of Probability
136(3)
Probability Distributions
139(4)
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
143(1)
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
144(1)
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
144(2)
The Area under the Normal Curve
146(6)
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
152(2)
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
154(5)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve
155(4)
Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
159(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Percentile Rank for Score above the Mean
160(1)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Percentile Rank for Score below the Mean
161(1)
Summary
162(1)
Terms to Remember
163(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve
163(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
163(1)
Questions and Problems
163(6)
Samples and Populations
169(38)
Sampling Methods
170(4)
Sampling Error
174(2)
Sampling Distribution of Means
176(7)
Standard Error of the Mean
183(1)
Confidence Intervals
184(6)
Step-By-Step Illustration: 95% Confidence Interval Using z
188(1)
Step-By-Step Illustration: 99% Confidence Interval Using z
189(1)
The t Distribution
190(6)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t
194(2)
Estimating Proportions
196(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions
198(1)
Summary
199(1)
Terms to Remember
199(2)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z
199(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t
200(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion
201(1)
Questions and Problems
201(6)
Looking at the Larger Picture Generalizing from Samples to Populations
205(2)
PART THREE Decision Making 207(108)
Testing Differences between Means
209(46)
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
211(1)
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
212(1)
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
213(4)
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
217(3)
Levels of Significance
220(5)
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
225(1)
Testing the Difference between Means
226(4)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means
227(3)
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
230(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice
231(2)
Two Sample Tests of Proportions
233(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions
234(2)
One-Tailed Tests
236(6)
Step-By-Step Illustration: One-Tailed Test of Measure for Same Sample Measured Twice
238(2)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Independent Groups, One-Tailed Test
240(2)
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
242(1)
Summary
243(1)
Terms to Remember
244(2)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups
244(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice
245(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions
246(1)
Questions and Problems
246(9)
Analysis of Variance
255(26)
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
256(2)
The Sum of Squares
258(6)
Mean Square
264(2)
The F Ratio
266(5)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance
268(3)
A Multiple Comparison of Means
271(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: HSD for Analysis of Variance
272(2)
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
274(1)
Summary
274(1)
Terms to Remember
275(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance
275(1)
Questions and Problems
276(5)
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
281(34)
One-Way Chi-Square Test
282(4)
Step-By-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square
285(1)
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
286(16)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance
292(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups
295(7)
The Median Test
302(3)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Median Test
302(3)
Summary
305(1)
Terms to Remember
305(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Nominal-Level Data Using Chi-Square
305(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Median Test
306(1)
Questions and Problems
306(9)
Looking at the Larger Picture Testing for Differences
312(3)
PART FOUR from Decision Making to Association 315(92)
Correlation
317(28)
Strength of Correlation
317(1)
Direction of Correlation
318(1)
Curvilinear Correlation
319(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
320(1)
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
321(8)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
327(2)
The Importance of Scatter Plots
329(3)
Partial Correlation
332(5)
Summary
337(1)
Terms to Remember
337(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Interval-Level Variables Using Pearson's Correlation
338(1)
Questions and Problems
338(7)
Regression Analysis
345(28)
The Regression Model
346(5)
Interpreting the Regression Line
351(2)
Prediction Errors
353(3)
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
356(2)
Regression and Analysis of Variance
358(4)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis
359(3)
Multiple Regression
362(3)
Summary
365(1)
Terms to Remember
365(2)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis
366(1)
Questions and Problems
367(6)
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
373(34)
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
373(7)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
377(3)
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
380(5)
Step-By-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
381(4)
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 X 2 Table
385(2)
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 X 2 Tables
387(3)
Lambda
390(3)
Elaboration
393(5)
Summary
398(1)
Terms to Remember
398(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Ordinal-Level Variables Using Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation
398(1)
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Cross-Tabulated, Ordinal-Level Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
399(1)
Questions and Problems
399(8)
Looking at the Larger Picture Measuring Association
406(1)
PART FIVE Applying Statistics 407(26)
Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems
409(24)
Research Situations
411(12)
Research Solutions
423(10)
APPENDIXES 433(30)
Appendix A Social Science Data on the Internet
435(1)
Appendix B A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
436(5)
Appendix C Tables
441(14)
Appendix D List of Formulas
455(8)
Glossary 463(8)
Answers to Selected Problems 471(7)
Index 478


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