Preface 

xi  
1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 

1  (18) 

The Nature of Social Research 


1  (1) 


2  (2) 

The Stages of Social Research 


4  (1) 

Using Series of Numbers To Do Social Research 


4  (5) 

The Functions of Statistics 


9  (4) 


13  (1) 


14  (223) 

LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE 




16  (3) 
PART ONE Description 

19  (66) 


21  (32) 

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data 


21  (1) 


22  (1) 

Proportions and Percentages 


23  (1) 

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data 


24  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data 


25  (2) 


27  (2) 

Dealing with Decimal Data 


29  (2) 


31  (2) 


33  (6) 


39  (6) 


45  (1) 


45  (8) 

3 Measures of Central Tendency 


53  (14) 


53  (1) 


54  (1) 


55  (2) 

Taking One Step at a Time 


57  (1) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 




57  (1) 

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean 


58  (4) 


62  (1) 


63  (4) 

4 Measures of Variability 


67  (20) 


68  (1) 

The Variance and the Standard Deviation 


69  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 




70  (1) 

The RawScore Formula fir Variance and Standard Deviation 


71  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores 


72  (1) 

The Meaning oldie Standard Deviation 


73  (3) 

Comparing Measures of Variability 


76  (1) 


77  (1) 


77  (3) 

LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE 




80  (5) 
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 

85  (58) 

5 Probability and the Normal Curve 


87  (25) 


88  (1) 

Probability Distributions 


88  (4) 

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution 


92  (1) 

Characteristics of the Normal Curve 


92  (1) 

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve 


93  (1) 

The Area under the Normal Curve 


94  (6) 

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve 


100  (4) 

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve 


104  (4) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Probability under the Normal Curve 


104  (4) 


108  (1) 


109  (3) 

6 Samples and Populations 


112  (33) 


113  (1) 


114  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Means 


115  (7) 

Standard Error of the Mean 


122  (1) 


123  (3) 


126  (8) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Confidence Interval Using t 


131  (3) 


134  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Confidence Interval for Proportions 


135  (1) 


136  (1) 


136  (9) 

LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE 



Generalizing from Samples to Populations 


140  (3) 
PART THREE Decision Making 

143  (94) 

7 Testing Differences between Means 


145  (38) 

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means 


147  (1) 

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means 


148  (1) 

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means 


148  (4) 

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means 


152  (3) 


155  (5) 

Standard Error of the Difference between Means 


160  (1) 

Testing the Difference between Means 


161  (4) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Test of Difference between Means 


162  (3) 

Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice 


165  (3) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice 


166  (2) 

TwoSample Test of Proportions 


168  (3) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Test of Difference between Proportions 


169  (2) 

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means 


171  (1) 


172  (1) 


172  (11) 


183  (24) 

The Logic of Analysis of Variance 


184  (2) 


186  (6) 


192  (1) 


193  (3) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 




196  (4) 

Requirements for Using the F Ratio 


200  (1) 


200  (1) 


201  (6) 

9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance 


207  (30) 


208  (16) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



OffSquare Test of Significance 


213  (4) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



ChiSquare Test for Several Groups 


217  (7) 


224  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 




224  (2) 


226  (1) 


227  (12) 

LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE 




234  (3) 
PART FOUR From Decision Making to Association 

237  (66) 


239  (19) 


239  (1) 


240  (1) 


241  (1) 

The Correlation Coefficient 


241  (2) 

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 


243  (6) 

A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r 


249  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Pearson's Correlation Coefficient 


249  (2) 


251  (1) 


252  (6) 


258  (17) 


259  (5) 

Interpreting the Regression Line 


264  (2) 

Regression and Pearson's Correlation 


266  (2) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 




267  (1) 


268  (1) 


269  (6) 

12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation 


275  (28) 

Spearman's RankOrder Correlation Coefficient 


275  (8) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Spearman 's RankOrder Correlation Coefficient 


279  (4) 

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


283  (5) 

STEPBYSTEP ILLUSTRATION 



Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma 


284  (4) 

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table 


288  (2) 

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables 


290  (3) 


293  (1) 


293  (7) 

LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE 




300  (3) 
PART FIVE Applying Statistics 

303  (26) 

13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems 


305  (24) 


309  (12) 


321  (8) 
APPENDIXES 

329  (22) 

APPENDIX A A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics 


330  (5) 


330  (2) 

Dealing with Negative Numbers 


332  (1) 


333  (2) 


335  (12) 

APPENDIX C List of Formulas 


347  (4) 
Answers to Selected Problems 

351  (6) 
Index 

357  