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 Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials,9780205484935
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Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentials

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205484935

ISBN10:
020548493X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/6/2010 3:45:00 PM
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $101.40
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Summary

Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentialsis a concise, uncomplicated introduction to statistics for the social sciences. Written to be understandable to a broad range of readers, particularly those without a strong background in mathematics,Elementary Statistics in Social Research: The Essentialsprovides clear, logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods in social research. Detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures are located at important points throughout the book.Anyone interested in learning the basics of statistics for social science, but doesn't need the depth of detail of a 500-600 page book.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics 1(18)
The Nature of Social Research
1(1)
Why Test Hypotheses?
2(2)
The Stages of Social Research
4(1)
Using Series of Numbers To Do Social Research
4(5)
The Functions of Statistics
9(4)
Summary
13(1)
Questions and Problems
14(223)
LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE
A Student Survey
16(3)
PART ONE Description 19(66)
2 Organizing the Data
21(32)
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
21(1)
Comparing Distributions
22(1)
Proportions and Percentages
23(1)
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
24(1)
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
25(2)
Cumulative Distributions
27(2)
Dealing with Decimal Data
29(2)
Flexible Class Intervals
31(2)
Cross-Tabulations
33(6)
Graphic Presentations
39(6)
Summary
45(1)
Questions and Problems
45(8)
3 Measures of Central Tendency
53(14)
The Mode
53(1)
The Median
54(1)
The Mean
55(2)
Taking One Step at a Time
57(1)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Mode, Median, and Mean
57(1)
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
58(4)
Summary
62(1)
Questions and Problems
63(4)
4 Measures of Variability
67(20)
The Range
68(1)
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
69(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Standard Deviation
70(1)
The Raw-Score Formula fir Variance and Standard Deviation
71(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores
72(1)
The Meaning oldie Standard Deviation
73(3)
Comparing Measures of Variability
76(1)
Summary
77(1)
Questions and Problems
77(3)
LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE
Describing Data
80(5)
PART TWO From Description to Decision Making 85(58)
5 Probability and the Normal Curve
87(25)
Probability
88(1)
Probability Distributions
88(4)
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
92(1)
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
92(1)
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
93(1)
The Area under the Normal Curve
94(6)
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
100(4)
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
104(4)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Probability under the Normal Curve
104(4)
Summary
108(1)
Questions and Problems
109(3)
6 Samples and Populations
112(33)
Random Sampling
113(1)
Sampling Error
114(1)
Sampling Distribution of Means
115(7)
Standard Error of the Mean
122(1)
Confidence Intervals
123(3)
The t Distribution
126(8)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Confidence Interval Using t
131(3)
Estimating Proportions
134(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Confidence Interval for Proportions
135(1)
Summary
136(1)
Questions and Problems
136(9)
LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE
Generalizing from Samples to Populations
140(3)
PART THREE Decision Making 143(94)
7 Testing Differences between Means
145(38)
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
147(1)
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
148(1)
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
148(4)
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
152(3)
Levels of Significance
155(5)
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
160(1)
Testing the Difference between Means
161(4)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Test of Difference between Means
162(3)
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
165(3)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice
166(2)
Two-Sample Test of Proportions
168(3)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Test of Difference between Proportions
169(2)
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
171(1)
Summary
172(1)
Questions and Problems
172(11)
8 Analysis of Variance
183(24)
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
184(2)
The Sum of Squares
186(6)
Mean Square
192(1)
The F Ratio
193(3)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Analysis of Variance
196(4)
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
200(1)
Summary
200(1)
Questions and Problems
201(6)
9 Nonparametric Tests of Significance
207(30)
The Chi-Square Test
208(16)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Off-Square Test of Significance
213(4)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Chi-Square Test for Several Groups
217(7)
The Median Test
224(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Median Test
224(2)
Summary
226(1)
Questions and Problems
227(12)
LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE
Testing Differences
234(3)
PART FOUR From Decision Making to Association 237(66)
10 Correlation
239(19)
Strength of Correlation
239(1)
Direction of Correlation
240(1)
Curvilinear Correlation
241(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
241(2)
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
243(6)
A Simplified Method for Testing the Significance of r
249(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
249(2)
Summary
251(1)
Questions and Problems
252(6)
11 Regression Analysis
258(17)
The Regression Model
259(5)
Interpreting the Regression Line
264(2)
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
266(2)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Regression Analysis
267(1)
Summary
268(1)
Questions and Problems
269(6)
12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
275(28)
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
275(8)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Spearman 's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
279(4)
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
283(5)
STEP-BY-STEP ILLUSTRATION
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
284(4)
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table
288(2)
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 x 2 Tables
290(3)
Summary
293(1)
Questions and Problems
293(7)
LOOKING AT THE LARGER PICTURE
Measuring Association
300(3)
PART FIVE Applying Statistics 303(26)
13 Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
305(24)
Research Situations
309(12)
Research Solutions
321(8)
APPENDIXES 329(22)
APPENDIX A A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
330(5)
Working with Decimals
330(2)
Dealing with Negative Numbers
332(1)
The Summation Sign
333(2)
APPENDIX B Tables
335(12)
APPENDIX C List of Formulas
347(4)
Answers to Selected Problems 351(6)
Index 357


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