Preface | p. xi |

Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | p. 1 |

The Nature of Social Research | p. 1 |

Why Test Hypotheses? | p. 3 |

The Stages of Social Research | p. 4 |

Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | p. 5 |

The Functions of Statistics | p. 12 |

Summary | p. 18 |

Questions and Problems | p. 18 |

Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | p. 21 |

Description | p. 23 |

Organizing the Data | p. 25 |

Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | p. 25 |

Comparing Distributions | p. 26 |

Proportions and Percentages | p. 26 |

Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | p. 28 |

Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | p. 29 |

Cumulative Distributions | p. 31 |

Dealing with Decimal Data | p. 33 |

Flexible Class Intervals | p. 35 |

Cross-Tabulations | p. 37 |

Graphic Presentations | p. 43 |

Summary | p. 50 |

Questions and Problems | p. 51 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 58 |

The Mode | p. 58 |

The Median | p. 59 |

The Mean | p. 60 |

Taking One Step at a Time | p. 62 |

Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | p. 62 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean | p. 63 |

Summary | p. 67 |

Questions and Problems | p. 68 |

Measures of Variability | p. 72 |

The Range | p. 73 |

The Variance and the Standard Deviation | p. 74 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation | p. 75 |

The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 76 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores | p. 77 |

The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | p. 78 |

Comparing Measures of Variability | p. 81 |

Summary | p. 82 |

Questions and Problems | p. 82 |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | p. 85 |

From Description to Decision Making | p. 89 |

Probability and the Normal Curve | p. 91 |

Probability | p. 92 |

Probability Distributions | p. 93 |

The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | p. 96 |

Characteristics of the Normal Curve | p. 97 |

The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | p. 97 |

The Area under the Normal Curve | p. 99 |

Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | p. 105 |

Finding Probability under the Normal Curve | p. 107 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve | p. 108 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve | p. 113 |

Summary | p. 114 |

Questions and Problems | p. 114 |

Samples and Populations | p. 118 |

Random Sampling | p. 119 |

Sampling Error | p. 120 |

Sampling Distribution of Means | p. 121 |

Standard Error of the Mean | p. 128 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 129 |

The t Distribution | p. 133 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t | p. 138 |

Estimating Proportions | p. 140 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions | p. 141 |

Summary | p. 142 |

Questions and Problems | p. 143 |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | p. 146 |

Decision Making | p. 149 |

Testing Differences between Means | p. 151 |

The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means | p. 153 |

The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means | p. 154 |

Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means | p. 154 |

Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means | p. 158 |

Levels of Significance | p. 162 |

Standard Error of the Difference between Means | p. 166 |

Testing the Difference between Means | p. 167 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means | p. 169 |

Comparing Dependent Samples | p. 171 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice | p. 172 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samples | p. 175 |

Two Sample Test of Proportions | p. 177 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions | p. 177 |

Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means | p. 179 |

Summary | p. 180 |

Questions and Problems | p. 181 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 191 |

The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 192 |

The Sum of Squares | p. 194 |

A Research Illustration | p. 195 |

Mean Square | p. 200 |

The F Ratio | p. 201 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance | p. 204 |

Requirements for Using the F Ratio | p. 208 |

Summary | p. 208 |

Questions and Problems | p. 209 |

Nonparametric Tests of Significance | p. 215 |

One-Way Chi-Square Test | p. 216 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square | p. 219 |

Two-Way Chi-Square Test | p. 220 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance | p. 226 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups | p. 230 |

The Median Test | p. 236 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test | p. 236 |

Summary | p. 239 |

Questions and Problems | p. 239 |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences | p. 248 |

From Decision Making to Association | p. 251 |

Correlation | p. 253 |

Strength of Correlation | p. 253 |

Direction of Correlation | p. 254 |

Curvilinear Correlation | p. 255 |

The Correlation Coefficient | p. 256 |

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | p. 257 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | p. 263 |

Summary | p. 265 |

Questions and Problems | p. 266 |

Regression Analysis | p. 272 |

The Regression Model | p. 273 |

Interpreting the Regression Line | p. 278 |

Regression and Pearson's Correlation | p. 280 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis | p. 281 |

Summary | p. 283 |

Questions and Problems | p. 283 |

Nonparametric Measures of Correlation | p. 290 |

Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | p. 290 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | p. 295 |

Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | p. 298 |

Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | p. 299 |

Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 × 2 Table | p. 302 |

Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 × 2 Tables | p. 304 |

Summary | p. 307 |

Questions and Problems | p. 307 |

Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association | p. 315 |

Applying Statistics | p. 317 |

Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems | p. 319 |

Research Situations | p. 323 |

Research Solutions | p. 340 |

Appendixes | p. 349 |

Instructions for Using ABCalc | p. 351 |

A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics | p. 355 |

Tables | p. 360 |

List of Formulas | p. 372 |

Answers to Problems | p. 377 |

Index | p. 383 |

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