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Jack Levin, Ph.D. is the Brudnick Professor of Sociology and Criminology at Northeastern University in Boston, where he co-directs its Center on Violence and Conflict. He has authored or co-authored 30 books, including the recently published volumes Serial Killers and Sadistic Murderers–Up Close and Personal and The Violence of Hate. Dr. Levin was honored by the Massachusetts Council for Advancement and Support of Education as its “Professor of the Year” and by the American Sociological Association with its Public Understanding of Sociology Award. He has spoken to a wide variety of community, academic, and professional groups, including the White House Conference on Hate Crimes, the Department of Justice, the Department of Education, OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (a membership of 59 countries) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
James Alan Fox, Ph.D. is the Lipman Family Professor of Criminology, Law, and Public Policy at Northeastern University. He has written 18 books, including his newest, Violence and Security on Campus: From Preschool through College. He has also published dozens of journal and magazine articles, and hundreds of freelance columns in newspapers around the country. Fox often gives keynote talks and testimony before Congress and in criminal and civil courts. He has briefed various leaders here and abroad, including President Clinton, Attorney General Reno and Princess Anne of Great Britain. Finally, Fox was honored in 2007 by the Massachusetts Committee against the Death Penalty with the Hugo Adam Bedau Award for excellence in capital punishment scholarship and by Northeastern University with the 2008 Klein Lectureship.
Preface | p. xi |
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | p. 1 |
The Nature of Social Research | p. 1 |
Why Test Hypotheses? | p. 3 |
The Stages of Social Research | p. 4 |
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | p. 5 |
The Functions of Statistics | p. 12 |
Summary | p. 18 |
Questions and Problems | p. 18 |
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | p. 21 |
Description | p. 23 |
Organizing the Data | p. 25 |
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | p. 25 |
Comparing Distributions | p. 26 |
Proportions and Percentages | p. 26 |
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | p. 28 |
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | p. 29 |
Cumulative Distributions | p. 31 |
Dealing with Decimal Data | p. 33 |
Flexible Class Intervals | p. 35 |
Cross-Tabulations | p. 37 |
Graphic Presentations | p. 43 |
Summary | p. 50 |
Questions and Problems | p. 51 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 58 |
The Mode | p. 58 |
The Median | p. 59 |
The Mean | p. 60 |
Taking One Step at a Time | p. 62 |
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | p. 62 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median, and Mean | p. 63 |
Summary | p. 67 |
Questions and Problems | p. 68 |
Measures of Variability | p. 72 |
The Range | p. 73 |
The Variance and the Standard Deviation | p. 74 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Standard Deviation | p. 75 |
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 76 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores | p. 77 |
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | p. 78 |
Comparing Measures of Variability | p. 81 |
Summary | p. 82 |
Questions and Problems | p. 82 |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | p. 85 |
From Description to Decision Making | p. 89 |
Probability and the Normal Curve | p. 91 |
Probability | p. 92 |
Probability Distributions | p. 93 |
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | p. 96 |
Characteristics of the Normal Curve | p. 97 |
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | p. 97 |
The Area under the Normal Curve | p. 99 |
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | p. 105 |
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve | p. 107 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve | p. 108 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Finding Scores from Probability Based on the Normal Curve | p. 113 |
Summary | p. 114 |
Questions and Problems | p. 114 |
Samples and Populations | p. 118 |
Random Sampling | p. 119 |
Sampling Error | p. 120 |
Sampling Distribution of Means | p. 121 |
Standard Error of the Mean | p. 128 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 129 |
The t Distribution | p. 133 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t | p. 138 |
Estimating Proportions | p. 140 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval for Proportions | p. 141 |
Summary | p. 142 |
Questions and Problems | p. 143 |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | p. 146 |
Decision Making | p. 149 |
Testing Differences between Means | p. 151 |
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means | p. 153 |
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means | p. 154 |
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means | p. 154 |
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means | p. 158 |
Levels of Significance | p. 162 |
Standard Error of the Difference between Means | p. 166 |
Testing the Difference between Means | p. 167 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means | p. 169 |
Comparing Dependent Samples | p. 171 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice | p. 172 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Matched Samples | p. 175 |
Two Sample Test of Proportions | p. 177 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Proportions | p. 177 |
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means | p. 179 |
Summary | p. 180 |
Questions and Problems | p. 181 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 191 |
The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 192 |
The Sum of Squares | p. 194 |
A Research Illustration | p. 195 |
Mean Square | p. 200 |
The F Ratio | p. 201 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance | p. 204 |
Requirements for Using the F Ratio | p. 208 |
Summary | p. 208 |
Questions and Problems | p. 209 |
Nonparametric Tests of Significance | p. 215 |
One-Way Chi-Square Test | p. 216 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: One-Way Chi-Square | p. 219 |
Two-Way Chi-Square Test | p. 220 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Two-Way Chi-Square Test of Significance | p. 226 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Comparing Several Groups | p. 230 |
The Median Test | p. 236 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Median Test | p. 236 |
Summary | p. 239 |
Questions and Problems | p. 239 |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences | p. 248 |
From Decision Making to Association | p. 251 |
Correlation | p. 253 |
Strength of Correlation | p. 253 |
Direction of Correlation | p. 254 |
Curvilinear Correlation | p. 255 |
The Correlation Coefficient | p. 256 |
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | p. 257 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | p. 263 |
Summary | p. 265 |
Questions and Problems | p. 266 |
Regression Analysis | p. 272 |
The Regression Model | p. 273 |
Interpreting the Regression Line | p. 278 |
Regression and Pearson's Correlation | p. 280 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis | p. 281 |
Summary | p. 283 |
Questions and Problems | p. 283 |
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation | p. 290 |
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | p. 290 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | p. 295 |
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | p. 298 |
Step-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | p. 299 |
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 × 2 Table | p. 302 |
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 × 2 Tables | p. 304 |
Summary | p. 307 |
Questions and Problems | p. 307 |
Looking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association | p. 315 |
Applying Statistics | p. 317 |
Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research Problems | p. 319 |
Research Situations | p. 323 |
Research Solutions | p. 340 |
Appendixes | p. 349 |
Instructions for Using ABCalc | p. 351 |
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics | p. 355 |
Tables | p. 360 |
List of Formulas | p. 372 |
Answers to Problems | p. 377 |
Index | p. 383 |
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