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# Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach : A Brief Version

by
Edition:
Disk
ISBN13:

### 9780072357875

ISBN10:
0072357878
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/20/1999
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Higher Education

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## Summary

Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version is written for students in the beginning statistics course whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. The book uses a nontheoretical approach in which concepts are explained intuitively and supported by examples for your student. There are no formal proofs in the book. The applications are general in nature and the exercises include problems from agriculture, biology, business, economics, education, psychology, engineering, medicine, sociology, and computer science. The learning system found in Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version provides your student with a valuable framework in which to learn and apply concepts!

## Table of Contents

Preface vii
 The Nature of Probability and Statistics
1(22)
 Are We Improving Our Diet?
2(1)
 Introduction
2(2)
 The Perfect Burger
4(1)
 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
4(3)
 Love at First Sight?
5(1)
 Risks in the Home
6(1)
 Variables and Types of Data
7(3)
 Height Fright Not Right
8(2)
 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques
10(5)
 Random Sampling
11(1)
 Surviving Bad Days at Work
12(1)
 Systematic Sampling
12(1)
 How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home Together?
13(1)
 Stratified Sampling
13(1)
 Cluster Sampling
13(1)
 Shake and Wake
14(1)
 Other Sampling Methods
15(1)
 Computers and Calculators
15(1)
 Summary
15(8)
 Frequency Distributions and Graphs
23(48)
 Are We Flying More?
24(1)
 Introduction
25(1)
 Organizing Data
25(11)
 Categorical Frequency Distributions
26(1)
 Ungrouped Frequency Distributions
27(1)
 Grouped Frequency Distributions
28(8)
 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives
36(11)
 The Histogram
37(1)
 The Frequency Polygon
38(1)
 The Ogive
39(3)
 Computer Applications for Histograms
42(1)
 Relative Frequency Graphs
42(5)
 Other Types of Graphs
47(13)
 Pareto Charts
47(2)
 The Time Series Graph
49(1)
 Pennsylvania Coal Production
50(1)
 The Pie Graph
51(3)
 Misleading Graphs
54(4)
 Costliest Big Cities for Driving
58(2)
 Summary
60(11)
 Budget Deficit Drops
61(10)
 Data Description
71(75)
 Who Is a Typical First-Time Home Buyer?
72(1)
 Introduction
73(1)
 Measures of Central Tendency
74(24)
 Rounding Rule
74(1)
 The Mean
75(2)
 USA's Windiest Cities
77(4)
 The Median
81(4)
 The Mode
85(1)
 Study: Pittsburgh Has Lowest Median Rents
86(3)
 Leave the Driving to...
89(1)
 The Midrange
89(1)
 The Weighted Mean
90(3)
 Distribution Shapes
93(5)
 Measures of Variation
98(17)
 Range
98(2)
 Variance and Standard Deviation
100(2)
 The Unbiased Estimator
102(2)
 Finding the Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data
104(3)
 Coefficient of Variation
107(1)
 Chebyshev's Theorem
108(2)
 The Empirical (Normal) Rule
110(5)
 Measures of Position
115(12)
 Standard Scores
115(1)
 Percentiles
116(7)
 Deciles and Quartiles
123(1)
 Outliers
123(2)
 Computer Applications for Descriptive Statistics
125(2)
 Exploratory Data Analysis
127(8)
 Stem and Leaf Plots
128(2)
 Computer Application for Stem and Leaf Displays
130(1)
 Box Plots
130(4)
 Computer Application for Box Plots
134(1)
 Summary
135(11)
 Counting Techniques
146(18)
 Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers?
147(1)
 Introduction
148(1)
 Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Counting Tree Diagrams
148(5)
 Tree Diagrams
148(2)
 The Multiplication Rule for Counting
150(3)
 Permutations and Combinations
153(6)
 Factorial Notation
153(1)
 Permutations
153(2)
 Combinations
155(4)
 Summary
159(5)
 Probability
164(41)
 Would You Bet Your Life?
165(1)
 Introduction
166(1)
 Sample Spaces and Probability
166(13)
 Basic Concepts
166(3)
 Classical Probability
169(1)
 Rounding Rule for Probabilities
170(1)
 Complementary Events
171(2)
 Empirical Probability
173(2)
 Law of Large Numbers
175(1)
 Subjective Probability
176(3)
 The Addition Rules for Probability
179(7)
 The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability
186(12)
 The Multiplication Rules
186(4)
 Conditional Probability
190(3)
 Probabilities for ``At Least''
193(5)
 Summary
198(7)
 Probability Distributions
205(20)
 Is Pooling Worthwhile?
206(1)
 Introduction
206(1)
 Probability Distributions
207(4)
 Mean, Variance, and Expectation
211(9)
 Mean
211(1)
 Rounding Rule
212(2)
 Variance
214(2)
 Expectation
216(4)
 The Binomial Distribution
220(8)
 Summary
228
 The Normal Distribution
225(55)
 What Is Normal?
236(1)
 Introduction
236(2)
 Properties of the Normal Distribution
238(2)
 The Standard Normal Distribution
240(13)
 Finding Areas under the Normal Distribution Curve
241(8)
 The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve
249(4)
 Applications of the Normal Distribution
253(9)
 Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities
257(5)
 The Central Limit Theorem
262(9)
 Distribution of Sample Means
262(9)
 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
271(6)
 Summary
277(3)
 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size
280(42)
 Would You Change the Channel?
285(1)
 Introduction
286(1)
 Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ Known or n≥30) and Sample Size
287(10)
 Confidence Intervals
287(6)
 Computer Applications for z Confidence Interval for a Mean
293(1)
 Sample Size
294(3)
 Confidence Intervals for the Mean (σ UnKnown and n<30)
297(6)
 Computer Application for t Confidence Interval for a Mean
301(2)
 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions
303(7)
 Confidence Intervals
304(1)
 Most Popular Boat Names
305(1)
 Sample Size for Proportions
306(2)
 The Right Rx
308(2)
 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations
310(4)
 Summary
314(8)
 Hypothesis Testing
322(54)
 How Much Better Is Better?
323(1)
 Introduction
324(1)
 Steps in Hypothesis Testing
324(11)
 Large Sample Mean Test
335(11)
 Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacks
336(4)
 P-Values
340(3)
 Computer Application for a z Test for a Single Mean
343(3)
 Small Sample Mean Test
346(7)
 Computer Application for a t Test for a Single Mean
351(2)
 Proportion Test
353(5)
 Variance or Standard Deviation Test
358(7)
 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing
365(3)
 Summary
368(8)
 Testing the Difference among Means, Variances, and Proportions
376(56)
 To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? Small or Large?
377(1)
 Introduction
377(1)
 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samples
378(7)
 Testing the Difference between Two Variances
385(7)
 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samples
392(7)
 Computer Application for t Tests for the Difference of Two Means: Independent Samples
397(2)
 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples
399(11)
 Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boys
400(7)
 Computer Applications for t Test for Dependent Samples
407(1)
 Wired for a Workout
408(2)
 Testing the Difference between Proportions
410(6)
 A Pill to Remember
411(5)
 Summary
416(16)
 Clear Landings
417(14)
 Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1
431(1)
 Correlation and Regression
432(41)
 Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health?
433(1)
 Introduction
433(1)
 Scatter Plots
434(4)
 Correlation
438(10)
 Correlation Coefficient
438(3)
 The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
441(3)
 Correlation and Causation
444(1)
 Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Says
445(3)
 Regression
448(8)
 Line of Best Fit
448(1)
 Determination of the Regression Line Equation
449(4)
 Clear Thinking
453(3)
 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimate
456(9)
 Types of Variation for the Regression Model
456(2)
 Coefficient of Determination
458(1)
 Standard Error of Estimate
459(2)
 Prediction Interval
461(2)
 Computer Applications for Correlation and Regression
463(2)
 Summary
465(8)
 Chi-Square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
473(1)
 Statistics and Heredity
474(1)
 Introduction
474(1)
 Test for Goodness of Fit
475(6)
 Test of Normality
481(2)
 Computer Applications for the Goodness-of-Fit Test
483(2)
 Tests Using Contingency Tables
485(1)
 Test for Independence
485(1)
 The Contingency Table
486(1)
 Computation of Expected Frequencies
486(1)
 Statistical Test
486(5)
 Test for Homogeneity of Proportions
491(2)
 Computer Applications for the Independence and Homogeneity of Proportions Tests
493(1)
 At Least They're Checking for Radon
494(8)
 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
498(6)
 Computer Applications for One-Way ANOVA
504(3)
 Summary
507(9)
 Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2
516
Appendix A Algebra Review A
Appendix B Writing the Research Report B-1
Appendix C Tables C
Appendix D Data Bank D
Appendix E Glossary E
Appendix F Bibliography F-1
Appendix G Photo Credits G-1
Appendix H Selected Answers H
Index

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