The Nature of Probability and Statistics | |

Introduction | |

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | |

Variables and Types of Data | |

Data Collection and Sampling Techniques | |

Observational and Experimental Studies | |

Uses and Misuses of Statistics | |

Computers and Calculators | |

Summary | |

Frequency Distributions and Graphs | |

Introduction | |

Organizing Data | |

Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives | |

Other Types of Graphs | |

Summary | |

Data Description | |

Introduction | |

Measures of Central Tendency | |

Measures of Variation | |

Measures of Position | |

Exploratory Data Analysis | |

Summary | |

Probability and Counting Rules | |

Introduction | |

Sample Spaces and Probability | |

The Addition Rules for Probability | |

The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability | |

Counting Rules | |

Probability and Counting Rules | |

Summary | |

Discrete Probability Distributions | |

Introduction | |

Probability Distributions | |

Mean, Variance, and Expectation | |

The Binomial Distribution | |

Other Types of Distributions (Optional) | |

Summary | |

The Normal Distribution | |

Introduction | |

Properties of the Normal Distribution | |

The Standard Normal Distribution | |

Applications of the Normal Distribution | |

The Central Limit Theorem | |

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

Summary | |

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size | |

Introduction | |

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (s Known or n³30) | |

Confidence Intervals for the Mean (s Unknown or n<30) | |

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions | |

Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations | |

Summary | |

Hypothesis Testing | |

Introduction | |

Steps in Hypothesis Testing - Traditional Method | |

z Test for a Mean | |

t Test for a Mean | |

z Test for a Proportion | |

chi^2 test for a Variance or Standard Deviation | |

Additional Topics Regarding Hypothesis Testing | |

Summary | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions | |

Introduction | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Large Samples | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Variances | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Independent Samples | |

Testing the Difference Between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples | |

Testing the Difference Between Proportions | |

Summary | |

Correlation and Regression | |

Introduction | |

Scatter Plots | |

Correlation | |

Regression | |

Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of the Estimate | |

Multiple Regression (Optional) | |

Summary | |

Other Chi-Square Tests | |

Introduction | |

Test for Goodness of Fit | |

Tests Using Contingency Tables | |

Summary | |

Analysis of Variance | |

Introduction | |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | |

The Scheffé Test and the Tukey Test | |

Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Summary | |

Nonparametric Statistics | |

Introduction | |

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methods | |

The Sign Test | |

The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test | |

The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the Runs Test | |

Summary | |

Sampling and Simulation | |

Introduction | |

Common Sampling Techniques | |

Surveys and Questionnaire Design | |

Simulation Techniques | |

The Monte Carlo Method | |

Summary | |

Algebra Review | |

Writing the Research Report | |

Bayes's Theorem | |

Alternate Method for the Standard Normal Distribution | |

Tables | |

Data Bank | |

Glossary | |

Bibliography | |

Photo Credits | |

Selected Answers | |

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