Preface 

xi  


1  (6) 

Elements of the Sampling Problem 


7  (41) 


7  (1) 


8  (2) 

How to Select the Sample: The Design of the Sample Survey 


10  (8) 

Sources of Errors in Surveys 


18  (11) 

Designing a Questionnaire 


29  (8) 


37  (1) 


38  (10) 


39  (6) 

Experiences with Real Data 


45  (3) 

Some Basic Concepts of Statistics 


48  (28) 


48  (1) 

Summarizing Information in Populations and Samples: The Infinite Population Case 


49  (3) 

Summarizing Information in Populations and Samples: The Finite Population Case 


52  (4) 


56  (7) 

Covariance and Correlation 


63  (2) 


65  (2) 


67  (9) 


67  (9) 


76  (41) 


77  (2) 

How to Draw a Simple Random Sample 


79  (2) 

Estimation of a Population Mean and Total 


81  (8) 

Selecting the Sample Size for Estimating Population Means and Totals 


89  (2) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


91  (5) 


96  (6) 


102  (15) 


103  (11) 

Experiences with Real Data 


114  (1) 

A Sampling ActivityRandom Rectangles 


115  (2) 

Stratified Random Sampling 


117  (63) 


117  (3) 

How to Draw a Stratified Random Sample 


120  (1) 

Estimation of a Population Mean and Total 


121  (5) 

Selecting the Sample Size for Estimating Population Means and Totals 


126  (3) 


129  (8) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


137  (2) 

Selecting the Sample Size and Allocating the Sample to Estimate Proportions 


139  (6) 

Additional Comments on Stratified Sampling 


145  (4) 

An Optimal Rule for Choosing Strata 


149  (1) 

Stratification After Selection of the Sample 


150  (3) 

Double Sampling for Stratification 


153  (3) 


156  (24) 


157  (14) 

Experiences with Real Data 


171  (9) 

Ratio, Regression, and Difference Estimation 


180  (51) 


181  (1) 

Surveys That Require the Use of Ratio Estimators 


181  (3) 

Ratio Estimation Using Simple Random Sampling 


184  (8) 

Selecting the Sample Size 


192  (8) 

Ratio Estimation in Stratified Random Sampling 


200  (4) 


204  (4) 


208  (2) 

Relative Efficiency of Estimators 


210  (7) 


217  (14) 


218  (11) 

Experiences with Real Data 


229  (2) 


231  (34) 


232  (2) 

How to Draw a Systematic Sample 


234  (1) 

Estimation of a Population Mean and Total 


235  (7) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


242  (1) 

Selecting the Sample Size 


243  (2) 

Repeated Systematic Sampling 


245  (4) 

Further Discussion of Variance Estimators 


249  (7) 


256  (9) 


257  (6) 

Experiences with Real Data 


263  (2) 


265  (38) 


265  (2) 

How to Draw a Cluster Sample 


267  (1) 

Estimation of a Population Mean and Total 


268  (6) 

Equal Cluster Sizes: Comparison to Simple Random Sampling 


274  (4) 

Selecting the Sample Size for Estimating Population Means and Totals 


278  (3) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


281  (3) 

Selecting the Sample Size for Estimating Proportions 


284  (1) 

Cluster Sampling Combined with Stratification 


285  (2) 

Cluster Sampling with Probabilities Proportional to Size 


287  (4) 


291  (12) 


292  (9) 

Experiences with Real Data 


301  (2) 

TwoStage Cluster Sampling 


303  (24) 


303  (2) 

How to Draw a TwoStage Cluster Sample 


305  (1) 

Unbiased Estimation of a Population Mean and Total 


306  (4) 

Ratio Estimation of a Population Mean 


310  (2) 

Estimation of a Population Proportion 


312  (3) 

Sampling EqualSize Clusters 


315  (3) 

TwoStage Cluster Sampling with Probabilities Proportional to Size 


318  (2) 


320  (7) 


322  (4) 

Experiences with Real Data 


326  (1) 

Estimating the Population Size 


327  (25) 


327  (2) 

Estimation of a Population Size Using Direct Sampling 


329  (1) 

Estimation of a Population Size Using Inverse Sampling 


330  (2) 

Choosing Sample Sizes for Direct and Inverse Sampling 


332  (3) 

Estimating Population Density and Size from Quadrat Samples 


335  (4) 

Estimating Population Density and Size from Stocked Quadrats 


339  (2) 


341  (2) 


343  (9) 


344  (3) 

Experiences with Real Data 


347  (5) 


352  (32) 


352  (1) 

Interpenetrating Subsamples 


352  (2) 

Estimation of Means and Totals over Subpopulations 


354  (4) 


358  (4) 

Use of Weights in Sample Surveys 


362  (4) 

Adjusting for Nonresponse 


366  (7) 


373  (1) 

Selecting the Number of Callbacks 


374  (3) 


377  (2) 


379  (5) 


379  (4) 

Experiences with Real Data 


383  (1) 


384  (12) 

Summary of the Designs and Methods 


384  (2) 

Comparisons Among the Designs and Methods 


386  (10) 


387  (9) 
Appendix A Bibliography, Tables, and Derivations 

396  (12) 
Appendix B Macros (Execs) for MINITAB 

408  (10) 
Appendix C Macros for SAS 

418  (22) 
Appendix D Data Sets 

440  (15) 
Selected Answers 

455  (3) 
Index 

458  