9780134604657

Elementary Surveying An Introduction to Geomatics

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  • ISBN13:

    9780134604657

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  • Edition: 15th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/2/2017
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Summary

For Surveying courses offered in Civil Engineering departments

 

Basic concepts and the latest advances and technology in modern surveying and geomatics

A highly readable bestseller, Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. While introductory, its depth and breadth also make it ideal for self-study and preparation for licensing examinations. The 15th Edition is updated throughout to reflect the latest advances and technology. It includes QR codes linking to video instructions on solving specific problems, and more than 400 figures and illustrations, with numerous example problems to demonstrate computational procedures. With this new edition, MasteringEngineering is available for the first time

 

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Author Biography

Dr. Charles Ghilani is a Professor of Engineering in the B.S. Surveying Engineering and A.S. Surveying Technology programs at Penn State. He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a B.S. degree in mathematics and education from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He has been involved in education since 1974; teaching at various levels from elementary through graduate school.

Dr. Ghilani has received numerous awards including: a Campus Innovation Award (1991) and Professional Development Award (1994), P.S.L.S. presidential commendation in 1990, Outstanding Club Advisor in 1992, a Distinguished Service Award from the Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors in 1995, an American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) fellowship (1999), and the Earle J. Fennell Award (2001) for outstanding service in surveying and mapping education from ACSM. He is a member of the graduate faculty at Penn State and University of Maine. Dr. Ghilani is a member of the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, the Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors, and the Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors.

Table of Contents

 1. Introduction

    1.1 Definition of Surveying

    1.2 Geomatics

    1.3 History of Surveying

    1.4 Geodetic and Plane Surveys

    1.5 Importance of Surveying

    1.6 Specialized Types of Surveys

    1.7 Surveying Safety

    1.8 Land and Geographic Information Systems

    1.9 Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies

    1.10 The Surveying Profession

    1.11 Professional Surveying Organizations

    1.12 Surveying on the Internet

    1.13 Future Challenges in Surveying


2. Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Units of Measurement

    2.3 International System of Units (SI)

    2.4 Significant Figures

    2.5 Rounding Off Numbers

    2.6 Field Notes

    2.7 General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes

    2.8 Types of Field Books

    2.9 Kinds of Notes

    2.10 Arrangements of Notes

    2.11 Suggestions for Recording Notes

    2.12 Introduction to Survey Controllers

    2.13 Transfer of Files from Survey Controllers

    2.14 Digital Data File Management

    2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Controllers


3.Theory of Errors In Observations

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Direct and Indirect Observations

    3.3 Errors in Measurements

    3.4 Mistakes

    3.5 Sources of Errors in Making Observations

    3.6 Types of Errors

    3.7 Precision and Accuracy

    3.8 Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors

    3.9 Probability

    3.10 Most Probable Value

    3.11 Residuals

    3.12 Occurrence of Random Errors

    3.13 General Laws of Probability

    3.14 Measures of Precision

    3.15 Interpretation of Standard Deviation

    3.16 The 50%, 90%, and 95% Errors

    3.17 Error Propagation

    3.18 Applications

    3.19 Conditional Adjustment of Observations

    3.20 Weights of Observations

    3.21 Least-Squares Adjustment


4.Leveling—Theory, Methods, and Equipment

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Definitions

    4.3 North American Vertical Datum

    4.4 Curvature and Refraction

    4.5 Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation

    4.6 Categories of Levels

    4.7 Telescopes

    4.8 Level Vials

    4.9 Tilting Levels

    4.10 Automatic Levels

    4.11 Digital Levels

    4.12 Tripods

    4.13 Hand Level

    4.14 Level Rods

    4.15 Testing and Adjusting Levels


5. Leveling—Field Procedures and ComputatIons

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Carrying and Setting Up a Level

    5.3 Duties of a Rodperson

    5.4 Differential Leveling

    5.5 Precision

    5.6 Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits

    5.7 Reciprocal Leveling

    5.8 Three-Wire Leveling

    5.9 Profile Leveling

    5.10 Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling

    5.11 Use of the Hand Level

    5.12 Sources of Error in Leveling

    5.13 Mistakes

    5.14 Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes

    5.15 Using Software


6. Distance Measurement

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Summary of Methods For Making Linear Measurements

    6.3 Pacing

    6.4 Odometer Readings

    6.5 Optical Rangefinders

    6.6 Tacheometry

    6.7 Subtense Bar

    6.8 Introduction to Taping

    6.9 Taping Equipment and Accessories

    6.10 Care of Taping Equipment

    6.11 Taping on Level Ground

    6.12 Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground

    6.13 Slope Measurements

    6.14 Sources of Error in Taping

    6.15 Introduction

    6.16 Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy

    6.17 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement

    6.18 Electro-Optical Instruments

    6.19 Total Station Instruments

    6.20 EDM Instruments Without Reflectors

    6.21 Computing Horizontal Lengths From Slope Distances

    6.22 Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement

    6.23 Using Software


7. Angles, Azimuths, and BearIngs

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Units of Angle Measurement

    7.3 Kinds of Horizontal Angles

    7.4 Direction of a Line

    7.5 Azimuths

    7.6 Bearings

    7.7 Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings

    7.8 Computing Azimuths

    7.9 Computing Bearings

    7.10 The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field

    7.11 Magnetic Declination

    7.12 Variations in Magnetic Declination

    7.13 Software for Determining Magnetic Declination

    7.14 Local Attraction

    7.15 Typical Magnetic Declination Problems

    7.16 Mistakes


8. Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Characteristics of Total Station Instruments

    8.3 Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments

    8.4 Parts of a Total Station Instrument

    8.5 Handling and Setting up a Total Station Instrument

    8.6 Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments

    8.7 Relationship of Angles and Distances

    8.8 Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments

    8.9 Observing Multiple Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method

    8.10 Closing the Horizon

    8.11 Observing Deflection Angles

    8.12 Observing Azimuths

    8.13 Observing Vertical Angles

    8.14 Sights and Marks

    8.15 Prolonging a Straight Line

    8.16 Balancing-in

    8.17 Random Traverse

    8.18 Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences

    8.19 Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and their Accessories

    8.20 Sources of Error in Total Station Work

    8.21 Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations

    8.22 Mistakes


9. Traversing

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions

    9.3 Observation of Traverse Lengths

    9.4 Selection of Traverse Stations

    9.5 Referencing Traverse Stations

    9.6 Traverse Field Notes

    9.7 Angle Misclosure

    9.8 Traversing with Total Station Instruments

    9.9 Radial Traversing

    9.10 Sources of Error in Traversing

    9.11 Mistakes in Traversing


10. Traverse Computations

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Balancing Angles

    10.3 Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings

    10.4 Departures and Latitudes

    10.5 Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions

    10.6 Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision

    10.7 Traverse Adjustment

    10.8 Rectangular Coordinates

    10.9 Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations

    10.10 Inversing

    10.11 Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions

    10.12 Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys

    10.13 Use of Open Traverses

    10.14 State Plane Coordinate Systems

    10.15 Traverse Computations using Computers

    10.16 Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations

    10.17 Mistakes in Traverse Computations


11. CoordInate Geometry In SurveyIng Calculations

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles

    11.3 Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line

    11.4 Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions

    11.5 Intersection of a Line with a Circle

    11.6 Intersection of Two Circles

    11.7 Three-Point Resection

    11.8 Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

    11.9 Inaccessible Point Problem

    11.10 Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection

    11.11 Software


12. Area

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Methods of Measuring Area

    12.3 Area by Division into Simple Figures

    12.4 Area by Offsets from Straight Lines

    12.5 Area by Coordinates

    12.6 Area by Double-Meridian Distance Method

    12.7 Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries

    12.8 Partitioning of Lands

    12.9 Area by Measurements from Maps

    12.10 Software

    12.11 Sources of Error in Determining Areas

    12.12 Mistakes in Determining Areas


13. Global NavigatIon Satellite Systems—Introduction and Principles of Operation

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Overview of GPS

    13.3 The GPS Signal

    13.4 Reference Coordinate Systems

    13.5 Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning

    13.6 Errors in Observations

    13.7 Differential Positioning

    13.8 Kinematic Methods

    13.9 Relative Positioning

    13.10 Other Satellite Navigation Systems

    13.11 The Future


14. Global Navigation SatellIte Systems—Static Surveys

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Field Procedures in Static GNSS Surveys

    14.3 Planning Satellite Surveys

    14.4 Performing Static Surveys

    14.5 Data Processing and Analysis

    14.6 Things to Consider

    14.7 A Method for Obtaining Orthometric Height Differences Using GNSS

    14.8 Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys

    14.9 Mistakes in Satellite Surveys


15. Global Navigation Satellite Systems—KInematic Surveys

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Planning of Kinematic Surveys

    15.3 Initialization Techniques

    15.4 Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys

    15.5 Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys

    15.6 Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys

    15.7 Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

    15.8 Real-Time Networks

    15.9 Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys

    15.10 Machine Guidance and Control

    15.11 Errors in Kinematic Surveys

    15.12 Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys


16. Adjustments by Least Squares

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Fundamental Condition of Least Squares

    16.3 Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method

    16.4 Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment

    16.5 Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities

    16.6 Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits

    16.7 Propagation of Errors

    16.8 Least-Squares Adjustment Of GNSS Baseline Vectors

    16.9 Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys

    16.10 The Error Ellipse

    16.11 Adjustment Procedures

    16.12 Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations

    16.13 Software

    16.14 Conclusions


17. Mapping Surveys

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys

    17.3 Map Scale

    17.4 Control for Mapping Surveys

    17.5 Contours

    17.6 Characteristics of Contours

    17.7 Method of Locating Contours

    17.8 Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems

    17.9 Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details

    17.10 Planning a Laser-Scanning Survey

    17.11 Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation

    17.12 Selection of Field Method

    17.13 Working with Survey Controllers and Field-to-Finish Software

    17.14 Hydrographic Surveys

    17.15 Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys

    17.16 Mistakes in Mapping Surveys


18. Mapping

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Availability of Maps and Related Information

    18.3 National Mapping Program

    18.4 Accuracy Standards for Mapping

    18.5 Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures

    18.6 Map Design

    18.7 Map Layout

    18.8 Basic Map Plotting Procedures

    18.9 Contour Interval

    18.10 Plotting Contours

    18.11 Lettering

    18.12 Cartographic Map Elements

    18.13 Drafting Materials

    18.14 Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems

    18.15 Migrating Maps between Software Packages

    18.16 Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping

    18.17 The Importance of Metadata

    18.18 Sources of Error in Mapping

    18.19 Mistakes in Mapping


19. Control Surveys and GeodetIc ReductIons

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The Ellipsoid and Geoid

    19.3 The Conventional Terrestrial Pole

    19.4 Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature

    19.5 Geoid Undulation and De ection of the Vertical

    19.6 U.S. Reference Frames

    19.7 Transforming Coordinates Between Reference Frames

    19.8 Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys

    19.9 The National Spatial Reference System

    19.10 Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network

    19.11 Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network

    19.12 Control Point Descriptions

    19.13 Field Procedures for Conventional Horizontal Control Surveys

    19.14 Field Procedures for Vertical-Control Surveys

    19.15 Reduction of Field Observations to their Geodetic Values

    19.16 Geodetic Position Computations

    19.17 The Local Geodetic Coordinate System

    19.18 Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations

    19.19 Software


20. State Plane CoordInates and Other Map Projections

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems

    20.3 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection

    20.4 Transverse Mercator Projection

    20.5 State Plane Coordinates in NAD 27 and NAD 83

    20.6 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal

    20.7 Conic System

    20.8 Computing SPCS 83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System 603 Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids

    20.9 Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations

    20.10 Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another

    20.11 The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection

    20.12 Other Map Projections

    20.13 Ground Versus Grid Problem

    20.14 Map Projection Software


21. Boundary Surveys

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Categories of Land Surveys

    21.3 Historical Perspectives

    21.4 Property Description by Metes and Bounds

    21.5 Property Description by Block-and-Lot System

    21.6 Property Description by Coordinates

    21.7 Retracement Surveys

    21.8 Subdivision Surveys

    21.9 Partitioning Land

    21.10 Registration of Title

    21.11 Adverse Possession and Easements

    21.12 Condominium Surveys

    21.13 Geographic and Land Information Systems

    21.14 Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys

    21.15 Mistakes


22. Surveys of the PublIc Lands

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands

    22.3 Initial Point

    22.4 Principal Meridian

    22.5 Baseline

    22.6 Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)

    22.7 Guide Meridians

    22.8 Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines

    22.9 Designation of Townships

    22.10 Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships

    22.11 Subdivision of a Township into Sections

    22.12 Subdivision of Sections

    22.13 Fractional Sections

    22.14 Notes

    22.15 Outline of Subdivision Steps

    22.16 Marking Corners

    22.17 Witness Corners

    22.18 Meander Corners

    22.19 Lost and Obliterated Corners

    22.20 Accuracy of Public Land Surveys

    22.21 Descriptions by Township Section, and Smaller Subdivision

    22.22 BLM Land Information System

    22.23 Sources of Error

    22.24 Mistakes


23. ConstructIon Surveys

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys

    23.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control

    23.4 Staking Out a Pipeline

    23.5 Staking Pipeline Grades

    23.6 Computing the Bend Angles in Pipelines

    23.7 Staking Out a Building

    23.8 Staking Out Highways

    23.9 Other Construction Surveys

    23.10 Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments

    23.11 Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment

    23.12 Machine Guidance and Control

    23.13 As-built Surveys with Laser Scanning

    23.14 Sources of Error in Construction Surveys

    23.15 Mistakes


24. HorIzontal Curves

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Degree of Circular Curve

    24.3 Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas

    24.4 Circular Curve Stationing

    24.5 General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles

    24.6 Computing Deflection Angles and Chords

    24.7 Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

    24.8 Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

    24.9 Setups on Curve

    24.10 Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords

    24.11 Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords

    24.12 Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve

    24.13 Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates

    24.14 Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations

    24.15 Circular Curve Layout by Offsets

    24.16 Special Circular Curve Problems

    24.17 Compound and Reverse Curves

    24.18 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves

    24.19 Spirals

    24.20 Computation of “As-Built” Circular Alignments

    24.21 Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves

    24.22 Mistakes


25. Vertical Curves

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve

    25.3 Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve

    25.4 High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve

    25.5 Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent-Offset Equation

    25.6 Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola

    25.7 Curve Computations by Proportion

    25.8 Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve

    25.9 Machine Control in Grading Operations

    25.10 Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve

    25.11 Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point

    25.12 Sight Distance

    25.13 Sources of Error in Laying out Vertical Curves

    25.14 Mistakes


26. Volumes

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Methods of Volume Measurement

    26.3 The Cross-Section Method

    26.4 Types of Cross Sections

    26.5 Average-End-Area Formula

    26.6 Determining End Areas

    26.7 Computing Slope Intercepts

    26.8 Prismoidal Formula

    26.9 Volume Computations

    26.10 Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method

    26.11 Contour-Area Method

    26.12 Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge

    26.13 Software

    26.14 Sources of Error in Determining Volumes

    26.15 Mistakes


27. Photogrammetry

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Uses of Photogrammetry

    27.3 Aerial Cameras

    27.4 Types of Aerial Photographs

    27.5 Vertical Aerial Photographs

    27.6 Scale of a Vertical Photograph

    27.7 Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph

    27.8 Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph

    27.9 Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph

    27.10 Stereoscopic Parallax

    27.11 Stereoscopic Viewing

    27.12 Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax

    27.13 Analytical Photogrammetry

    27.14 Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments

    27.15 Orthophotos

    27.16 Ground Control for Photogrammetry

    27.17 Flight Planning

    27.18 Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems

    27.19 Remote Sensing

    27.20 Software

    27.21 Sources of Error in Photogrammetry

    27.22 Mistakes

 
28. Introduction to GeographIc Information Systems

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Land Information Systems

    28.3 GIS Data Sources and Classifications

    28.4 Spatial Data

    28.5 Nonspatial Data

    28.6 Data Format Conversions

    28.7 Creating GIS Databases

    28.8 Metadata

    28.9 GIS Analytical Functions

    28.10 GIS Applications

    28.11 Data Sources

    

Appendix A: Tape Correction Problems

Appendix B: Example Noteforms

Appendix C: Astronomical Observations

Appendix D: Using the Worksheets from the Companion Website

Appendix E: Introduction to Matrices

Appendix F: U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters

Appendix G: Answers to Selected Problems

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