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Elements of Argument : A Text and Reader

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Bedford/St. Martin's
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Elements of Argumentcombines a thorough argument text on critical thinking, reading, writing, and research with an extensive reader on both current and timeless controversial issues. It presents everything students need to analyze, research, and write arguments. Elements of Argumentcovers Toulmin, Aristotelian, and Rogerian models of argument and has been thoroughly updated with current selections students will want to read. It now includes additional support for academic writing, making it a truly flexible classroom resource. An electronic edition is available at half the price of the print book.

Author Biography

Annette T. Rottenberg, formerly assistant director of the writing program at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, has taught composition and literature at Chicago City College, SUNY at Buffalo, Duke University, and schools abroad. 
Donna Haisty Winchell has directed the Freshman Composition program and co-directed Digital Portfolio Institutes at Clemson University, where she is Professor of English.  She has edited several freshman writing anthologies and is a frequent presenter at professional conferences.

Table of Contents

Part One: Understanding Argument
1. Approaches To Argument
     *Aristotelian Rhetoric
     *Sample Essay With Analysis: Aristotelian
          *Juan Williams, Don’t Mourn Brown v. Board Of Education
     *Rogerian Argument
          Joe Sharkey, Airport Screeners Could See X-Rated X-Rays
          Chris Kapper, Freedom to Live Trumps All!
     *Sample Essay with Analysis: Rogerian
          *Michael Kinsley, Racial Profiling At The Airport: Discrimination We’re Afraid to Be
     The Toulmin Model
     The Terms of Toulmin Argument
          The Claim
          The Support
          The Warrant
     Writer’s Guide: Learning the Key Terms
     Sample Essay with Analysis: Toulmin
          Robert J. Samuelson, The Hard Truth of Immigration 
     Assignments for Understanding the Structure of Argument
     Research Readiness: Using Databases
2. Critical Reading
     Research Skill: Examining Author, Subject, and Context
          Charles Krauthammer, Let’s Have No More Monkey Trials
     Strategies for Comprehending Arguments
     Sample Annotated Essay
          Edward Jay Epstein, Sex And The Cinema
     Writer’s Guide: Annotating a Text
     Research Skill: Summarizing
     Sample Annotated Essay
          Alfie Kohn, No-Win Situations
          *Stephanie Fairyington, The Gay Option
     Critical Listening
     Reading a Visual Argument
     Assignments for Critical Reading
     Research Readiness: Skimming and Summarizing
3. Analytical Writing
     Writing the Claim
          *Roger Kaplan, Enabling Ignorance
     Planning the Structure
     Using Sentence Forms to Construct an Argument
     Providing Support
     Writer’s Guide: Incorporating Quotations into Your Text
     Documenting Your Sources
     Writer’s Guide: Documenting Use of Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
     Avoiding Plagiarism
     Examining Some Models
     Sample Essay and Analytical Response: Claim of Fact
          *Eric Jaffe, Reality Check
     Student Analytical Response: Claim of Fact
          *Deion Moore, Psychoanalyzing Reality TV
      Sample Essay and Analytical Response: Claim of Value
          *Noam Shpancer, The Meaning Of Reality (TV)
     Student Analytical Response: Claim of Value
          *Ashley Wilson, The Meaning Of Shpancer (Really)
     Sample Essay with Analysis: Rogerian Argument
          Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, Parents Need Help: Restricting Access To Video Games
     Readings for Analysis
          Alan M. Dershowitz, Is There a Torturous Road to Justice?
          Seth Finkelstein, Alan Dershowitz’s Tortuous Torturous Argument
          *Barbara A. Spellman, Could Reality Shows Become Reality Experiments?
     *Debate: Should We all Pledge to End Derogatory Use of the Word “Retard”?
          *Patricia E. Bauer, A Movie, a Word and My Family’s Battle
          *Christopher M. Fairman, The Case Against Banning The Word “Retard”
     Assignments for Analytical Writing
     Research Readiness: Incorporating Quotations

Part Two: Analyzing the Elements
4. Definition
     The Purposes of Definition
     Defining the Terms in Your Argument
     Methods for Defining Terms
     The Definition Essay
     Writer’s Guide: Writing a Definition Essay
     Sample Annotated Essay
          Brian Whitaker, The Definition of Terrorism
     Readings for Analysis 
          *Stanley Fish, When Is a Cross a Cross?
          *William Deresiewicz, Faux Friendship
          *Guy-Uriel Charles, Stop Calling Quake Victims Looters
     Debate: Is the Definition of Marriage Changing?
          Howard Moody, Gay Marriage Shows Why We Need To Separate Church and State
          Jo Ann Citron, Will It Be Marriage or Civil Union?
     Assignments for Understanding Definition
     Research Readiness: Using Encyclopedias
5. Claims
     Claims of Fact
     Sample Essay: Claim of Fact
          Robert J. Samuelson, Picking Sides for the News
     Claims of Value
     Sample Essay: Claim of Value
          Roger Ebert, Crash
     Claims of Policy
     Sample Annotated Essay: Claim of Policy
          Elisha Dov Hack, College Life Versus My Moral Code
     Readings for Analysis
          Richard Hayes, Supersize Your Child?
          Wesley Morris, “Saw” Good at Tying Things in Knots
          *Amy Kamenetz, Take This Internship and Shove It
     *Debate: What Is the Social Responsibility of Business?
          *John Mackey, Putting Customers Ahead of Investors
          *T. J. Rodgers, Put Profits First
     Assignments for Understanding Claims
     Research Readiness: Acknowledging Reliable Authorities
6. Support
     Types of Support: Evidence and Appeals to Needs and Values
     Research Skill: Evaluation of Evidence
     Appeals to Needs and Values
     Evaluation of Appeals to Needs and Values
     Writer’s Guide: Using Effective Support
     Sample Annotated Essay
          *Louis Uchitelle, American Dream Is Elusive for New Generation
     Sample Essay with Analysis
          Hal R. Varian, The True Cost Of SUVs
          Bethany Royce, The True Confusion about SUV Costs
     Sample Student Essay
          Kristen Weinacker, Safer? Tastier? More Nutritious? The Dubious Merits Of Organic
     Readings for Analysis
          Bernard Goldberg, Connecting The Dots... To Terrorism
          *Charles Murray, Abolish the SAT
          Theodora Ooms, Marriage-Plus
      Debate: Is Assuming the Role of Citizen Journalist Worth the Risk?
          Lily Yulianti, Praise For Student’s Footage Of Virginia Tech Mass Killing
          Mark Memmott with Alan Levin and Greg Livadas, Disaster Photos: Newsworthy or
     Assignments for Providing Support
     Research Readiness: Using Books for Support
7. Warrants
     What Are Warrants?
          Robert A. Sirico, An Unjust Sacrifice
     Types of Warrants
     Sample Annotated Essay
          Michael Levin, The Case for Torture
     Writer’s Guide: Recognizing Warrants
     Readings for Analysis
          Eric Auchard, We’re All Celebrities in Post-Privacy Age
          *, Don’t Jump [Advertisement]
          *Jeff Jacoby, What’s Wrong With Price Gouging?
          *BackBayalltheWay, Response To Jacoby
     *Debate: Is Recycling Plastic Good Stewardship or Bad Business?
          *John Trotti, Why Let Stewardship Get in the Way of a Quick Buck?
          *Sharon Kneiss, Argument for Recycling is Strong
     Assignments for Analyzing Warrants
     Research Readiness: Identifying Reliable Authorities
8. Logic
     Sample Essay: An Inductive Argument
          Richard Rothstein, True Or False: Schools Fail Immigrants
     Sample Annotated Essay: A Deductive Argument
          David Von Drehle, It’s All About Him
     Common Fallacies
     Writer’s Guide: Avoiding Logical Fallacies
     Readings for Analysis
          *Adolf Hitler, On Nation And Race
          *Leon Seltzer and David Niose, Teen Sex: The “Holy”--vs. Humanistic--   Approach
          Jennifer Grossman, Food For Thought (and for Credit)
     Debate: Should the Federal Government Fund Embryonic Stem-Cell Research?
          Anna Quindlen, A New Look, an Old Battle
          Mona Charen, The Misleading Debate On Stem-Cell Research
     Assignments for Avoiding Flawed Logic
     Research Readiness: Using Up-to-Date Data
9. Language
     The Power of Words
          Franklin D. Roosevelt, Address To Congress, December 8, 1941
          Newman P. Birk and Genevieve B. Birk, Selection, Slanting, and Charged Language
     Picturesque Language
     Concrete and Abstract Language
     Short Cuts
     Sample Annotated Essay
          George W. Bush, President’s Address to the Nation, September 11, 2006
     Writer’s Guide: Choosing Your Words Carefully
     Readings for Analysis
          *William Faulkner, Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
          *Jacob Neusner, The Speech The Graduates Didn’t Hear
          *R. Cort Kirkwood, Driving Home Their Point 
     Debate: Does the Government Have the Right to Regulate Guns?
          Warren E. Burger, The Right To Bear Arms
          Roger D. McGrath, A God-Given Natural Right
     Assignments for Choosing Fair and Precise Language
     Research Readiness: Following a Research Trail
Part Three: Researching, Writing, and Presenting Arguments
10. The Argumentative Paper: Planning and Research
     Finding an Appropriate Topic
     Initiating Research
     Writer’s Guide: Keeping Your Research on Track
     Mapping Research: A Sample Outline
     Using Sources: Primary Research
     Using Sources: Secondary Research 
     Evaluating Sources
     Taking Notes
     Documenting Your Research (MLA System)
     Documenting Your Research (APA System)
     Wrapping Up Research
11. The Argumentative Paper: Writing and Documentation
     Organizing the Material
     The MLA System for Citing Sources 
     Preparing the Manuscript
     Writer’s Guide: Checklist for Argumentative Papers
     Sample Research Paper (MLA Style)
          *Kathleen Hedden, Competitive Foods and the Obesity Epidemic
     The APA System for Citing Sources
     Sample Research Paper (APA Style)
          Angela Mathers, The Controversy Over Women In Combat
12. Oral Argument
     The Audience
     Presentation Aids
     Sample Persuasive Speech
          C. Renzi Stone, Live Longer And Healthier: Stop Eating Meat!
     Reading for Analysis  
          Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have A Dream
Part Four: Multiple Viewpoints
*13. How are Social Networking Sites Affecting Human Interactions?
     *David Disalvo, Are Social Networks Messing With Your Head?
     *Susan Greenfield, Children: Social Networking Sites, A Debate in the House of  Lords
     *Kurt Cagle, As The Internet Rewires Our Brains
     *Patrick White, Facebook: Watching the Watchers
     *Clive Thompson, Brave New World of Digital Intimacy
     *Isaac Gilman, Online Lives, Offline Consequences: Professionalism, Information Ethics, and
     Professional Students
     Thinking and Writing about Social Networking Sites
14. What is the Role of Sex and Violence in Popular Culture?
     Rebecca  L. Collins et al., Does Watching Sex on Television Influence Teens’ Sexual Activity?
     *Nancy Willard, Sex and The Internet: Challenging the Myths
     Thomas Doherty, Cultural Studies And “Forensic Noir”
     Richard Rhodes, Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence
     Jeff Jacoby, A Desensitized Society Drenched in Sleaze
     Evan Gahr, Gore For Sale
     *Donna M. Hughes, The Internet and Sex Industries: Partners in Global Sexual Exploitation
     Thinking and Writing About Sex and Violence in Popular Culture
*15. What Are the Ethical Costs of Putting Food on Our Tables?
     *Michael Pollan, Food Fight
     *Sharon Astyk and Aaron Newton, The Rich Get Richer, The Poor Go Hungry
     *Diane Brady, The Organic Myth
     *Anna Lappé, The Climate Crisis At The End Of Our Fork
     *Arturo Rodriguez, with Alexa Delwiche and Sheheryar Kaoosji, Cheap Food: Workers Pay
     The Price
     *Eric Holt Gimenez, The Fight Over Food Deserts: Corporate America Smacks its Way
     Thinking and Writing about the Ethics of Food
16. Is Academic Integrity on Our College Campuses under Assault?
      Bill Walsh, Expect, but Respect, Original Work by Students
      Julie Rawe, Battling Term-Paper Cheats
     *, Answers to Common Legal Questions about Turnitin
     Donald L. McCabe, It Takes A Village: Academic Dishonesty and Educational Opportunity
     Susan Stoney and Mark McMahon, Bulletproof Assessment, War Stories, and  Tactics:
     Avoiding Cybercheating
     Amy Brittain, Universities Strike Back In Battle Over Illegal Downloads
     Thinking and Writing About Academic Integrity
*17. What Biases Shape the News that We See and Hear?
     *Andrew R. Cline, Media/Political Bias
     *Bill Press, America’s Town Meeting
     *Bernard Goldberg, Most Americans Just Don’t Trust Them
     *Jesse Walker, The Age of Limbaugh: When Politics and Popular Entertainment Collide
     *Dan Shelley, Secrets of Talk Radio
     *James Poniewozik, Polarized News? The Media's Moderate Bias
     Thinking and Writing about Media Bias
18. Are Limits on Freedom of Speech Ever Justified?
     Tom Toles, “First Amendment” [Cartoon]
     Alana Keynes, Student Sues School District for Banning Anti-War T-Shirt
     Julie Hilden, The “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” Student Speech Case: With Kenneth Starr Seeking
     High Court Review f the Ninth Circuit Decision, Is Someone Blowing Smoke?
     Annie Laurie Gaylor, The Case Against School Prayer
     Robert Garmong, Why We Need To Abolish The FCC
     Patti Waldmeir, Freedom of Speech and My Right to Silence at Bath Time
     Eric Foner, Dare Call it Treason
     James Poniewozik, The Imus Fallout: Who Can Say What?
     Thinking and Writing about the Limits on Freedom of Speech
19.  How Far Will We Go to Change Our Body Image?
     Jillian Croll, From Body Image and Adolescents
     *Carol Rose, On Pins and Needles Defending Artistic Expression
     *Nanci Hellmich, Do Thin Models Warp Girls’ Body Image?
     Joe Kita, All To Be Tall
     Allison Samuels, Smooth Operations
     Leslie Fiedler, The Tyranny Of The Normal
     Thinking and Writing about Body Image
20. In The World Of Medicine, Who Decides What Is Ethical?
     Joy Victory, Need An Organ? It Helps to Be Rich
     Lawrence A. Howards, Ethics Of Organ Donation
     George J. Annas, Cancer and the Constitution--Choice at Life’s End
     Nancy Gibbs, Pillow Angel Ethics
     Jeffrey P. Kahn, “Adoption” of Frozen Embryos a Loaded Term
     Sabrina Rubin Erdely, Doctors' Beliefs Hinder Patient Care
     Thinking and Writing about Medical Ethics
Part Five: Classic Arguments
     *Plato, From Crito
     Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
     Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience
     *Carrie Chapman Catt, The Crisis
     Margaret Mead, Warfare: An Invention--Not A Biological Necessity
     George Orwell, Politics and the English Language
     Martin Luther King Jr., Letter From Birmingham Jail
     Index of Subjects
     Index of Authors and Titles 

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