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Elements of Ecology

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780805348309

ISBN10:
0805348301
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $140.00

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Summary

KEY BENEFIT:Elements of Ecology, Sixth Edition maintains its engaging, reader-friendly style as it explains the basic principles of ecology. The text is updated to include new chapters on current ecological topics; new part introductions to connect the subfields of ecology; and new in-text features to encourage students to interpret the ecological data, research, and models used throughout the text. Abundant, accessible examples illustrate and clarify the text's emphasis on understanding ecological patterns within an evolutionary framework. Additionally, the text employs new study questions requiring students to make connections and apply their knowledge. KEY TOPICS: Introduction and Background, The Nature of Ecology, Adaptation and Evolution, The Physical Environment, Climate, The Aquatic Environment, The Terrestrial Environment, Organismal Ecology, Plant Adaptations, Animal Adaptations, Life History Patterns, Population Ecology,Properties of Populations, Population Growth, Interspecific Population Regulation, Metapopulations, The Ecology of Species Interactions,Competition, Predation, Parasitism and Mutualism, Community Ecology,Community Structure, Factors Influencing the Structure of Communities, Community Dynamics, Landscape Ecology, Ecosystem Ecology, Ecosystem Energetics, Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling, Biogeochemical Cycles, Biogeographical Ecology,Terrestrial Ecosystems, Aquatic Ecosystems, Land-Water Interface, Large-scale Patterns of Biodiversity, Human Ecology, Population Growth, Resource Use, and Sustainability, Habitat Decline, Biodiversity, and Conservation Ecology, Global Climate Change. MARKET: For all readers interested in the basic principles ecology.

Table of Contents

Preface xxii
Part One Introduction and Background
2(40)
The Nature of Ecology
4(13)
Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem
5(1)
Ecosystem Components Form a Hierarchy
5(1)
Ecology Has a Rich History
6(1)
Ecology Has Strong Ties to Other Disciplines
7(2)
Ecological Issues | The Human Factor
8(1)
Ecologists Use Scientific Methods
9(4)
Quantifying Ecology 1.1 Classifying Ecological Data
9(1)
Quantifying Ecology 1.2 Displaying Ecological Data: Histograms and Scatterplots
10(3)
Experiments Can Lead to Predictions
13(1)
Uncertainty Is an Inherent Feature of Science
13(1)
The Individual Is the Basic Unit of Ecology
14(3)
Summary
15(1)
Study Questions
15(1)
Further Readings
16(1)
Adaptation and Evolution
17(25)
Natural Selection Requires Two Conditions
18(2)
Heritability Is an Essential Feature of Natural Selection
20(2)
Genes Are the Units of Inheritance
22(2)
Genetic Variation Is the Essential Ingredient for Natural Selection
24(1)
Evolution Is a Change in Gene Frequency
25(2)
Quantifying Ecology 2.1 Descriptive Statistics
26(1)
The Concept of Species Is Based on Genetic Isolation
27(4)
Quantifying Ecology 2.2 Confidence Intervals
28(3)
The Process of Speciation Involves the Development of Reproductive Isolation
31(2)
Geographic Variation Within Species Provides Insight into the Process of Speciation
33(4)
Researcher Profile | Beren W. Robinson
34(2)
Ecological Issues | The Ecology of Antibiotic Resistance
36(1)
Adaptations Reflect Trade-offs and Constraints
37(5)
Summary
40(1)
Study Questions
40(1)
Further Readings
41(1)
Part Two The Physical Environment
42(60)
Climate
44(21)
Earth Intercepts Solar Radiation
45(2)
Intercepted Solar Radiation Varies Seasonally
47(2)
Quantifying Ecology 3.1 Energy Transfer Through Radiation
48(1)
Air Temperature Decreases with Altitude
49(2)
Air Masses Circulate Globally
51(3)
Solar Energy, Wind, and Earth's Rotation Create Ocean Currents
54(1)
Temperature Influences the Moisture Content of Air
55(1)
Precipitation Has a Distinctive Global Pattern
55(2)
Topography Influences Regional and Local Patterns of Precipitation
57(1)
Irregular Variations in Climate Occur at the Regional Scale
57(3)
Most Organisms Live in Microclimates
60(5)
Ecological Issues | Urban Microclimates
62(1)
Summary
63(1)
Study Questions
64(1)
Further Readings
64(1)
The Aquatic Environment
65(19)
Water Cycles Between Earth and the Atmosphere
64(5)
Ecological Issues | Groundwater Resources
68(1)
Water Has Important Physical Properties
69(2)
Light Varies with Depth in Aquatic Environments
71(1)
Temperature Varies with Water Depth
71(1)
Water Functions as a Solvent
72(2)
Oxygen Diffuses from the Atmosphere to the Surface Waters
74(1)
Acidity Has a Widespread Influence on Aquatic Environments
75(3)
Quantifying Ecology 4.1 Diffusion and Osmosis
76(2)
Water Movements Shape Freshwater and Marine Environments
78(1)
Tides Dominate the Marine Coastal Environment
79(2)
The Transition Zone Between Freshwater and Saltwater Environments Presents Unique Constraints
81(3)
Summary
82(1)
Study Questions
83(1)
Further Readings
83(1)
The Terrestrial Environment
84(18)
Life on Land Imposes Unique Constraints
85(1)
Plant Cover Influences the Vertical Distribution of Light
86(4)
Quantifying Ecology 5.1 Beer's Law and the Attenuation of Light
88(2)
Soil Is the Foundation Upon Which All Terrestrial Life Depends
90(1)
The Formation of Soil Begins with Weathering
91(1)
Soil Formation Involves Five Interrelated Factors
91(1)
Soils Have Certain Distinguishing Physical Characteristics
92(1)
The Soil Body Has Horizontal Layers, or Horizons
92(1)
Moisture-Holding Capacity Is an Essential Feature of Soils
93(2)
Ion Exchange Capacity Is Important to Soil Fertility
95(1)
Basic Soil Formation Processes Produce Different Soils
96(6)
Ecological Issues | Land Use and Soil Salinization
99(1)
Summary
100(1)
Study Questions
101(1)
Further Readings
101(1)
Part Three The Organism and Its Environment
102(82)
Plant Adaptations to the Environment
104(29)
Photosynthesis Is the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide into Simple Sugars
105(1)
The Light a Plant Receives Affects Its Photosynthetic Activity
106(1)
Photosynthesis Involves Exchanges Between the Plant and Atmosphere
106(1)
Water Moves from the Soil, Through the Plant, to the Atmosphere
107(3)
The Process of Carbon Uptake Differs Between Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants
110(1)
Plant Temperatures Reflect Their Energy Balance with the Surrounding Environment
110(1)
Carbon Gained in Photosynthesis Is Allocated to the Production of Plant Tissues
111(1)
Constraints Imposed by the Physical Environment Have Resulted in a Wide Array of Plant Adaptations
112(1)
Species of Plants Are Adapted to Either High or Low Light
113(4)
The Link Between Water Demand and Temperature Influences Plant Adaptations
117(8)
Researcher Profile | Kaoru Kitajima
118(2)
Quantifying Ecology 6.1 Relative Growth Rate
120(2)
Ecological Issues | Global Warming and Grapes
122(3)
Plants Vary in Their Response to Environmental Temperatures
125(2)
Plants Exhibit Adaptations to Variations in Nutrient Availability
127(6)
Summary
130(2)
Study Questions
132(1)
Further Readings
132(1)
Animal Adaptations to the Environment
133(30)
Animals Have Various Ways of Acquiring Energy and Nutrients
134(4)
Animals Have Various Nutritional Needs
138(1)
Mineral Availability Affects Growth and Reproduction of Animals
138(1)
Animals Require Oxygen to Release Energy Contained in Food
139(1)
Regulation of Internal Conditions Involves Homeostasis and Feedback
139(5)
Researcher Profile | Martin Wikelski
142(2)
Animals Exchange Energy with Their Surrounding Environment
144(1)
Animals Fall into Three Groups Relative to Temperature Regulation
144(1)
Poikilotherms Depend on Environmental Temperatures
145(1)
Homeotherms Escape the Thermal Restraints of the Environment
146(2)
Endothermy and Ectothermy Involve Trade-offs
148(1)
Heterotherms Take on Characteristics of Ectotherms and Endotherms
149(3)
Quantifying Ecology 7.1 Heat Exchange and Temperature Regulation
150(2)
Torpor Helps Some Animals Conserve Energy
152(1)
Some Animals Use Unique Physiological Means for Thermal Balance
152(2)
Maintenance of Water Balance for Terrestrial Animals Is Constrained by Uptake and Conservation
154(1)
Animals of Aquatic Environments Face Unique Problems in Maintaining Water Balance
154(1)
Buoyancy Aids Aquatic Organisms to Stay Afloat
155(1)
Daily and Seasonal Light and Dark Cycles Influence Animal Activity
156(1)
Ecological Issues | Humans and the Diurnal Cycle
157(1)
Critical Daylengths Trigger Seasonal Responses
157(2)
Activity Rhythms of Intertidal Organisms Follow Tidal Cycles
159(4)
Summary
160(2)
Study Questions
162(1)
Further Readings
162(1)
Life History Patterns
163(21)
Reproduction May Be Sexual or Asexual
164(1)
Sexual Reproduction Takes a Variety of Forms
165(1)
Mating Systems Describe the Pairing of Males and Females
166(2)
Acquisition of a Mate Involves Sexual Selection
168(1)
Females May Acquire Mates Based on Resources
169(1)
Organisms Budget Time and Energy to Reproduction
169(3)
Researcher Profile | Alexandra L. Basolo
170(2)
Species Differ in the Timing of Reproduction
172(1)
Parental Investment Depends on the Number and Size of Young
173(1)
Fecundity Depends on Age and Size
173(1)
Food Supply Affects the Production of Young
174(1)
Reproductive Effort May Vary with Latitude
174(2)
Quantifying Ecology 8.1 Interpreting Trade-offs
176(1)
Habitat Selection Influences Reproductive Success
176(2)
Environmental Conditions Influence the Evolution of Life History Characteristics
178(6)
Ecological Issues | The Life History of Maize: A Story of Unnatural Selection
179(2)
Summary
181(1)
Study Questions
182(1)
Further Readings
182(2)
Part Four Populations
184(72)
Properties of Populations
186(18)
Organisms May Be Unitary or Modular
187(1)
The Distribution of a Population Defines Its Spatial Location
188(3)
Abundance Reflects Both the Population Density and Distribution
191(1)
Determining Density Requires Sampling
192(2)
Quantifying Ecology 9.1 Sampling a Population
194(1)
Populations Have Age Structures
194(3)
Sex Ratios in Populations May Shift with Age
197(1)
Individuals Move Within the Population
198(2)
Ecological Issues | Human-Assisted Dispersal
200(1)
Population Distribution and Density Change in Both Time and Space
200(4)
Summary
202(1)
Study Questions
203(1)
Further Readings
203(1)
Population Growth
204(19)
Population Growth Reflects the Difference Between Rates of Birth and Death
205(4)
Quantifying Ecology 10.1 Derivatives and Differential Equations
206(2)
Quantifying Ecology 10.2 Exponential Model of Population Growth
208(1)
Life Tables Provide a Schedule of Age-Specific Mortality and Survival
209(1)
Different Types of Life Tables Reflect Different Approaches to Defining Cohorts and Age Structure
210(1)
Quantifying Ecology 10.3 Life Expectancy
211(1)
Life Tables Provide Data for Mortality and Survivorship Curves
211(2)
Birthrate Is Age-Specific
213(1)
Birthrate and Survivorship Determine Net Reproductive Rate
214(1)
Age-Specific Mortality and Birthrates Can Be Used to Project Population Growth
214(3)
Stochastic Processes Can Influence Population Dynamics
217(1)
A Variety of Factors Can Lead to Population Extinction
217(2)
Ecological Issues | Biological Control and the Allee Effect
218(1)
Small Populations Are Susceptible to Extinction
219(4)
Summary
220(1)
Study Questions
221(1)
Further Readings
221(2)
Intraspecific Population Regulation
223(18)
The Environment Functions to Limit Population Growth
224(2)
Quantifying Ecology 11.1 The Logistic Model of Population Growth
226(1)
Population Regulation Involves Density Dependence
226(3)
Ecological Issues | The Human Carrying Capacity
227(2)
Competition Results when Resources Are Limited
229(1)
Intraspecific Competition Affects Growth and Development
229(1)
Intraspecific Competition Can Reduce Reproduction
230(2)
High Density Is Stressful to Individuals
232(1)
Dispersal Can Be Density-Dependent
232(1)
Social Behavior May Function to Limit Populations
233(1)
Territoriality Can Function to Regulate Population Growth
233(4)
Researcher Profile | T. Scott Sillett
234(3)
Plants Preempt Space and Resources
237(1)
Density-Independent Factors Can Influence Population Growth
238(3)
Summary
239(1)
Study Questions
240(1)
Further Readings
240(1)
Metapopulations
241(15)
Four Conditions Define a Metapopulation
242(2)
Metapopulation Dynamics Is a Balance Between Colonization and Extinction
244(1)
Quantifying Ecology 12.1 Equilibrium Proportion of Occupied Patches
245(1)
Patch Area and Isolation Influence Metapopulation Dynamics
245(4)
Ecological Issues | The Metapopulation Concept in Conservation Ecology
248(1)
Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Local Population Persistence
249(1)
Some Habitat Patches May Function as the Major Source of Emigrants
250(1)
Certain Factors Can Function to Synchronize the Dynamics of Local Populations
251(1)
Species Differ in Their Potential Rates of Colonization and Extinction
252(1)
The Concept of Population Is Best Approached by Using a Hierarchical Framework
253(3)
Summary
254(1)
Study Questions
255(1)
Further Readings
255(1)
Part Five Species Interactions
256(76)
Interspecific Competition
258(25)
Interspecific Competition Involves Two or More Species
259(1)
There Are Four Possible Outcomes of Interspecific Competition
259(2)
Laboratory Experiments Support the Lotka-Volterra Equations
261(2)
Quantifying Ecology 13.1 Interpreting Population Isoclines
263(1)
Studies Support the Competitive Exclusion Principle
263(1)
Competition Is Influenced by Nonresource Factors
264(1)
Temporal Variation in the Environment Influences Competitive Interactions
265(1)
Competition Occurs for Multiple Resources
265(4)
Researcher Profile | Katherine N. Suding
266(2)
Quantifying Ecology 13.2 Competition Under Changing Environmental Conditions: Application of the Lotka-Volterra Model
268(1)
Relative Competitive Abilities Change Along Environmental Gradients
269(3)
Interspecific Competition Influences the Niche of a Species
272(3)
Coexistence of Species Often Involves Partitioning Available Resources
275(3)
Ecological Issues | Providing a Competitive Edge: Weed Control in Agriculture
278(1)
Competition Can Influence Natural Selection
278(2)
Competition Is a Complex Interaction Involving Both Biotic and Abiotic Factors
280(3)
Summary
281(1)
Study Questions
282(1)
Further Readings
282(1)
Predation
283(28)
Predation Takes a Variety of Forms
284(1)
Mathematical Model Describes the Basics of Predation
284(1)
Model Suggests Mutual Population Regulation
285(1)
Functional Responses Relate Prey Consumed to Prey Density
286(3)
Predators Respond Numerically to Changing Prey Density
289(2)
Foraging Involves Decisions Regarding the Allocation of Time and Energy
291(1)
Foragers Seek Productive Food Patches
292(2)
Quantifying Ecology 14.1 A Simple Model of Optimal Foraging
294(1)
Risk of Predation Can Influence Foraging Behavior
294(1)
Coevolution Can Occur Between Predator and Prey
295(1)
Animal Prey Have Evolved Defenses Against Predators
296(6)
Researcher Profile | Rick A. Relyea
300(2)
Predators Have Evolved Efficient Hunting Tactics
302(1)
Herbivores Prey on Plants
303(2)
Ecological Issues | Grazing in the West
304(1)
Plants Defend Themselves from Herbivores
305(1)
Plants, Herbivores, and Carnivores Interact
306(1)
Predators Influence Prey Dynamics Through Both Lethal and Nonlethal Effects
307(4)
Summary
308(2)
Study Questions
310(1)
Further Readings
310(1)
Parasitism and Mutualism
311(21)
Parasites Draw Resources from Host Organisms
312(1)
Hosts Provide Diverse Habitats for Parasites
312(1)
Direct Transmission Can Occur Between Host Organisms
312(1)
Transmission Between Hosts Can Involve an Intermediate Vector
313(1)
Transmission Can Involve Multiple Hosts and Stages
313(1)
Hosts Respond to Parasitic Invasions
314(2)
Parasites Can Impact Host Survival and Reproduction
316(1)
Parasites May Regulate Host Populations
316(3)
Ecological Issues | Plagues Upon Us
318(1)
Parasitism Can Evolve into a Positive Relationship
319(1)
Symbiotic Mutualisms Are Involved in the Transfer of Nutrients
320(4)
Researcher Profile | John J. Stachowicz
322(2)
Some Symbiotic Mutualisms Are Defensive
324(1)
Mutualisms May Be Nonsymbiotic
325(1)
Mutualisms Are Often Necessary for Pollination
325(1)
Quantifying Ecology 15.1 A Model of Mutualistic Interactions
Mutualisms Are Involved in Seed Dispersal
326(3)
Mutualism Can Influence Population Dynamics
329(3)
Summary
330(1)
Study Questions
331(1)
Further Readings
331(1)
Part Six Community Ecology
332(92)
Community Structure
334(19)
The Number of Species and Their Relative Abundance Define Diversity
335(2)
Numerical Supremacy Defines Dominance
337(1)
Keystone Species Have an Influence on Community Structure Disproportionate to Their Numbers
337(3)
Ecological Issues | Measuring Biological Diversity
338(2)
Food Webs Describe Species Interactions
340(2)
Species Within a Community Can Be Classified into Functional Groups
342(1)
Communities Have a Definitive Physical Structure
342(2)
Zonation Is Spatial Change in Community Structure
344(2)
Defining Boundaries Between Communities Is Often Difficult
346(3)
Two Contrasting Views of the Community
349(4)
Quantifying Ecology 16.1 Community Similarits
350(1)
Summary
351(1)
Study Questions
352(1)
Further Readings
352(1)
Factors Influencing the Structure of Communities
353(20)
The Fundamental Niche Constrains Community Structure
354(1)
Species Interactions Are Diffuse
355(2)
Quantifying Ecology 17.1 Quantifying the Structure of Food Webs: Connectance
356(1)
Food Webs Illustrate Indirect Interactions
357(3)
Food Webs Suggest Controls of Community Structure
360(2)
Ecological Issues | Rivets or Redundancy
362(1)
Species Interactions Along Environmental Gradients Involve Both Stress Tolerance and Competition
362(3)
Environmental Heterogeneity Influences Community Diversity
365(4)
Researcher Profile | Sally D. Hacker
366(3)
Resource Availability Can Influence Plant Diversity Within a Community
369(4)
Summary
370(1)
Study Questions
371(1)
Further Readings
371(2)
Community Dynamics
373(25)
Community Structure Changes Through Time
374(4)
Ecological Issues | American Forests
376(2)
Primary Succession Occurs on Newly Exposed Substrates
378(2)
Secondary Succession Occurs After Disturbances
380(2)
The Study of Succession Has a Rich History
382(1)
Succession Is Associated with Autogenic Changes in Environmental Conditions
382(4)
Quantifying Ecology 18.1 Quantifying Succession: Turnover Rates
384(2)
Species Diversity Changes During Succession
386(2)
Succession Involves Heterotrophic Species
388(1)
Systematic Changes in Community Structure Occur as a Result of Allogenic Environmental Change at a Variety of Timescales
389(1)
Community Structure Changes Over Geologic Time
390(1)
The Concept of Community Revisited
391(7)
Summary
395(1)
Study Questions
396(1)
Further Readings
397(1)
Landscape Ecology
398(26)
Environmental Processes Create a Variety of Patches in the Landscape
399(2)
Transition Zones Offer Diverse Conditions and Habitats
401(3)
Quantifying Ecology 19.1 Geographic Information Systems
402(2)
Patch Size and Shape Are Crucial to Species Diversity
404(4)
The Theory of Island Biogeography Applies to Landscape Patches
408(2)
In Fragmented Landscapes, Corridors Permit Movement Between Patches
410(1)
Metapopulation is a Central Concept in the Study of Landscape Dynamics
411(1)
Frequency, Intensity, and Scale Determine the Impact of Disturbances
411(4)
Researcher Profile | Nick M. Haddad
412(3)
Various Natural Processes Function as Disturbances
415(4)
Ecological Issues | The Yellowstone Fires of 1988
416(3)
Human Disturbance Creates Some of the Most Long-Lasting Effects
419(1)
The Landscape Represents a Shifting Mosaic of Changing Communities
420(4)
Summary
421(1)
Study Questions
422(1)
Further Readings
422(2)
Part Seven Ecosystem Ecology
424(70)
Ecosystem Energetics
426(24)
The Laws of Thermodynamics Govern Energy Flow
427(1)
Energy Fixed in the Process of Photosynthesis Is Primary Production
427(2)
Quantifying Ecology 20.1 | Estimating Net Primary Productivity using Satellite Data
428(1)
Temperature, Water, and Nutrients Control Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems
429(4)
Temperature, Light, and Nutrients Control Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems
433(2)
Energy Allocation and Plant Life Influence Primary Production
435(1)
Primary Production Varies with Time
436(1)
Primary Productivity Limits Secondary Production
436(3)
Consumers Vary in Efficiency of Production
439(1)
Ecosystems Have Two Major Food Chains
439(5)
Researcher Profile | Brian Silliman
440(2)
Ecological Issues | Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity
442(2)
Energy Flows Through Trophic Levels Can Be Quantified
444(1)
Consumption Efficiency Determines the Pathway of Energy Flow Through the Ecosystem
445(2)
Energy Decreases in Each Successive Trophic Level
447(3)
Summary
448(1)
Study Questions
449(1)
Further Readings
449(1)
Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling
450(24)
Most Essential Nutrients Are Recycled Within the Ecosystem
451(1)
Decomposition Is a Complex Process Involving a Variety of Organisms
452(2)
Studying Decomposition Involves Following the Fate of Dead Organic Matter
454(2)
Quantifying Ecology 21.1 Estimating the Rate of Decomposition
455(1)
A Number of Factors Influence the Rate of Decomposition
456(5)
Researcher Profile | Edward A. G. (Ted) Schuur
458(3)
Nutrients in Organic Matter Are Mineralized During Decomposition
461(1)
Decomposition Occurs in Aquatic Environments
462(1)
Key Ecosystem Processes Influence the Rate of Nutrient Cycling
463(3)
Ecological Issues | Nitrogen Fertilizers
464(2)
Nutrient Cycling Differs Between Terrestrial and Open-Water Aquatic Ecosystems
466(2)
Water Flow Influences Nutrient Cycling in Streams and Rivers
468(1)
Land and Marine Environments Influence Nutrient Cycling in Coastal Ecosystems
469(2)
Surface Ocean Currents Bring About Vertical Transport of Nutrients
471(3)
Summary
471(2)
Study Questions
473(1)
Further Readings
473(1)
Biogeochemical Cycles
474(20)
There Are Two Major Types of Biogeochemical Cycles
475(1)
Nutrients Enter the Ecosystem via Inputs
475(1)
Quantifying Ecology 22.1 Quantifying Biogeochemical Cycles: Pools and Fluxes
476(1)
Outputs Represent a Loss of Nutrients from the Ecosystem
476(2)
Biogeochemical Cycles Can Be Viewed from a Global Perspective
478(1)
The Carbon Cycle Is Closely Tied to Energy Flow
478(2)
The Cycling of Carbon Varies Daily and Seasonally
480(1)
The Global Carbon Cycle Involves Exchanges Among the Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land
480(3)
The Nitrogen Cycle Begins with Fixing Atmospheric Nitrogen
483(2)
The Phosphorus Cycle Has No Atmospheric Pool
485(3)
Ecological Issues | Nitrogen Saturation
486(2)
The Sulfur Cycle Is Both Sedimentary and Gaseous
488(1)
The Global Sulfur Cycle Is Poorly Understood
489(1)
The Oxygen Cycle Is Largely Under Biological Control
489(2)
The Various Biogeochemical Cycles Are Linked
491(3)
Summary
492(1)
Study Questions
493(1)
Further Readings
493(1)
Part Eight Biogeographical Ecology
494(82)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
496(27)
Terrestrial Ecosystems Reflect Adaptations of the Dominant Plant Life Forms
497(2)
Tropical Forests Characterize the Equatorial Zone
499(4)
Tropical Savannas Are Characteristic of the Semiarid Regions with Seasonal Rainfall
503(2)
Quantifying Ecology 23.1 Climate Diagrams
504(1)
Deserts Represent a Diverse Group of Ecosystems
505(3)
Mediterranean Climates Support Temperate Shrublands
508(3)
Forest Ecosystems Dominate the Wetter Regions of the Temperate Zone
511(2)
Grassland Ecosystems of the Temperate Zone Vary with Climate and Geography
513(2)
Conifer Forests Dominate the Cool Temperate and Boreal Zones
515(3)
Low Precipitation and Cold Temperatures Define the Arctic Tundra
518(5)
Summary
520(2)
Study Questions
522(1)
Further Readings
522(1)
Aquatic Ecosystems
523(24)
Lakes Have Many Origins
524(2)
Lakes Have Well-Defined Physical Characteristics
526(1)
The Nature of Life Varies in the Different Zones
526(3)
Ecological Issues | Dams Regulating the Flow of River Ecosystems
528(1)
The Character of a Lake Reflects Its Surrounding Landscape
529(1)
Flowing-Water Ecosystems Vary in Structure and Types of Habitats
530(3)
Quantifying Ecology 24.1 Stream flow
532(1)
Life Is Highly Adapted to Flowing Water
533(2)
The Flowing-Water Ecosystem Is a Continuum of Changing Environments
535(2)
Rivers Flow into the Sea, Forming Estuaries
537(1)
Oceans Exhibit Zonation and Stratification
538(1)
Pelagic Communities Vary Among the Vertical Zones
538(2)
Benthos Is a World of Its Own
540(1)
Coral Reefs Are Complex Ecosystems Built by Colonies of Coral Animals
541(2)
Productivity of the Oceans Is Governed by Light and Nutrients
543(4)
Summary
544(1)
Study Questions
545(1)
Further Readings
545(2)
Land-Water Margins
547(17)
The Intertidal Zone Is the Transition Between Terrestrial and Marine Environments
548(1)
Rocky Shorelines Have a Distinct Pattern of Zonation
549(1)
Sandy and Muddy Shores Are Harsh Environments
550(2)
Tides and Salinity Dictate the Structure of Salt Marshes
552(2)
Mangroves Replace Salt Marshes in Tropical Regions
554(1)
Freshwater Wetlands Are a Diverse Group of Ecosystems
555(3)
Hydrology Defines the Structure of Freshwater Wetlands
558(2)
Ecological Issues | The Continuing Decline of Wetlands
560(1)
Freshwater Wetlands Support a Rich Diversity of Life
560(4)
Summary
562(1)
Study Questions
562(1)
Further Readings
563(1)
Large-Scale Patterns of Biological Diversity
564(12)
Earth's Biological Diversity Has Changed Through Geologic Time
565(1)
Past Extinctions Have Been Clustered in Time
566(1)
Regional and Global Patterns of Species Diversity Vary Geographically
567(1)
Species Richness in Terrestrial Ecosystems Correlates with Climate and Productivity
568(2)
In Marine Environments, There Is an Inverse Relationship Between Productivity and Diversity
570(1)
Species Diversity Is a Function of Processes Operating at Many Scales
571(5)
Quantifying Ecology 26.1 Quantifying Biodiversity: Comparing Species Richness Using Rarefaction Curves
572(2)
Summary
574(1)
Study Questions
574(1)
Further Readings
574(2)
Part Nine Human Ecology
576
Population Growth, Resource Use, and Sustainability
578(29)
Sustainable Resource Use Is a Balance Between Supply and Demand
580(2)
Sustainability Can Be Indirectly Limited by Adverse Consequences of Resource Use
582(1)
Sustainability Is a Concept Learned from Natural Ecosystems
582(1)
Agricultural Practices Vary in the Level of Energy Input
583(1)
Swidden Agriculture Represents a Dominant Form of Agriculture in the Wet Tropics
583(2)
Industrialized Agriculture Dominates the Temperate Zone
585(1)
Different Agricultural Methods Represent a Trade-off Between Sustainability and Productivity
586(2)
Sustainable Agriculture Depends on a Variety of Methods
588(2)
Ecological Issues | Insect Wars
590(1)
The Goal of Sustainable Forestry Is to Achieve a Balance Between Net Growth and Harvest
590(5)
Exploitation of Fisheries Has Led to the Need for Management
595(4)
Researcher Profile | Deborah Lawrence
596(3)
Fisheries Management Requires an Ecosystem Approach
599(4)
Quantifying Ecology 27.1 Maximum Sustainable Yield
600(2)
Quantifying Ecology 27.2 Discounting the Future
602(1)
Economics Are a Key Factor Governing Resource Management
603(4)
Summary
605(1)
Study Questions
606(1)
Further Readings
606(1)
Habitat Loss, Biodiversity, and Conservation
607(24)
The Destruction of Habitat is the Leading Cause of Current Species Extinctions
608(3)
Human-Introduced Exotic Species Pose a Threat to Many Native Species
611(1)
Species Differ in Their Susceptibility to Extinction
612(1)
The Identification of Threatened Species Is Critical to Conservation Efforts
613(4)
Ecological Issues | The Wolves of Yellowstone National Park
614(1)
Quantifying Ecology 28.1 Demographic Stochasticity and Probability of Extinction
615(1)
Ecological Issues | Endangered Species--Endangered Legislation
616(1)
Regions of High Species Diversity Are Particularly Important to Conservation Efforts
617(1)
Protecting Populations Is the Key to Conservation Efforts
618(3)
Quantifying Ecology 28.2 Effective Population Size
620(1)
For Some Species, Reestablishment of Populations Through Reintroduction Is Necessary
621(2)
Habitat Conservation Functions to Protect Whole Communities
623(1)
Habitat Conservation Involves the Establishment of Protected Areas
623(4)
Habitat Restoration Is Often Necessary in Conservation Effort
627(1)
Environmental Ethics Is at the Core of Conservation
628(3)
Summary
629(1)
Study Questions
630(1)
Further Readings
630(1)
Global Climate Change
631
Greenhouse Gases Influence Earth's Energy Balance and Climate
632(1)
Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide is Rising
632(2)
Tracking the Fate of CO2 Emissions
634(1)
Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations Affect CO2 Uptake by Oceans
634(1)
Plants Respond to Increased Atmospheric CO2
635(2)
Greenhouse Gases are Changing the Global Climate
637(3)
Quantifying Ecology 29.1 Detecting Trends
640(1)
Changes in Climate Will Affect Ecosystems at Many Levels
640(6)
Ecological Issues | Who Turned Up the Heat?
646(1)
Changing Climate Will Shift the Global Distribution of Ecosystems
646(2)
Global Warming Would Raise Sea Level and Affect Coastal Environments
648(2)
Climate Change Will Affect Agricultural Production
650(2)
Climate Change Will Both Directly and Indirectly Affect Human Health
652(4)
Researcher Profile | Erika Zavaleta
654(2)
Understanding Global Change Requires the Study of Ecology at a Global Scale
656
Summary
657(1)
Study Questions
658(1)
Further Readings
658
References 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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