9780078119064

The Elements of Moral Philosophy

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780078119064

  • ISBN10:

    0078119065

  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/7/2014
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Summary

The Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels is a best-selling text for undergraduate courses in ethics. Thirteen thought-provoking chapters introduce readers to major moral concepts and theories in philosophy through clear, understandable explanations and compelling discussions.

Table of Contents

RACHELS, THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY, 8E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. WHAT IS MORALITY?

1.1.  The Problem of Definition
1.2.  First Example: Baby Theresa
1.3.  Second Example: Jodie and Mary
1.4.  Third Example: Tracy Latimer
1.5.  Reason and Impartiality
1.6.  The Minimum Conception of Morality

2. THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM

2.1.  Different Cultures Have Different Moral Codes
2.2.  Cultural Relativism
2.3.  The Cultural Differences Argument
2.4.  What Follows from Cultural Relativism
2.5.  Why There Is Less Disagreement Than It Seems
2.6.  Some Values Are Shared by All Cultures
2.7.  Judging a Cultural Practice to Be Undesirable
2.8.  Back to the Five Claims
2.9.  What We Can Learn from Cultural Relativism

3. SUBJECTIVISM IN ETHICS

3.1.  The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism
3.2.  The Linguistic Turn
3.3.  The Denial of Value
3.4.  Ethics and Science
3.5.  The Question of Same-Sex Relations

4. DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON RELIGION?

4.1.  The Presumed Connection between Morality and Religion
4.2.  The Divine Command Theory
4.3.  The Theory of Natural Law
4.4.  Religion and Particular Moral Issues

5. ETHICAL EGOISM

5.1.  Is There a Duty to Help the Starving?
5.2.  Psychological Egoism
5.3.  Three Arguments for Ethical Egoism
5.4.  Three Arguments against Ethical Egoism

6. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY

6.1.  Hobbes’s Argument
6.2.  The Prisoner’s Dilemma
6.3.  Some Advantages of the Social Contract Theory
6.4.  The Problem of Civil Disobedience
6.5.  Difficulties for the Theory

7. THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH

7.1.  The Revolution in Ethics
7.2.  First Example: Euthanasia
7.3.  Second Example: Marijuana
7.4.  Third Example: Nonhuman Animals

8. THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM

8.1.  The Classical Version of the Theory
8.2.  Is Pleasure All That Matters?
8.3.  Are Consequences All That Matter?
8.4.  Should We Be Equally Concerned for Everyone?
8.5.  The Defense of Utilitarianism
8.6.  Concluding Thoughts

9. ARE THERE ABSOLUTE MORAL RULES?

9.1.  Harry Truman and Elizabeth Anscombe
9.2.  The Categorical Imperative
9.3.  Kant’s Arguments on Lying
9.4.  Conflicts between Rules
9.5.  Kant’s Insight

10. KANT AND RESPECT FOR PERSONS

10.1.  Kant’s Core Ideas
10.2.  Retribution and Utility in the Theory of Punishment
10.3.  Kant’s Retributivism

11. FEMINISM AND THE ETHICS OF CARE

11.1.  Do Women and Men Think Differently about Ethics?
11.2.  Implications for Moral Judgment
11.3.  Implications for Ethical Theory

12. VIRTUE ETHICS

12.1.  The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action
12.2.  The Virtues
12.3.  Two Advantages of Virtue Ethics
12.4.  Virtue and Conduct
12.5.  The Problem of Incompleteness
12.6.  Conclusion

13. WHAT WOULD A SATISFACTORY MORAL THEORY BE LIKE?

13.1.  Morality without Hubris 13.2.  Treating People as They Deserve
13.3.  A Variety of Motives
13.4.  Multiple-Strategies Utilitarianism
13.5.  The Moral Community
13.6.  Justice and Fairness
13.7.  Conclusion

Notes on Sources
Index

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