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The Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels is a best-selling text for undergraduate courses in ethics. Thirteen thought-provoking chapters introduce readers to major moral concepts and theories in philosophy through clear, understandable explanations and compelling discussions.
Table of Contents
RACHELS, THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY, 8E
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. WHAT IS MORALITY?
1.1. The Problem of Definition 1.2. First Example: Baby Theresa 1.3. Second Example: Jodie and Mary 1.4. Third Example: Tracy Latimer 1.5. Reason and Impartiality 1.6. The Minimum Conception of Morality
2. THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM
2.1. Different Cultures Have Different Moral Codes 2.2. Cultural Relativism 2.3. The Cultural Differences Argument 2.4. What Follows from Cultural Relativism 2.5. Why There Is Less Disagreement Than It Seems 2.6. Some Values Are Shared by All Cultures 2.7. Judging a Cultural Practice to Be Undesirable 2.8. Back to the Five Claims 2.9. What We Can Learn from Cultural Relativism
3. SUBJECTIVISM IN ETHICS
3.1. The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism 3.2. The Linguistic Turn 3.3. The Denial of Value 3.4. Ethics and Science 3.5. The Question of Same-Sex Relations
4. DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON RELIGION?
4.1. The Presumed Connection between Morality and Religion 4.2. The Divine Command Theory 4.3. The Theory of Natural Law 4.4. Religion and Particular Moral Issues
5. ETHICAL EGOISM
5.1. Is There a Duty to Help the Starving? 5.2. Psychological Egoism 5.3. Three Arguments for Ethical Egoism 5.4. Three Arguments against Ethical Egoism
6. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY
6.1. Hobbes’s Argument 6.2. The Prisoner’s Dilemma 6.3. Some Advantages of the Social Contract Theory 6.4. The Problem of Civil Disobedience 6.5. Difficulties for the Theory
7. THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH
7.1. The Revolution in Ethics 7.2. First Example: Euthanasia 7.3. Second Example: Marijuana 7.4. Third Example: Nonhuman Animals
8. THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM
8.1. The Classical Version of the Theory 8.2. Is Pleasure All That Matters? 8.3. Are Consequences All That Matter? 8.4. Should We Be Equally Concerned for Everyone? 8.5. The Defense of Utilitarianism 8.6. Concluding Thoughts
9. ARE THERE ABSOLUTE MORAL RULES?
9.1. Harry Truman and Elizabeth Anscombe 9.2. The Categorical Imperative 9.3. Kant’s Arguments on Lying 9.4. Conflicts between Rules 9.5. Kant’s Insight
10. KANT AND RESPECT FOR PERSONS
10.1. Kant’s Core Ideas 10.2. Retribution and Utility in the Theory of Punishment 10.3. Kant’s Retributivism
11. FEMINISM AND THE ETHICS OF CARE
11.1. Do Women and Men Think Differently about Ethics? 11.2. Implications for Moral Judgment 11.3. Implications for Ethical Theory
12. VIRTUE ETHICS
12.1. The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action 12.2. The Virtues 12.3. Two Advantages of Virtue Ethics 12.4. Virtue and Conduct 12.5. The Problem of Incompleteness 12.6. Conclusion
13. WHAT WOULD A SATISFACTORY MORAL THEORY BE LIKE?
13.1. Morality without Hubris 13.2. Treating People as They Deserve 13.3. A Variety of Motives 13.4. Multiple-Strategies Utilitarianism 13.5. The Moral Community 13.6. Justice and Fairness 13.7. Conclusion