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Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils,9780130144973
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Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130144973

ISBN10:
0130144975
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/1/1999
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

For lower-level undergraduate courses in Introduction to Soils and Fundamentals of Soil Science. This text opens students' eyes to the fascinating and important world of soils, and the principles that can be used to minimize the degradation and destruction of one of our most important natural resources. Concentrating on essentials, this edition is a more concise version of its parent text,The Nature and Properties of Soils, maintaining its high standards of rigor and readability, and its priority of explaining this science in a manner relevant to many fields of study. It provides a fundamental knowledge that is a prerequisite to meeting the many natural-resource challenges awaiting humanity in the 21st century.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xiii
1 THE SOILS AROUND US
1(28)
1.1 Functions of Soils in Our Ecosystem
2(1)
1.2 Medium for Plant Growth
3(3)
1.3 Regulator of Water Supplies
6(1)
1.4 Recycler of Raw Materials
7(1)
1.5 Habitat for Soil Organisms
7(1)
1.6 Engineering Medium
8(1)
1.7 Soil as a Natural Body
9(2)
1.8 The Soil Profile and Its Layers (Horizons)
11(2)
1.9 Topsoil and Subsoil
13(3)
1.10 Soil: The Interface of Air, Minerals, Water, and Life
16(1)
1.11 Mineral (Inorganic) Constituents of Soils
16(2)
1.12 Soil Organic Matter
18(2)
1.13 Soil Water: A Dynamic Solution
20(2)
1.14 Soil Air: A Changing Mixture of Gases
22(1)
1.15 Interaction of Four Components to Supply Plant Nutrients
22(2)
1.16 Nutrient Uptake by Plant Roots
24(2)
1.17 Soil Quality, Degradation, and Resilience
26(1)
1.18 Conclusion
27(1)
Study Questions
27(1)
Reference
28(1)
2 FORMATION OF SOILS FROM PARENT MATERIALS
29(30)
2.1 Weathering of Rocks and Minerals
29(2)
2.2 Physical Weathering (Disintegration)
31(2)
2.3 Chemical Weathering (Decomposition)
33(1)
2.4 Factors Influencing Soil Formation
34(1)
2.5 Parent Materials
35(1)
2.6 Residual Parent Material
35(1)
2.7 Colluvial Debris
36(1)
2.8 Alluvial Stream Deposits
37(1)
2.9 Marine Sediments
38(2)
2.10 Parent Materials Transported by Glacial Ice and Meltwaters
40(2)
2.11 Parent Materials Transported by Wind
42(1)
2.12 Organic Deposits
43(2)
2.13 Climate
45(2)
2.14 Biota: Living Organisms
47(3)
2.15 Topography
50(1)
2.16 Time
51(1)
2.17 Soil Formation in Action
52(3)
2.18 The Soil Profile
55(2)
2.19 Conclusion
57(1)
Study Questions
58(1)
References
58(1)
3 SOIL CLASSIFICATION
59(36)
3.1 Concept of Individual Soils
60(1)
3.2 Comprehensive Classification System: Soil Taxonomy
60(5)
3.3 Categories and Nomenclature of Soil Taxonomy
65(1)
3.4 Soil Orders
66(4)
3.5 Entisols (Recent: Little If Any Profile Development)
70(1)
3.6 Inceptisols (Few Diagnostic Features: Inception of B Horizon)
71(1)
3.7 Andisols (Volcanic Ash Soils)
71(1)
3.8 Gelisols (Permafrost and Frost Churning)
72(2)
3.9 Histosols (Organic Soils without Permafrost)
74(1)
3.10 Aridisols (Dry Soils)
75(2)
3.11 Vertisols (Dark, Swelling and Cracking Clays)
77(2)
3.12 Mollisols (Dark, Soft Soils of Grasslands)
79(2)
3.13 Alfisols (Argillic or Natric Horizon, Medium to High Bases)
81(1)
3.14 Ultisols (Argillic Horizon, Low Bases)
82(1)
3.15 Spodosols (Acid, Sandy, Forest Soils, Low Bases)
83(1)
3.16 Oxisols (Oxic Horizon, Highly Weathered)
84(1)
3.17 Lower-Level Categories in Soil Taxonomy
85(4)
3.18 Soil Surveys and Maps
89(3)
3.19 Conclusion
92(1)
Study Questions
93(1)
References
94(1)
4 SOIL ARCHITECTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
95(36)
4.1 Soil Color
96(1)
4.2 Soil Texture (Size Distribution of Soil Particles)
97(3)
4.3 Soil Textural Classes
100(4)
4.4 Structure of Mineral Soils
104(2)
4.5 Soil Density
106(7)
4.6 Pore Space of Mineral Soils
113(2)
4.7 Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates
115(6)
4.8 Tillage and Structural Management of Soils
121(4)
4.9 Soil Properties Relevant to Engineering Uses
125(4)
4.10 Conclusion
129(1)
Study Questions
129(1)
References
130(1)
5 SOIL WATER: CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOR
131(27)
5.1 Structure and Related Properties of Water
132(2)
5.2 Capillary Fundamentals and Soil Water
134(1)
5.3 Soil Water Energy Concepts
135(5)
5.4 Soil Moisture Content and Soil Water Potential
140(3)
5.5 The Flow of Liquid Water in Soil
143(3)
5.6 Infiltration and Percolation
146(4)
5.7 Water Vapor Movement in Soils
150(1)
5.8 Qualitative Description of Soil Wetness
150(5)
5.9 Conclusion
155(1)
Study Questions
156(1)
References
157(1)
6 SOIL AND THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
158(36)
6.1 The Global Hydrologic Cycle
159(1)
6.2 Fate of Precipitation and Irrigation Water
160(3)
6.3 The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
163(4)
6.4 Efficiency of Water Use
167(2)
6.5 Control of Evapotranspiration (ET)
169(1)
6.6 Control of Surface Evaporation (E)
169(2)
6.7 Percolation-Evaporation Balance
171(2)
6.8 Percolation and Groundwaters
173(3)
6.9 Enhancing Soil Drainage
176(5)
6.10 Septic Tank Drain Fields
181(4)
6.11 Irrigation Principles and Practices
185(6)
6.12 Conclusion
191(1)
Study Questions
192(1)
References
192(2)
7 SOIL AERATION AND TEMPERATURE
194(32)
7.1 Soil Aeration
194(2)
7.2 Means of Characterizing Soil Aeration
196(1)
7.3 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potential
197(3)
7.4 Factors Affecting Soil Aeration
200(2)
7.5 Ecological Effects of Soil Aeration
202(2)
7.6 Aeration in Relation to Containerized and Ornamental Plants
204(3)
7.7 Wetlands and Their Poorly Aerated Soils
207(3)
7.8 Processes Affected by Soil Temperature
210(4)
7.9 Absorption and Loss of Solar Energy
214(3)
7.10 Thermal Properties of Soils
217(4)
7.11 Soil Temperature Control
221(2)
7.12 Conclusion
223(1)
Study Questions
224(1)
References
224(2)
8 SOIL COLLOIDS: THEIR NATURE AND PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
226(26)
8.1 Properties of Soil Colloids
227(2)
8.2 Adsorbed Cations
229(1)
8.3 Fundamentals of Layer Silicate Clay Structure
230(2)
8.4 Mineralogical Organization of Silicate Clays
232(4)
8.5 Genesis of Soil Colloids
236(2)
8.6 Sources of Charges on Soil Colloids
238(3)
8.7 Cation Exchange
241(1)
8.8 Cation Exchange Capacity
241(4)
8.9 Availability of Exchangeable Cations as Plant Nutrients
245(1)
8.10 Anion Exchange
246(2)
8.11 Soil Colloids and Environmental Quality
248(1)
8.12 Conclusion
249(1)
Study Questions
250(1)
References
251(1)
9 SOIL ACIDITY, ALKALINITY, AND SALINITY
252(38)
9.1 Sources of Acidity
253(3)
9.2 Sources of Alkalinity
256(2)
9.3 Buffering of Soils
258(2)
9.4 Variability in Soil pH
260(4)
9.5 Soil Reaction: Correlations
264(1)
9.6 Determination of Soil pH
265(2)
9.7 Methods of Intensifying Soil Acidity
267(1)
9.8 Decreasing Soil Acidity: Liming Materials
268(1)
9.9 Reactions of Lime in the Soil
268(1)
9.10 Lime Requirements: Quantities Needed
269(2)
9.11 Practical Considerations
271(2)
9.12 Ameliorating Acidity in Subsoils
273(1)
9.13 Alkaline and Salt-Affected Soils
273(1)
9.14 Development of Salt-Affected Soils
274(1)
9.15 Measuring Salinity and Alkalinity
275(1)
9.16 Classes of Salt-Affected Soils
276(3)
9.17 Selective Tolerance of Higher Plants to Saline and Sodic Soils
279(2)
9.18 Management of Saline and Sodic Soils
281(2)
9.19 Reclamation of Saline Soils
283(2)
9.20 Reclamation of Saline-Sodic and Sodic Soils
285(2)
9.21 Conclusion
287(1)
Study Questions
288(1)
References
288(2)
10 ORGANISMS AND ECOLOGY OF THE SOIL
290(32)
10.1 The Diversity of Organisms in the Soil
290(2)
10.2 Organisms in Action
292(4)
10.3 Organism Abundance, Biomass, and Metabolic Activity
296(1)
10.4 Earthworms and Termites
297(4)
10.5 Soil Microanimals
301(2)
10.6 Roots of Higher Plants
303(2)
10.7 Soil Algae
305(1)
10.8 Soil Fungi
306(4)
10.9 Soil Actinomycetes
310(2)
10.10 Soil Bacteria
312(1)
10.11 Conditions Affecting the Growth of Soil Microorganisms
312(2)
10.12 Beneficial Effects of Soil Organisms
314(1)
10.13 Soil Organisms and Damage to Higher Plants
315(2)
10.14 Ecological Relationships Among Soil Organisms
317(3)
10.15 Conclusion
320(1)
Study Questions
320(1)
References
321(1)
11 SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
322(35)
11.1 The Global Carbon Cycle
322(2)
11.2 The Process of Decomposition in Soils
324(4)
11.3 Factors Controlling Rates of Decomposition and Mineralization
328(5)
11.4 Humus: Genesis and Nature
333(2)
11.5 Composts and Composting
335(3)
11.6 Direct Influences of Organic Matter on Plant Growth
338(1)
11.7 Influence of Organic Matter on Soil Properties and the Environment
339(2)
11.8 Management of Amount and Quality of Soil Organic Matter
341(2)
11.9 Carbon Balance in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System
343(1)
11.10 Factors and Practices Influencing Soil Organic Matter Levels
344(5)
11.11 Soils and the Greenhouse Effect
349(3)
11.12 Organic Soils (Histosols)
352(2)
11.13 Conclusion
354(1)
Study Questions
355(1)
References
355(2)
12 NITROGEN AND SULFUR ECONOMY OF SOILS
357(34)
12.1 Influence of Nitrogen on Plant Growth and Development
358(1)
12.2 Origin and Distribution of Nitrogen
358(1)
12.3 The Nitrogen Cycle
359(1)
12.4 Immobilization and Mineralization
359(2)
12.5 Ammonium Fixation by Clay Minerals
361(1)
12.6 Ammonia Volatilization
361(1)
12.7 Nitrification
362(2)
12.8 The Nitrate Leaching Problem
364(2)
12.9 Gaseous Losses by Denitrification
366(5)
12.10 Biological Nitrogen Fixation
371(1)
12.11 Symbiotic Fixation with Legumes
372(3)
12.12 Symbiotic Fixation with Nonlegumes
375(2)
12.13 Nonsymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
377(1)
12.14 Addition of Nitrogen to Soil in Precipitation
377(1)
12.15 Reactions of Nitrogen Fertilizers
378(1)
12.16 Practical Management of Soil Nitrogen in Agriculture
378(1)
12.17 Importance of Sulfur
379(2)
12.18 Natural Sources of Sulfur
381(2)
12.19 The Sulfur Cycle
383(1)
12.20 Behavior of Sulfur Compounds in Soils
383(2)
12.21 Sulfur Oxidation and Reduction
385(1)
12.22 Sulfur Retention and Exchange
386(1)
12.23 Sulfur and Soil Fertility Maintenance
387(2)
12.24 Conclusion
389(1)
Study Questions
389(1)
References
390(1)
13 SOIL PHOSPHORUS, POTASSIUM, AND MICRONUTRIENTS
391(44)
13.1 Role of Phosphorus in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility
392(1)
13.2 Effects of Phosphorus on Environmental Quality
393(4)
13.3 The Phosphorus Cycle
397(3)
13.4 Organic Phosphorus in Soils
400(2)
13.5 Inorganic Phosphorus in Soils
402(1)
13.6 Solubility of Inorganic Phosphorus in Acid Soils
403(3)
13.7 Inorganic Phosphorus Availability at High pH Values
406(1)
13.8 Phosphorus-Fixation Capacity of Soils
406(4)
13.9 Practical Control of Phosphorus Availability
410(1)
13.10 Potassium: Nature and Ecological Roles
411(1)
13.11 Potassium in Plant and Animal Nutrition
411(1)
13.12 The Potassium Cycle
412(3)
13.13 The Potassium Problem in Soil Fertility
415(2)
13.14 Forms and Availability of Potassium in Soils
417(2)
13.15 Factors Affecting Potassium Fixation in Soils
419(1)
13.16 Practical Aspects of Potassium Management
420(1)
13.17 Importance of Micronutrient Elements
421(1)
13.18 Role of the Micronutrients
422(1)
13.19 Source of Micronutrients
422(2)
13.20 Factors Affecting the Availability of Micronutrients
424(5)
13.21 Need for Nutrient Balance
429(1)
13.22 Soil Management and Micronutrient Needs
430(2)
13.23 Conclusion
432(1)
Study Questions
432(1)
References
433(2)
14 PRACTICAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
435(38)
14.1 Goals of Nutrient Management
435(3)
14.2 Environmental Quality
438(3)
14.3 Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Nutrient Cycles
441(3)
14.4 Recycling Nutrients through Animal Manures
444(2)
14.5 Storage, Treatment, and Management of Animal Manures
446(2)
14.6 Industrial and Municipal By-Products
448(1)
14.7 Sewage Effluent and Sludge
449(1)
14.8 Practical Utilization of Organic Nutrient Sources
450(1)
14.9 Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers
451(6)
14.10 The Concept of the Limiting Factor
457(2)
14.11 Fertilizer Application Methods
459(3)
14.12 Timing of Fertilizer Application
462(1)
14.13 Diagnostic Tools and Methods
462(1)
14.14 Plant Symptoms and Field Observations
463(1)
14.15 Plant Analysis and Tissue Testing
463(1)
14.16 Soil Analysis
463(5)
14.17 Site-Specific Nutrient Management
468(1)
14.18 Broader Aspects of Fertilizer Practice
469(1)
14.19 Conclusion
470(1)
Study Questions
471(1)
References
471(2)
15 SOIL EROSION AND ITS CONTROL
473(38)
15.1 Significance of Soil Erosion and Land Degradation
474(2)
15.2 On-Site and Off-Site Effects of Accelerated Soil Erosion
476(4)
15.3 Mechanics of Water Erosion
480(2)
15.4 Factors Affecting Erosion by Water
482(7)
15.5 Conservation Tillage
489(4)
15.6 Control of Accelerated Erosion on Range and Forest Land
493(2)
15.7 Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites
495(4)
15.8 Wind Erosion and Its Control
499(4)
15.9 Land Capability Classification as a Guide to Conservation
503(3)
15.10 Progress in Soil Conservation
506(1)
15.11 Conclusion
507(1)
Study Questions
508(1)
References
509(2)
APPENDIX A U.S. SOIL TAXONOMY SUBORDER MAP AND LEGEND 511(4)
APPENDIX B CANADIAN AND FAO SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 515(4)
APPENDIX C SI UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS AND PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 519(4)
GLOSSARY 523(24)
INDEX 547


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