9780199388417

Elements of Power Electronics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780199388417

  • ISBN10:

    0199388415

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/30/2014
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Building on the tradition of its classic first edition, the long-awaited second edition of Elements of Power Electronics provides comprehensive coverage of the subject at a level suitable for undergraduate engineering students, students in advanced degree programs, and novices in the field. It establishes a fundamental engineering basis for power electronics analysis, design, and implementation, offering broad and in-depth coverage of basic material. Streamlined throughout to reflect new innovations in technology, the second edition also features updates on renewable and alternative energy.

Elements of Power Electronics features a unifying framework that includes the physical implications of circuit laws, switching circuit analysis, and the basis for converter operation and control. It discusses dc-dc, ac-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac conversion tasks and principles of resonant converters and discontinuous converters. The text also addresses magnetic device design, thermal management and drivers for power semiconductors, control system aspects of converters, and both small-signal and geometric controls.

Models for real devices and components-including capacitors, inductors, wire connections, and power semiconductors-are developed in depth, while newly expanded examples show students how to use tools like Mathcad, Matlab, and Mathematica to aid in the analysis and design of conversion circuits.

Features:
*More than 160 examples and 350 chapter problems support the presented concepts
*An extensive Companion Website includes additional problems, laboratory materials, selected solutions for students, computer-based examples, and analysis tools for Mathcad, Matlab, and Mathematica

Author Biography


Philip T. Krein holds the Grainger Endowed Chair in Electric Machinery and Electromechanics as Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a past president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, and holds twenty-eight U.S. patents, with additional patents pending.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 -- POWER ELECTRONICS AND THE ENERGY REVOLUTION
1.1 The energy basis of electrical engineering
1.2 What is power electronics?
1.3 The need for electrical conversion
1.4 History
1.4.1 Rectifiers and the diode
1.4.2 Inverters and power transistors
1.4.3 Motor drive applications
1.4.4 Power supplies and dc-dc conversion
1.4.5 Alternative energy processing
1.4.6 The energy future: Power electronics as a revolution
1.4.7 Summary and future developments
1.5 Goals and methods of electrical conversion
1.5.1 The basic objectives
1.5.2 The efficiency objective -- the switch
1.5.3 The reliability objective -- simplicity and integration
1.5.4 Important variables and notation
1.6 Energy analysis of switching power converters
1.6.1 Conservation of energy over time
1.6.2 Energy flows and action in dc-dc converters
1.6.3 Energy flows and action in rectifiers
1.7 Power electronics applications: a universal energy enabler
1.7.1 Solar energy architectures
1.7.2 Wind energy architectures
1.7.3 Tide and wave architectures
1.7.4 Electric transportation architectures
1.8 Recap
1.9 Problems
1.10 References

CHAPTER 2 -- SWITCHING CONVERSION AND ANALYSIS
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Combining conventional circuits and switches
2.2.1 Organizing a converter to focus on switches
2.2.2 Configuration-based analysis
2.2.3 The switch matrix as a design tool
2.3 The reality of Kirchhoff's Laws
2.3.1 The challenge of switching violations
2.3.2 Interconnection of voltage and current sources
2.3.3 Short-term and long-term violations
2.3.4 Interpretation of average inductor voltage and capacitor current
2.3.5 Source conversion
2.4 Switching functions and applications
2.5 Overview of switching devices
2.5.1 Real switches
2.5.2 The restricted switch
2.5.3 Typical devices and their functions
2.6 Methods for diode switch circuits
2.7 Control of converters based on switch action
2.8 Equivalent source methods
2.9 Simulation
2.10 Summary and recap
2.11 Problems
2.12 References


PART II: CONVERTERS AND APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 3 -- DC-DC CONVERTERS
3.1 The importance of dc-dc conversion
3.2 Why not voltage dividers?
3.3 Linear regulators
3.3.1 Regulator circuits
3.3.2 Regulation measures
3.4 Direct dc-dc converters and filters
3.4.1 The buck converter
3.4.2 The boost converter
3.4.3 Power filter design
3.4.4 Discontinuous modes and critical inductance
3.5 Indirect dc-dc converters
3.5.1 The buck-boost converter
3.5.2 The boost-buck converter
3.5.3 The flyback converter
3.5.4 SEPIC, zeta, and other indirect converters
3.5.5 Power filters in indirect converters
3.5.6 Discontinuous modes in indirect converters
3.6 Forward converters and isolation
3.6.1 Basic transformer operation
3.6.2 General considerations in forward converters
3.6.3 Catch-winding forward converter
3.6.4 Forward converters with ac links
3.6.5 Boost-derived (current-fed) forward converters
3.7 Bidirectional converters
3.8 Dc-dc converter design issues and examples
3.8.1 The high-side switch challenge
3.8.2 Limitations of resistive and forward drops
3.8.3 Regulation
3.8.4 A solar interface converter
3.8.5 Electric truck interface converter
3.8.6 Telecommunications power supply
3.9 Application discussion
3.10 Recap
3.11 Problems
3.12 References

CHAPTER 4 -- RECTIFIERS AND SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUITS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Rectifier overview
4.3 The classical rectifier -- operation and analysis
4.4 Phase controlled rectifiers
4.4.1 The uncontrolled case.
4.4.2 Controlled bridge and midpoint rectifiers
4.4.3 The polyphase bridge rectifier
4.4.4 Power filtering in rectifiers
4.4.5 Discontinuous mode operation
4.5 Active rectifiers
4.5.1 Boost rectifier
4.5.2 Discontinuous mode flyback and related converters as active rectifiers
4.5.3 Polyphase active rectifiers
4.6 Switched-capacitor converters
4.6.1 Charge exchange between capacitors
4.6.2 Capacitors and switch matrices
4.6.3 Doublers and voltage multipliers
4.7 Voltage and current doublers
4.8 Converter design examples
4.8.1 Wind-power rectifier
4.8.2 Power system control and HVDC
4.8.3 Solid-state lighting
4.8.4 Vehicle active battery charger
4.9 Application discussion
4.10 Recap
4.11 Problems
4.12 References

CHAPTER 5 -- INVERTERS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Inverter considerations
5.3 Voltage-sourced inverters and control
5.4 Pulse-width modulation
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Creating PWM waveforms
5.4.3 Drawbacks of PWM
5.4.4 Multi-level PWM
5.4.5 Inverter input current under PWM
5.5 Three-phase inverters and space vector modulation
5.6 Current-sourced inverters
5.7 Filters and inverters
5.8 Inverter design examples
5.8.1 Solar power interface
5.8.2 Uninterruptible power supply
5.8.3 Electric vehicle high-performance drive
5.9 Application discussion
5.10 Recap
5.11 Problems
5.12 References


PART III: REAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS

CHAPTER 6 -- REAL SOURCES AND LOADS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Real loads
6.2.1 Quasi-steady loads
6.2.2 Transient loads
6.2.3 Coping with load variation -- dynamic regulation
6.3 Wire inductance
6.4 Critical values and examples
6.5 Interfaces for real sources
6.5.1 Impedance behavior of sources
6.5.2 Interfaces for dc sources
6.5.3 Interfaces for ac sources
6.6 Source characteristics of batteries
6.6.1 Lead-acid cells
6.6.2 Nickel batteries
6.6.3 Lithium-ion batteries
6.6.4 Basis for comparison
6.7 Source characteristics of fuel cells and solar cells
6.7.1 Fuel cells
6.7.2 Solar cells
6.8 Design examples
6.8.1 Wind farm interconnection problems
6.8.2 Bypass capacitor benefits
6.8.3 Interface for a boost PFC active rectifier
6.8.4 Lithium-ion battery charger for a small portable device
6.9 Application discussion
6.10 Recap
6.11 Problems
6.12 References

CHAPTER 7 -- CAPACITORS AND RESISTORS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Capacitors -- types and equivalent circuits
7.2.1 Major types
7.2.2 Equivalent circuit
7.2.3 Impedance behavior
7.2.4 Simple dielectric types and materials
7.2.5 Electrolytics
7.2.6 Double-layer capacitors
7.3 Effects of ESR
7.4 Effects of ESL
7.5 Wire resistance
7.5.1 Wire sizing
7.5.2 Traces and busbar
7.5.3 Temperature and frequency effects
7.6 Resistors
7.7 Design examples
7.7.1 Single-phase inverter energy
7.7.2 Paralleling capacitors in a low-voltage dc-dc converter
7.7.3 Resistance management in a heat lamp application
7.8 Application discussion
7.9 Recap
7.10 Problems
7.11 References

CHAPTER 8 -- CONCEPTS OF MAGNETICS FOR POWER ELECTRONICS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Maxwell's equations with magnetic approximations
8.3 Materials and properties
8.4 Magnetic circuits
8.4.1 The circuit analogy
8.4.2 Inductance
8.4.3 Ideal and real transformers
8.5 The hysteresis loop and losses
8.6 Saturation as a design constraint
8.6.1 Saturation limits
8.6.2 General design considerations
8.7 Design examples
8.7.1 Core materials and geometries
8.7.2 Additional discussion of transformers
8.7.3 Hybrid car boost inductor
8.7.4 Building-integrated solar energy converter
8.7.5 Isolated converter for small satellite application
8.8 Application discussion
8.9 Recap
8.10 Problems
8.11 References

CHAPTER 9 -- POWER SEMICONDUCTORS IN CONVERTERS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Switching device states
9.3 Static models
9.4 Switch energy losses and examples
9.4.1 General analysis of losses
9.4.2 Losses during commutation
9.4.3 Examples
9.5 Simple heat transfer models for power semiconductors
9.6 The PN junction as a power device
9.7 PN junction diodes and alternatives
9.8 The thyristor family
9.9 Field-effect transistors
9.10 Insulated-gate bipolar transistors
9.11 Integrated gate-commutated thyristors and combination devices
9.12 Impact of compound and wide bandgap semiconductors
9.13 Snubbers
9.13.1 Introduction
9.13.2 Lossy turn-off snubbers
9.13.3 Lossy turn-on snubbers
9.13.4 Combined and lossless snubbers
9.14 Design examples
9.14.1 Boost converter for disk drive
9.14.2 Loss estimation for electric vehicle inverter
9.14.3 Extreme performance devices
9.15 Application discussion
9.16 Recap
9.17 Problems
9.18 References

CHAPTER 10 -- INTERFACING WITH POWER SEMICONDUCTORS
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Gate drives
10.2.1 Overview
10.2.2 Voltage-controlled gates
10.2.3 Pulsed-current gates
10.2.4 Gate turn-off thyristors
10.3 Isolation and high-side switching
10.4 P-channel applications and shoot-through
10.5 Sensors for power electronic switches
10.5.1 Resistive sensing
10.5.2 Integrating sensing functions with the gate drive
10.5.3 Noncontact sensing
10.6 Design examples
10.6.1 Gate consideration on dc-dc-based battery charger
10.6.2 Gate drive impedance requirements
10.6.3 Hall sensor accuracy interpretation
10.7 Application discussion
10.8 Recap
10.9 Problems
10.10 References


PART IV: CONTROL ASPECTS

CHAPTER 11 -- OVERVIEW OF FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR CONVERTERS
11.1 Introduction
11.2 The regulation and control problem
11.2.1 Introduction
11.2.2 Defining the regulation problem
11.2.3 The control problem
11.3 Review of feedback control principles
11.3.1 Open-loop and closed-loop control
11.3.2 Block diagrams
11.3.3 System gain and Laplace transforms
11.3.4 Transient response and frequency domain
11.3.5 Stability
11.4 Converter models for feedback
11.4.1 Basic converter dynamics
11.4.2 Fast switching models
11.4.3 Piecewise-linear models
11.4.4 Discrete-time models
11.5 Voltage-mode and current-mode controls for dc-dc converters
11.5.1 Voltage-mode control
11.5.2 Current-mode control
11.5.3 Sensorless current mode and flux controls
11.5.4 Large-signal issues in voltage-mode and current-mode control
11.6 Comparator-based controls for rectifier systems
11.7 Proportional and proportional-integral control applications
11.8 Design examples
11.8.1 Voltage mode control and performance
11.8.2 Feedforward compensation
11.8.3 Electric vehicle control setup
11.9 Application discussion
11.10 Recap
11.11 Problems
11.12 References

CHAPTER 12 -- CONTROL MODELING AND DESIGN
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Averaging methods and models
12.2.1 Formulation of averaged models
12.2.2 Averaged circuit models
12.3 Small-signal analysis and linearization
12.3.1 The need for linear models
12.3.2 Obtaining linear models
12.3.3 Generalizing the process
12.4 Control and control design based on linearization
12.4.1 Transfer functions
12.4.2 Control design - Introduction
12.4.3 Compensation and filtering
12.4.4 Compensated feedback examples
12.4.5 Challenges for control design
12.5 Design examples
12.5.1 Boost converter control example
12.5.2 Buck converter design example with current-mode control
12.5.3 Buck converter with voltage mode control
12.6 Application discussion
12.7 Recap
12.8 Problems
12.9 References

PART V: ADVANCED TOPICS

CHAPTER 13 -- AC-AC CONVERSION
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Ac regulators and integral cycle control
13.2.1 SCR and triac-based ac regulators
13.2.2 Integral cycle control
13.3 Frequency matching conditions
13.4 Matrix converters
13.4.1 Slow-switching frequency converters: The choice fin - fout
13.4.2 Unrestricted frequency converters: The choice fswitch = fin + fout
13.4.3 Unifying the direct switching methods: linear phase modulation
13.5 The cycloconverter
13.6 PWM ac-ac conversion
13.7 Dc link converters
13.8 Ac link converters
13.9 Design examples
13.9.1 Heater control with triac ac regulator
13.9.2 Matrix converter
13.9.3 Link converter
13.10 Application discussion
13.11 Recap
13.12 Problems
13.13 References

CHAPTER 14 -- RESONANCE IN CONVERTERS
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Review of resonance
14.2.1 Characteristic equations
14.2.2 Step function excitation
14.2.3 Series resonance
14.2.4 Parallel resonance
14.3 Soft switching techniques -- introduction
14.3.1 Soft-switching principles
14.3.2 Inverter configurations
14.3.3 Parallel capacitor as a dc-dc soft switching element
14.4 Soft switching in dc-dc converters
14.4.1 Description of quasi-resonance
14.4.2 ZCS transistor action
14.4.3 ZVS transistor action
14.5 Resonance used for control -- forward converters
14.6 Design examples
14.6.1 Limitations of antiresonant filters
14.6.2 Creating an ac link for a dc-dc converter
14.6.3 Resonant boost converter for solar application
14.7 Application discussion
14.8 Recap
14.9 Problems
14.10 References

CHAPTER 15 -- HYSTERESIS AND GEOMETRIC CONTROL FOR POWER CONVERTERS
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Hysteresis control
15.2.1 Definition and basic behavior
15.2.2 Hysteresis control in dc-dc converters
15.2.3 Hysteresis power factor correction control
15.2.4 Inverters
15.2.5 Design approaches
15.3 Switching boundary control
15.3.1 Behavior near a switching boundary
15.3.2 Possible behavior
15.3.3 Choosing a switching boundary
15.4 Frequency control in geometric methods
15.5 Design examples
15.5.1 Designing hysteresis controllers
15.5.2 Switching boundary control combination for battery charging management
15.5.3 Boost converter with switching boundary control
15.6 Application discussion
15.7 Recap
15.8 Problems
15.9 References


APPENDIX
A. Trigonometric identities
B. Unit systems
C. Fourier series
D. Three-phase circuits
E. Polyphase graph paper


INDEX

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