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THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING is a concise and lucid introduction to the basic elements of argumentative prose and the conceptual tools necessary to understand, analyze, criticize, and construct arguments. This text is not only perfect for a college course in argument analysis, but also as a reference tool when confronted with arguments outside the classroom experience. While THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING covers the standard formal tools of introductory logic, its emphasis is on practical applications to the kinds of arguments students most often encounter.
Table of Contents
|Using This Book|
|What Is an Argument?|
|Three General Considerations|
|Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments|
|Showing the Structure of Arguments|
|Strategies of Analysis|
|Two Special Problems|
|Analyzing a Complex Argument: An Example|
|Overall Argument Evaluation|
|Some Valid Argument Forms|
|Valid Argument Forms|
|Two Invalid Argument Forms|
|Using the Forms to Show Validity|
|Using Inference and Equivalence Rules|
|Deductive Proof Strategies|
|More Valid Argument Forms: Categorical Reasoning and Venn Diagrams|
|Basic Causal Relationships|
|Contributing Factors as "Causes." Causal Explanations|
|Testing Causal Claims|
|Argument by Analogy and Models|
|Evaluating Analogical Reasoning|
|Errors in Reasoning: Fallacies|
|Fallacies in Supporting a Claim|
|Fallacies of Criticism and Response|
|Definition of "Definition." Two Types of Definition|
|Methods of Definition|
|Standards of Definition|
|Working Out a Definition|
|Vagueness and Ambiguity|
|Granted Claims and Acceptable Beliefs|
|New Claims, Background Beliefs, and Rationality|
|Rules for Writing|
|Exercises: Some Answers, Hints, and Comments|
|Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.|