9780495809180

The Elements of Reasoning

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780495809180

  • ISBN10:

    0495809187

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-01-01
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Summary

THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING is a concise and lucid introduction to the basic elements of argumentative prose and the conceptual tools necessary to understand, analyze, criticize, and construct arguments. This text is not only perfect for a college course in argument analysis, but also as a reference tool when confronted with arguments outside the classroom experience. While THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING covers the standard formal tools of introductory logic, its emphasis is on practical applications to the kinds of arguments students most often encounter.

Table of Contents

Preface
Briefing
Basic Assumptions
Organization
Using This Book
Recognizing Arguments
What Is an Argument?
Three General Considerations
Recognizing Arguments
Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments
Exercises
Analyzing Arguments
Showing the Structure of Arguments
Strategies of Analysis
Two Special Problems
Analyzing a Complex Argument: An Example
Exercises
Evaluating Arguments
Deductive Arguments
Exercises
Nondeductive Arguments
Complex Arguments
Exercises
Overall Argument Evaluation
Exercises
Some Valid Argument Forms
Sentential Form
Exercises
Valid Argument Forms
Two Invalid Argument Forms
Exercises
Using the Forms to Show Validity
Exercises
Conditionals
Equivalent Forms
Exercises
Using Inference and Equivalence Rules
Deductive Proof Strategies
Exercises
More Valid Argument Forms: Categorical Reasoning and Venn Diagrams
Categorical Statements
Exercises
Categorical Syllogisms
Exercises
Causal Analysis
Basic Causal Relationships
Contributing Factors as "Causes." Causal Explanations
Testing Causal Claims
Experimental Trials
Exercises
Argument by Analogy and Models
Analogical Arguments
Models
Evaluating Analogical Reasoning
Exercises
Errors in Reasoning: Fallacies
Fallacies in Supporting a Claim
Fallacies of Criticism and Response
Exercises
Definition.
Definition of "Definition." Two Types of Definition
Methods of Definition
Standards of Definition
Working Out a Definition
Exercises
Vagueness and Ambiguity
Vagueness
Ambiguity
Exercises
Reasonable Beliefs
Granted Claims and Acceptable Beliefs
New Claims, Background Beliefs, and Rationality
Exercises
Rules for Writing
Structure
Style
Exercises: Some Answers, Hints, and Comments
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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