9780750650649

Embedded Systems and Computer Architecture

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780750650649

  • ISBN10:

    0750650648

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-01-08
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

The author has taught the design and use of microprocessor systems to undergraduate and technician level students for over 25 years. *A core text for academic modules on microprocessors, embedded systems and computer architecture *A practical design-orientated approach *FREE CD-ROM features a unique microprocessor simulator, and accompanying website contains solutions, FAQs and updates to software

Author Biography

Graham Wilson has taught the design and use of microprocessor systems to students for over 25 years

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Notation used in text xiii
Part 1: The Building Blocks 1(68)
Binary numbers
Numbers within a computing machine
3(2)
Adding binary integers
5(1)
Representing signed integers
5(1)
Addition and subtraction of signed integers
6(1)
Two's complement theory*
7(1)
Use of hexadecimal representation
8(1)
Problems
9(3)
Logic expressions
Logic--the bank vault
12(1)
Evaluating the logic expression for the bank vault
13(2)
Another solution
15(1)
Simplifying logical expressions*
16(3)
Using the squares
17(1)
Simplified logic for bank vault access
18(1)
Rules for simplifying logical expressions using a map*
19(4)
Karnaugh-Veitch program, KVMap*
23(2)
Prime implicant selection table
24(1)
Quine-McCluskey method*
25(5)
Finding pairs of adjacent minterms
25(2)
Finding larger groups of minterms
27(3)
Problems
30(3)
Electronic logic circuits
Electronic controller
33(1)
Development of the bank vault controller design
33(1)
Gates--electronic circuits that perform logical operations
34(2)
Decoder circuit
36(1)
Multiplexer circuit
37(2)
Flip-flops
39(1)
Basic flip-flop
39(1)
Edge-triggered JK flip-flop
40(1)
Edge-triggered D flip-flop
40(1)
Storage registers
41(1)
State machines*
41(6)
State Machine 1 using D type flip-flops
42(2)
State Machine 2 using D type flip-flops
44(1)
State Machine 1 using JK flip-flops
45(2)
State Machine 2 using JK flip-flops
47(1)
Programmable logic devices*
47(1)
Problems
48(4)
Computer arithmetic
Circuit to add numbers
52(1)
Adder/Subtractor
53(1)
Arithmetic and logic unit
54(2)
Shifting data
56(2)
Fast adders*
58(2)
Floating-point numbers*
60(7)
Special quantities
61(1)
Smallest and largest numbers
62(1)
Denormalized numbers
63(1)
Multiplication and division
64(1)
Addition and subtraction
65(1)
Rounding
66(1)
Precision
66(1)
Problems
67(2)
Part 2: Computing Machines 69(144)
Computer design
A manual computing system
71(1)
Storing data and program instructions
72(2)
Connecting the machine components
74(1)
Architecture of Simple Machine
75(2)
Data paths
75(1)
Program Counter
76(1)
Operation of Simple Machine
76(1)
More general view of the design of Simple Machine*
77(4)
Four-address format
77(1)
Three-address format
78(1)
Two-address format
78(1)
One-address format
79(1)
Zero-address format
80(1)
Improvements to Simple Machine
81(3)
Data storage within the microprocessor
81(1)
Status flags
81(3)
Architecture of the G80 microprocessor
84(1)
Problems
85(1)
Instruction set and code assembly
Programmer's model
86(1)
Instruction format and addressing modes
87(2)
Converting the source code to machine code--manual assembly
89(1)
Using the assembler
90(1)
Assembly language
91(1)
Types of instruction
92(5)
Data transfer instructions
92(2)
Arithmetical and logical instructions
94(1)
Skew instructions
95(2)
Program control instructions
97(1)
Problems
97(3)
Program structures
Program control structures
100(5)
Sequence
100(1)
While loop
101(2)
If/Else
103(2)
Data structures
105(12)
Look-up table
105(1)
Lists of data
106(13)
Character strings
119
Jump table
110(4)
Two-dimensional arrays
114(1)
Index registers IX and IY
115(1)
Stack
116(1)
Subroutines
117(5)
Example of subroutine
118(2)
Parameter pass
120(2)
Probl122
122(3)
Simple computer circuits
G80 external connections
125(1)
Read Only Memory Device--ROM
125(2)
COMP1 computer--G80 with ROM only
127(3)
G80 read cycle
127(3)
RAM device
130(1)
COMP2 computer--G80 with ROM and RAM
131(3)
G80 write cycle
133(1)
COMP3 computer
134(2)
Microprocessor control signals
136(1)
Problems
137(1)
Input and output ports
Simple output port
138(2)
Port address space
140(2)
A simple input port
142(1)
Programmable ports*
142(3)
Serial data transmission--UART*
145(2)
Problems
147(1)
Input and output methods
Simple input and output
148(1)
Handshaking
148(3)
More about handshaking
149(2)
Simple output to a slow device
151(1)
Do-forever loop
152(1)
Processor interrupt
153(1)
Possible interrupt mechanisms
154(3)
Interrupt priority mechanisms
157(2)
Non-maskable interrupt
159(1)
G80 interrupt mechanisms
159(8)
Interrupt mode 0--RSTn*
159(2)
Interrupt model 1--poll*
161(3)
Interrupt mode 2--vectored
164(1)
Vectored interrupt sequence of events
165(2)
Direct memory access
167(2)
Problems
169(3)
More devices
Counter device and its use in a conveyor belt
172(1)
Timer device
173(4)
Calendar device
177(1)
Pottery kiln
177(1)
Multitaskin
178(5)
Problems
183(2)
Assembler and linker tools
How an assembler works
185(6)
First pass
186(1)
Second pass
187(1)
Practical assemblers
187(3)
Relocatable segments
190(1)
Linker
191(3)
Link example 1--single segment
191(1)
Link example 2--multiple segments
192(1)
Link example 3--global variables
193(1)
Intel format file
194(1)
High-level languages
195(1)
Problems
195(1)
The control unit
Requirements of the control unit
196(1)
Register transfers
196(2)
Instruction fetch
198(1)
Examples of instruction execution
199(5)
ld d, c
199(1)
Add a,b
199(1)
ld a, n
200(1)
Add a, (hl)
200(1)
ld (nn), a
201(1)
jp nn
202(1)
jp z, nn
203(1)
Hardwired controller
204(1)
More about the hardwired controller
205(1)
Microprogrammed control
206(5)
Sequence generator
206(2)
Selecting a sequence
208(2)
Conditional branching
210(1)
Problems
211(2)
Part 3: Larger Computers 213(32)
Larger computers
General-purpose computers
215(1)
Memory bottleneck
216(1)
Storage within a computer
216(1)
Data bus width and memory address space
217(1)
Addressing modes
217(1)
New addressing modes
217(1)
Importance of compiler
218(1)
Organization of 32-bit memory
218(3)
Memory interleaving
219(2)
Burst cycle memory access
221(1)
Instruction queue
221(1)
Locality of reference
222(1)
Operating systems
222(3)
Booting the operating system*
223(2)
Cache memory
Basic operation of cache
225(2)
Cache organization--direct mapping
227(3)
Memory write operations
229(1)
How many words should be stored in a cache line?
229(1)
Critique
230(1)
Cache organization--set-associative mapping
230(2)
Line replacement
231(1)
Cache organization--fully associative mapping
232(2)
Problems
234(1)
Memory management
Virtual and physical addresses--imaginary and real memory
235(1)
Pages and page frames
236(1)
Page Tables
236(2)
Handling a page fault
238(3)
Least-recently used
239(1)
Least-frequently used
240(1)
Not used recently
240(1)
Page size
241(1)
Two-level paging*
241(2)
Translation look-aside buffer
243(1)
Memory protection
243(1)
Problems
244(1)
Appendix A: G80 instruction set 245(16)
Appendix B: ASCII character codes 261(1)
Appendix C: Specifications of the input and output devices 262(22)
Appendix D: The GDS assembler and linker 284(9)
Index 293

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