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Embodied cognition often challenges standard cognitive science. In this outstanding introduction Lawrence Shapiro sets out the central themes and debates surrounding embodied cognition, explaining and assessing the work of many of the key figures in the field, including Jerry Fodor, Hilary Putnam, Andy Clark and John Haugeland.Beginning with an outline of the theoretical and methodological commitments of standard cognitive science, Shapiro then examines philosophical arguments surrounding the traditional perspective. He introduces topics such as dynamic systems theory, vision, attention, memory, and language, before addressing core issues in philosophy of mind such as personal identity and reductionism.Including helpful chapter summaries and annotated further reading at the end of each chapter, Embodied Cognition is essential reading for all students of philosophy of mind and psychology, and cognitive science.
Lawrence Shapiro is Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. His research currently focuses on the issues and debates around embodied cognition. He is editor [with Brie Gertler] of Arguing About the Mind , also available from Routledge.
Table of Contents
|List of illustrations||p. xi|
|Introduction: Toward an Understanding of Embodied Cognition||p. 1|
|Standard Cognitive Science||p. 7|
|Newell and Simon's General Problem Solver||p. 7|
|Descriptive Frameworks||p. 9|
|Back to General Problem Solver||p. 12|
|Sternberg's Analysis of Memory Scanning||p. 14|
|The Computational Vision Program||p. 20|
|The Solipsistic View||p. 26|
|Suggested Reading||p. 27|
|Challenging Standard Cognitive Science||p. 28|
|Gibson's Ecological Theory of Perception||p. 29|
|Structure in Light||p. 30|
|The Brain's Role in Vision||p. 35|
|Hatfield's Noncognitive Computationalism||p. 37|
|The Connectionist Challenge||p. 41|
|Suggested Reading||p. 50|
|Conceptions of Embodiment||p. 51|
|Varela, Thompson, and Rosch: World Building||p. 52|
|Thelen: Representation Lite||p. 56|
|Clark: Thinking with the Body||p. 61|
|Suggested Reading||p. 69|
|Embodied Cognition: The Conceptualization Hypothesis||p. 70|
|Linguistic Determinism||p. 71|
|The Linguistic Determination of Time Conceptions||p. 72|
|Sex With Syntax||p. 74|
|Concepts and Conceptions||p. 76|
|Testing Hypotheses||p. 79|
|The Embodiment of Color||p. 81|
|Embodiment and Metaphor||p. 86|
|Putting Lakoff and Johnson's Conceptualization Thesis to the Test||p. 89|
|Second-Generation Cognitive Science||p. 91|
|The Symbol Grounding Problem||p. 95|
|The Indexical Hypothesis||p. 98|
|Perceptual Symbols||p. 98|
|Experimental Evidence for the Indexical Hypothesis: The Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect||p. 102|
|Assessing the Indexical Hypothesis||p. 104|
|Meaningfulness in Amodal Representation||p. 104|
|Sensibility Judgments||p. 106|
|Standard Cognitive Science and the Action-Sentence Compatibility Effect||p. 107|
|The Body in the Brain||p. 108|
|Suggested Reading||p. 113|
|Embodied Cognition: The Replacement Hypothesis||p. 114|
|Dynamical Systems||p. 116|
|Van Gelder's Dynamical Hypothesis||p. 118|
|Explaining Watt's Centrifugal Governor||p. 119|
|The Dynamics of Cognition||p. 124|
|Categorical Perception from a Dynamical Perspective||p. 127|
|Do Dynamical Explanations Explain?||p. 133|
|Replacement and Robotics||p. 137|
|The Case for Representational Skepticism||p. 141|
|Are There Representations in the Centrifugal Governor?||p. 144|
|The Argument for Representational Skepticism||p. 149|
|The "They're Not Representations!" Argument against Representations||p. 154|
|Suggested Reading||p. 157|
|Embodied Cognition: The Constitution Hypothesis||p. 158|
|A Quick Refutation of Constitution? The Argument from Envatment||p. 161|
|Sensorimotor Theories of Perceptual Experience||p. 164|
|Constituents and Causes||p. 170|
|More Than Just a Gesture?||p. 173|
|Coupling and Constitution||p. 175|
|Extending Cognition Further||p. 178|
|The Coupling-Constitution Fallacy||p. 179|
|A Parity Argument for Constitution||p. 182|
|Against Parity-Meeting The Marks of the Cognitive||p. 184|
|Mark I: Intrinsic Content||p. 186|
|Mark II: Causal Processes||p. 189|
|Extended v. Embedded Cognition||p. 193|
|Whose Action is it Anyway?||p. 197|
|Suggested Reading||p. 200|
|Concluding Thoughts||p. 201|
|Back to the Decision Tree||p. 201|
|Conceptualization and Standard Cognitive Science||p. 202|
|Replacement and Standard Cognitive Science||p. 206|
|Constitution and Standard Cognitive Science||p. 208|
|The Final(?) Score||p. 210|
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