9781405112536

Energy Conservation in Buildings : A Guide to Part L of the Building Regulations

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781405112536

  • ISBN10:

    1405112530

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-05-07
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Summary

Waters: Energy Conservation in Buildings Tough measures for energy conservation came into force in 2002 under the Building Regulations for England and Wales. Architects; contractors and building operators are now required not only to conserve energy but to be aware of the implications of their actions for carbon emissions. Unlike previous versions, Part L now covers virtually all buildings and almost all potential causes of building energy consumption, and it includes many new features. This book provides an essential companion to Approved Documents L1 and L2, describing, explaining and expanding on the information they contain. It contains numerous worked examples and extensive tabular material, and includes a chapter on air tightness of buildings a new feature of the regulations and the procedures for air leakage testing, together with a chapter on thermal bridging. The author J.R.Waters BSc, MPhil, PhD, MCIBSE, CEng is Honorary Research Fellow at Coventry University, where he was formerly Head of Building Services Engineering. He has specialised throughout his career in the thermal and ventilation performance of buildings, and in the thermal characteristics of building materials. He continues to be a consultant to designers and materials suppliers on environmental aspects of building design. Also of interest Means of Escape from Fire M. J. Billington, A Ferguson And A. G. Copping 0-632-03203-0 Cover design by Garth Stewart

Author Biography

J. R. Waters is Honorary Research Fellow at Coventry University.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Introduction 1 (8)
1.1 Use of guidance
4 (1)
1.2 General definitions applicable to L1 and L2
4 (3)
1.3 Testing
7(2)
2 The Conservation of Fuel and Power in Dwellings 9(27)
2.1 The legal requirement for the conservation of fuel and power in dwellings
9(1)
2.2 AD L1 - Section 0 General Guidance
10(1)
2.3 AD L1 - Section 1 Design and Construction
11(17)
2.3.1 Specific guidance
11(2)
2.3.2 The elemental method for dwellings
13 (4)
2.3.2.1 Adjustments allowed by the elemental method
15 (1)
2.3.2.2 The elemental method applied to extensions to dwellings
16(1)
2.3.3 The target U-value method for dwellings
17(2)
2.3.4 The carbon index method for dwellings
19(1)
2.3.5 Constraints applicable to all three methods of demonstrating compliance
20 (1)
2.3.5.1 Area of glazing
20 (1)
2.3.5.2 Poorest acceptable U-values
20(1)
2.3.6 Additional requirements for fabric thermal performance
21 (1)
2.3.6.1 Thermal bridging
21 (1)
2.3.6.2 Air leakage
22(1)
2.3.7 Heating and hot water systems for dwellings
22 (4)
2.3.7.1 Controls for space heating
22 (1)
2.3.7.2 The provision of hot water systems in dwellings
23 (1)
2.3.7.3 Alternative approach for space heating and the controls for hot water systems
24 (1)
2.3.7.4 Commissioning, operating and maintenance instructions for heating and hot water systems
24(1)
2.3.7.5 Insulation of pipes and ducts
25(1)
2.3.8 Lighting systems for dwellings
26 (1)
2.3.8.1 Internal lighting
26 (1)
2.3.8.2 External lighting
27(1)
2.3.9 Conservatories
27(1)
2.3.9.1 A conservatory attached to and built as part of a new dwelling
28(1)
2.3.9.2 A conservatory attached to an existing dwelling
28(1)
2.4 AD L1 - Section 2 Work on Existing Dwellings
28(8)
2.4.1 Replacement of controlled services or fittings
28 (3)
2.4.1.1 Windows doors and rooflights
29 (1)
2.4.1.2 Heating boilers
30 (1)
2.4.1.3 Hot water vessels
30 (1)
2.4.1.4 Boiler and hot water controls
30 (1)
2.4.1.5 Alternative approach using the carbon index
30 (1)
2.4.1.6 Commissioning, and operating and maintenance instructions
31(1)
2.4.2 Material alterations
31 (1)
2.4.2.1 Roof insulation
32 (1)
2.4.2.2 Floor insulation
32 (1)
2.4.2.3 Wall insulation
32 (1)
2.4.2.4 Sealing measures
32 (1)
2.4.2.5 Controlled services or fittings
32(1)
2.4.3 Material changes of use
32 (2)
2.4.3.1 Accessible lofts
33 (1)
2.4.3.2 Roof insulation
33 (1)
2.4.3.3 Floor insulation
33 (1)
2.4.3.4 Wall insulation
33 (1)
2.4.3.5 Sealing measures
34 (1)
2.4.3.6 Lighting
34 (1)
2.4.3.7 Controlled services or fittings
34(1)
2.4.4 Historic buildings
34(2)
3 The Conservation of Fuel and Power in Buildings other than Dwellings 36(42)
3.1 The legal requirement for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings other than dwellings
36(1)
3.2 AD L2 - Section 0 General Guidance
37(3)
3.2.1 Carbon and carbon dioxide indices
38(1)
3.2.2 Special cases
38 (2)
3.2.2.1 Exemptions
38 (1)
3.2.2.2 Historic buildings
39 (1)
3.2.2.3 Buildings constructed from sub-assemblies
39 (1)
3.2.2.4 Mixed use development
40(1)
3.3 AD L2 - Section 1 Design
40(26)
3.3.1 Specific guidance
40(4)
3.3.2 The elemental method for buildings other than dwellings
44 (18)
3.3.2.1 Adjustments allowed by the elemental method
46 (1)
3.3.2.2 Additional requirements for fabric thermal performance
46(3)
3.3.2.3 Heating systems
49(1)
3.3.2.4 The carbon intensity of heating plant
49 (2)
3.3.2.5 The carbon intensity of combined heat and power systems
51 (1)
3.3.2.6 The carbon intensity of community heating and other heating methods
52 (1)
3.3.2.7 Trade-off between construction elements and heating system efficiency
53 (1)
3.3.2.8 Space heating controls
53 (1)
3.3.2.9 Hot water systems and their controls
54 (1)
3.3.2.10 Insulation of pipes and ducts
54 (1)
3.3.2.11 Lighting efficiency standards
55 (3)
3.3.2.12 Lighting controls
58 (2)
3.3.2.13 Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV)
60(2)
3.3.3 The whole-building method
62 (4)
3.3.3.1 Office buildings
62 (2)
3.3.3.2 Schools
64 (1)
3.3.3.3 Hospitals
64(1)
3.3.4 The carbon emissions calculation method
64(1)
3.3.5 Other matters - conservatories, atria, sun-spaces, etc.
65 (1)
3.3.5.1 Definitions
65 (1)
3.3.5.2 A sun-space attached to and built as part of a new building
65(1)
3.3.5.3 A sun-space attached to an existing building
66(1)
3.4 AD L2 - Section 2 Construction
66(3)
3.4.1 Building fabric
66 (1)
3.4.1.1 Continuity of insulation
66 (1)
3.4.1.2 Airtightness
67 (1)
3.4.1.3 Certificates and testing
67(1)
3.4.2 Inspection and commissioning of building services systems
67 (2)
3.4.2.1 Inspection of building services systems
67 (1)
3.4.2.2 Commissioning of building services systems
67 (1)
3.4.2.3 Reports and testing
68(1)
3.5 AD L2 - Section 3 Providing Information
69(3)
3.5.1 Building log-book
69(1)
3.5.2 Installation of energy meters
70 (2)
3.5.2.1 Reasonable provision for energy metering
70 (1)
3.5.2.2 Reasonable provision of energy meters and sub-meters
71(1)
3.6 AD L2 - Section 4 Work on Existing Buildings
72(6)
3.6.1 Replacement of a controlled service or fitting
72 (2)
3.6.1.1 Windows, doors and rooflights
72 (1)
3.6.1.2 Heating systems
73 (1)
3.6.1.3 Hot water systems
73 (1)
3.6.1.4 Lighting systems
73(1)
3.6.1.5 Air conditioning or mechanical ventilation systems
73(1)
3.6.1.6 Commissioning, etc
73(1)
3.6.2 Material alterations
74 (1)
3.6.2.1 Roof insulation
74 (1)
3.6.2.2 Floor insulation
74 (1)
3.6.2.3 Wall insulation
74 (1)
3.6.2.4 Sealing measures
75 (1)
3.6.2.5 Controlled services or fittings
75(1)
3.6.3 Material changes of use
75 (1)
3.6.3.1 Accessible lofts
75 (1)
3.6.3.2 Roof insulation
75 (1)
3.6.3.3 Floor insulation
75 (1)
3.6.3.4 Wall insulation
75 (1)
3.6.3.5 Sealing measures
76 (1)
3.6.3.6 Controlled services or fittings
76(1)
3.6.4 Historic buildings
76(2)
4 Tables of U-values 78(25)
4.1 Windows, doors and rooflights
78(2)
4.1.1 Minimum specifications for windows
80(1)
4.2 Roofs, walls and floors
80(21)
4.2.1 Determining the thickness of insulation for roofs
82(6)
4.2.1.1 Example calculations for roofs
85(3)
4.2.2 Determining the thickness of insulation for walls
88(7)
4.2.2.1 Example calculations for walls
90(5)
4.2.3 Determining the thickness of insulation for floors
95 (8)
4.2.3.1 Solid floor in contact with the ground
95 (1)
4.2.3.2 Suspended timber ground floor
96 (1)
4.2.3.3 Suspended concrete ground floor
97 (1)
4.2.3.4 Determining the thickness of insulation for upper floors
98(1)
4.2.3.5 Example calculations for floors
99(2)
4.3 Thermal conductivity and density of building materials
101(2)
5 The Calculation of U-values for Walls 103(14)
5.1 Background theory
103(5)
5.1.1 Corrections to calculated U-values
105 (1)
5.1.1.1 Correction for air gaps
105 (1)
5.1.1.2 Correction for mechanical fasteners
106 (1)
5.1.1.3 Correction for inverted roofs
106(1)
5.1.2 The U-value via an unheated space
106(2)
5.2 Example calculations
108(9)
6 The Calculation of U-values for Ground Floors 117 (7)
6.1 Introduction
117 (1)
6.2 Solid ground floors
118(2)
6.2.1 Solid ground floors with edge insulation
118 (2)
6.2.2 Ground floors with both all-over insulation and edge insulation
120(1)
6.3 Suspended floors
120 (1)
6.3.1 Uninsulated suspended ground floors
120 (1)
6.3.2 Insulated suspended floors
121(1)
6.4 Example calculations
121(3)
7 Compensation Calculations for Glazing 124 (5)
7.1 Introduction
124 (1)
7.2 Example calculations
124(5)
8 Target U-value Examples 129 (8)
8.1 Semi-detached dwelling
129 (3)
8.2 Detached dwelling
132(5)
9 SAP Ratings and the Carbon Index 137 (2)
9.1 SAP
137 (1)
9.2 Carbon factor and carbon index
137 (1)
9.3 Relationship between SAP and CI
138(1)
10 Example of Trade-off Calculations 139(5)
10.1 Residential and conference centre
139(5)
11 Methods of Meeting the Lighting standards 144 (7)
11.1 Lamp and luminaire efficiency
144 (2)
11.2 Lighting controls
146 (1)
11.3 Example calculations
146(5)
12 CPR Calculations - Methods for Office Buildings 151 (14)
12.1 Origins of the CPR method for office buildings
151 (1)
12.2 The carbon performance rating for mechanical ventilation, CPR(MV)
151 (1)
12.3 The carbon performance rating for air conditioning and mechanical ventilation, CPR(ACMV)
152(4)
12.3.1 Values for PD, PR, CD and CR
152(1)
12.3.2 Values for FD
153(1)
12.3.2.1 Plant management features for FD
153(1)
12.3.3 Values for FR
154(11)
12.3.3.1 Plant management features for FR
155(1)
12.4 The carbon performance rating and the whole-building method, CPR(HLAC)
156(3)
12.5 Example calculations
159(6)
13 Solar Overheating Calculations 165(7)
13.1 Definitions
165(1)
13.1.1 Perimeter zones
165(1)
13.1.2 Interior zones
165(1)
13.1.3 Parameters and equations
165(1)
13.2 Sources of data for the parameters
166(2)
13.2.1 Values of qsw and qsr
166(1)
13.2.2 Values of fc
166(2)
13.2.3 Values of frw and frr
168(1)
13.3 Example calculation
168(4)
14 Airtightness and Air Leakage Testing 172(16)
14.1 The importance of airtightness
172(1)
14.2 The mechanisms of air infiltration
172(4)
14.2.1 Basic equations
173(1)
14.2.1.1 Cracks or small openings with a typical dimension less than 1 mm
173(1)
14.2.1.2 Openings greater than 1 mm
173(1)
14.2.1.3 Ducts and chimneys
174(1)
14.2.2 Driving forces
174(1)
14.2.2.1 Wind induced pressure difference
174(1)
14.2.2.2 Stack effect pressure difference
175(1)
14.2.3 Openings and the leakage area
175(1)
14.3 The measurement of air leakage
176 (3)
14.3.1 Fan pressurisation measurement
177 (1)
14.3.2 Preparation for a fan pressurisation test
178(1)
14.4 The air leakage criterion
179 (2)
14.4.1 The Part L standard
179 (1)
14.4.2 Comparison with other standards
180 (1)
14.4.3 Meeting the Part L standard
181(1)
14.5 Air leakage paths
181 (3)
14.5.1 Wall, roof and floor components
182 (1)
14.5.2 Windows, doors and rooflights
182 (1)
14.5.3 Joints and sealing
182 (1)
14.5.4 Penetration of the external fabric
183(1)
14.6 Alternative test methods
184 (4)
14.6.1 Air permeability and infiltration rate
184 (2)
14.6.2 Tracer gas measurement
186(2)
15 Thermal Bridges 188 (11)
15.1 The importance of thermal bridges
188 (1)
15.2 Thermal bridging, causes and avoidance
189 (1)
15.3 Calculation methods
190(3)
15.3.1 Inclusion in the U-value
190(1)
15.3.2 Linear thermal bridges
191(2)
15.3.3 Complex thermal bridges
193 (1)
15.4 Compliance with Part L
193 (3)
15.5 Condensation and mould growth
196(1)
15.6 Testing
197 (2)
15.6.1 Infrared radiation
197 (1)
15.6.2 Infrared thermography
198(1)
References 199(3)
Other Sources of Information 202

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