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Energy and the Environment : Scientific and Technological Principles,9780199765133
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Energy and the Environment : Scientific and Technological Principles

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780199765133

ISBN10:
0199765138
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/27/2011
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $106.61

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Summary

Energy and the Environment Energy addresses a central problem of urban-industrial society: the interconnectedness of energy usage and environmental degradation. Intended for upper level undergraduate and first year graduate students, as well as professionals in the fields of energy and environmental sciences and technology, the text develops the scientific and technological background for understanding how the rapidly growing use of energy threatens the degradation of the natural environment at local, regional, and global scales. Fossil, nuclear and renewable energy technologies are described, and their efficiencies for transforming the source energy to useful mechanical or electrical power are explained. Special emphasis is given to the generation of electric power and the use of transportation vehicles, and their technological improvements that increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollutant emissions. The source of toxic emissions to air, water, and land that arise from energy uses, and their effects on environmental quality for urban and regional scale regions is analyzed. Special attention is given to global climate change, the contribution made to it by energy uses, and the salient technologies that are being developed to mitigate this effect. This book aims to equip engineering and science majors and professionals with the basic factual knowledge needed to develop solutions to these environmental problems.

Author Biography


James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Dan S. Golomb is Professor Emeritus of Environmental Sciences at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell.

Table of Contents

Energy and the Environment
Introduction
An Overview of this Text
Energy
Electric Power
Transportation Energy
Energy as a Commodity
The Environment
Managing Industrial Pollution
Bibliography
Global Energy Use and Supp
Introduction
Global Energy Consumption
Global Carbon Emissions
Global Energy Sources
Global Electricity Consumption
End-Use Energy Consumption in the United States
Industrial Sector
Residential Sector
Commercial Sector
Transportation Sector
Global Energy Supply
Coal Reserves
Petroleum Reserves
Unconventional Petroleum Resources
Natural Gas Reserves
Unconventional Gas Resources
Summary of Fossil Reserves
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Thermodynamic Principles of Energy Conversion
Introduction
The Forms of Energy
The Mechanical Energy of Macroscopic Bodies
The Energy of Atoms and Molecules
Chemical and Nuclear Energy
Electric and Magnetic Energy
Total Energy
Work and Heat Interactions
Work Interaction
Heat Interaction
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic Properties
Steady Flow
Heat Transfer and Heat Exchange
Ideal Heat Engine Cycles
The Carnot Cycle
The Rankine Cycle
The Otto Cycle
The Brayton Cycle
Combined Brayton and Rankine Cycles
The Vapor Compression Cycle: Refrigeration and Heat Pumps
Energy Processing: First and Second Law Constraints
Fuel Heating V
Free Energy Change
Separating Gases
Fuel (Thermal) Efficiency
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Thermodynamics of Fossil, Biomass, and Synthetic Fuels
Introduction
Fossil Fuels
Combustion of Fossil Fuel
Fuel Heating V
Biomass Fuels
Synthetic Fuels
Examples of Fossil Fuel Synthesis
Coal to Gas
Examples of Biochemical Synthesis
Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Biomass
Electrochemical Reactions
Fuel Cells
Practical Fuel Cell Systems
The Hydrogen Economy
Hydrogen Fuel for Vehicle Propul
Synthetic Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels with Carbon Capture and Storage
Hydrogen as Energy Storage for Intermittent Electric Power Pl
Hydrogen as a Substitute for Pipeline Natural Gas
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Electrical Energy Generation, Transmission, and Storage
Introduction
Electromechanical Power Transformation
Electric Power Transmission
AC/DC Conversion
Energy Storage
Electrostatic Energy Storage
Magnetic Energy Storage
Electrochemical Energy Storage
Lead-Acid Storage Battery
Lithium-Ion Storage Battery
Other Storage Batteries
Mechanical Energy Storage
Pumped Hydropower
Flywheel Energy Storage
Properties of Energy Storage Systems
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Fossil-Fueled Power Plants
Introduction
Fossil-Fueled Power Plant Components
Fuel Storage and Preparation
Burner
Boiler
Steam Turbine
Impulse Turbine
Reaction Turbine
Gas Turbine
Condenser
Cooling Tower
Wet Cooling Tower
Dry Cooling Tower
Generator
Combustion Stoichiometry
Emission Control
Control of Products of Incomplete Combustion and Carbon Monoxide
Control of Particles
Sulfur Control
Nitrogen Oxide Control
Mercury Control
Toxic Metals
Waste Disposal
Advanced Cycles
Combined Cycle
Coal Gasification Combined Cycle
Cogeneration
Fuel Cell
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Nuclear-Fueled Power Plants
Introduction
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy from Fission
Radioactivity
Decay Rates and Half-Lives
Units and Dosage
Health Effects of Radiation
Radiation Protection Standards
Nuclear Reactors
Boiling Water Reactor
Pressurized Water Reactor
Gas Cooled Reactor
Breeder Reactor
Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Mining and Refining
Gasification and Enrichment
Spent Fuel Reprocessing
Temporary Waste Storage
Permanent Waste Storage
Fusion
Magnetic Confinement
Laser Fusion
Energy Evolvement in Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Renewable Energy
Introduction
Hydropower
Environmental Effects
Biomass Energy
Photosynthesis
Biofuels
Bioethanol
Biodiesel
Wood as Biofuel
Environmental Effects
Geothermal Energy
Environmental Effects
Solar Energy
Flat Plate Collector
Focusing Collectors
Solar Thermal Farms
Photovoltaic Cells
Photovoltaic Farms
Environmental Effects
Wind Power
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Operation
Mechanical and Electrical Components
Wind Resources
Capacity Factor
Effectiveness
Wind Variability and Predictability
Economical Turbine Designs
Wind Farms
Integrating Wind Farms into the Electric Power Network
Averaging An Array of Wind Farms
Environmental Effects
Tidal Power
Tidal Current Power
Environmental Effects
Ocean Wave Power
Ocean Wave Energy and Power
Ocean Wave Power Systems
Wave Power Farms
Environmental Impacts
Ocean Thermal Power
Capital Cost of Renewable Electric Power
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Automotive Transportation
Introduction
Internal Combustion Engines for Highway Vehicles
Combustion in SI and CI engines
Engine Power and Performance
Engine Efficiency
Vehicle Power and Performance
Connecting the Engine to the Wheels
Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Regulations and Test Cycles
Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy
Improving Vehicle Performance
Improving Engine Performance
Electric Drive Vehicles
Vehicles Powered by Storage Batteries
Hybrid Vehicles
Fuel Cell Vehicles
Vehicle Emissions
U.S. Vehicle Emission Standards
Reducing Vehicle Emissions
Reducing Engine-Out Emissions
Catalytic Converters for Exhaust Gas Treatment
Evaporative Emissions
Reducing CI Engine Emissions
Fuel Quality and its Regulation
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuel Use
Introduction
Air Pollution
U.S. Emission Standards
U.S. Ambient Standards
Health and Environmental Effects of Fossil-Fuel-Related Air Pollutants
Air Pollution Meteorology
Air Quality Modeling
Modeling of Steady-State Point Source
Plume Rise
Steady State Line Source
Steady State Area Source
Photo-oxidants
Photo-oxidant Modeling
Acid Deposition
Acid Deposition Modeling
Regional Haze and Visibility Impairment
Water Pollution
Acid Mine Drainage and Coal Washing
Water Use and Thermal Pollution from Power Plants
Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants onto Surface Waters
Toxic Metals
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Land Pollution
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Global
Warming and Climate Change
Introduction
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
Sun-Earth-Space Radiative Equilibrium
Modeling Global Warming
Global Warming Potential
Radiative Forcing
Results of Global Warming Modeling
Observed Trend of Global Warming
Associated Effects of Global Warming
Sea Level Rise
Water Vapor and Precipitation Changes
Hurricanes and Typhoons
Climate Changes
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Carbon Cycle
Methane
Nitrous Oxide
Chlorofluorocarbons
Ozone
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Mitigating Global
Warming
Introduction
Controlling Halocarbon Emissions
Controlling Nitrous Oxide Emissions
Controlling Methane Emissions
Controlling Methane Generated by Coal Mining
Controlling Methane from Petroleum and Natural Gas Operations
Controlling Landfill Methane
Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Controlling CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fueled Electric Power Plants
Shift from Coal or Oil to Natural Gas Fuel
Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plants
Capturing CO2 from the Flue Gas by Chemical Absorption
Oxyfuel Combustion with CO2 Capture
Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Plants with CO2 Capture
Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Physical Absorption
Capturing CO2 after Gasification by Membrane Separation
Thermal Efficiency and Cost of Controlling CO2 Emissions from Power Plants
CO2 Sequestration
Sequestration in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Sequestration in Coal Seams
Sequestration in Deep Sedimentary Basins
Sequestration in the Deep Ocean
CO2 Removal from the Atmosphere
Afforestation
Ocean Fertilization
Mineral Sequestration
CO2 Utilization
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Concluding Remarks
Energy Resources
Regulating the Environmental Effects of Energy Use
Global Climate Change
Coping with Climate Change
Conclusion
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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