9781892769428

Engine And Tractor Power

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781892769428

  • ISBN10:

    1892769425

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/30/2004
  • Publisher: Amer Society of Agricultural
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Table of Contents

Forward ix
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1 Objectives of Mechanization
1(1)
1.2 Development of the Tractor
2(4)
1.3 Types of Tractors
6(6)
1.4 Fuels for Tractors
12(1)
1.5 Tractors of the Future
13(2)
1.6 Chapter Summary
15(2)
CHAPTER 2 Basic Thermodynamics of Engines
2.1 Introduction
17(1)
2.2 Basic Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics
17(2)
2.3 Ideal Gas Law
19(2)
2.4 First Law Considerations
21(1)
2.5 Pressure Changes in a Polytropic Process
22(1)
2.6 Temperature Changes in a Polytropic Process
22(1)
2.7 Compression Ratios and Displacement Volume
23(2)
2.8 The Theoretical Otto Cycle
25(1)
2.9 The Theoretical Diesel Cycle
26(1)
2.10 Comparison of Otto and Diesel Cycle Efficiencies
27(1)
2.11 The Dual Cycle
28(2)
2.12 Chapter Summary
30(3)
CHAPTER 3 Engine Components
3.1 Introduction
33(1)
3.2 The Cylinder Block
34(2)
3.3 The Cylinder Head
36(2)
3.4 The Valve Train
38(7)
3.5 Piston and Connecting Rod Assemblies
45(4)
3.6 Crankshafts, Flywheels, and Balancers
49(3)
3.7 Bearings
52(2)
3.8 Chapter Summary
54(5)
CHAPTER 4 Practical Engine Cycles and Timing
4.1 Introduction
59(1)
4.2 Four-Stroke-Cycle Engines
59(8)
4.3 Two-Stroke-Cycle Engines
67(5)
4.4 Chapter Summary
72(3)
CHAPTER 5 Power Efficiencies and Measurement
5.1 Introduction
75(1)
5.2 Torque and Power
75(2)
5.3 Power Adjectives
77(4)
5.4 Mean Effective Pressures
81(3)
5.5 Power Efficiencies
84(2)
5.6 Specific Fuel Consumption
86(1)
5.7 Volumetric Efficiency
87(2)
5.8 Engine Governors and Governed Engine Performance
89(4)
5.9 Engine Performance Simulator
93(2)
5.10 Dynamometers for Measuring Engine Power
95(3)
5.11 Standardized Tractor Tests
98(7)
5.12 Chapter Summary
105(6)
CHAPTER 6 Fuels and Combustion
6.1 Introduction
111(1)
6.2 Crude Oil and Refining
111(4)
6.3 Combustion and Exhaust Emissions
115(5)
6.4 Fuel Property Measurements
120(1)
6.5 Specific Gravity of Fuels
121(1)
6.6 Heating Value of Fuels
121(3)
6.7 Fuel Volatility and Flash Point
124(3)
6.8 Fuel Viscosity
127(1)
6.9 Cloud and Pour Points
127(1)
6.10 Fuel Impurities
127(2)
6.11 Octane Rating and Engine Knock
129(2)
6.12 Cetane Rating
131(3)
6.13 Fuel Additives
134(1)
6.14 Alternative Fuels
134(3)
6.15 Fuel Storage
137(1)
6.16 Chapter Summary
137(6)
CHAPTER 7 Electrical Systems
7.1 Introduction
143(1)
7.2 Electrical Fundamentals
143(6)
7.3 Fundamentals of Semiconductors
149(1)
7.4 Diodes
149(3)
7.5 Transistors
152(1)
7.6 Magnetism
153(1)
7.7 Electromagnetism
154(3)
7.8 Electromagnetic Induction
157(1)
7.9 Storage Batteries
158(5)
7.10 Charging Circuits
163(1)
7.11 Charging with Generators
163(3)
7.12 Charging with Alternators
166(7)
7.13 Starter Systems
173(2)
7.14 Accessory Circuits
175(2)
7.15 Controlled Area Networks
177(1)
7.16 Chapter Summary
178(5)
CHAPTER 8 Ignition Circuits
8.1 Introduction
183(1)
8.2 Mutual Induction
183(1)
8.3 Kettering Ignition Systems
184(3)
8.4 Transistor-Assisted Kettering Ignition Systems
187(1)
8.5 Inductive-Type Electronic Ignition Systems
188(3)
8.6 Integrated Electronic Ignition Systems
191(1)
8.7 Magneto Ignition Systems
191(2)
8.8 Capacitive-Discharge Ignition Systems
193(3)
8.8.1 Battery-Powered Systems
194(1)
8.8.2 Capacitive-Discharge Systems for Small Engines
194(2)
8.9 Spark Plugs
196(2)
8.10 Microprocessor Control in Automotive Vehicles
198(1)
8.11 Chapter Summary
198(5)
CHAPTER 9 Fuel Systems and Carburetion
9.1 Introduction
203(1)
9.2 Fuel Tanks, Pumps, and Filters
203(2)
9.3 Mixture Requirements of a Spark-Ignition Engine
205(1)
9.4 Principles of a Simple Float-Type Carburetor
206(1)
9.5 Carburetor Draft
207(1)
9.6 Carburetors for Multicylinder Engines
208(4)
9.7 Manifold Heat
212(1)
9.8 Carburetors for Small Engines
213(2)
9.9 Fuel Injection Systems for Spark-Ignition Engines
215(5)
9.10 Fuel Systems for Liquefied Petroleum Gas
220(1)
9.11 Chapter Summary
220(5)
CHAPTER 10 Diesel Engines
10.1 Introduction
225(1)
10.2 Comparison of Diesel and Gasoline Engines
225(3)
10.3 Combustion Chamber Designs
228(5)
10.4 Conventional Fuel Systems for Diesel Engines
233(1)
10.5 In-Line Injection Pumps
234(4)
10.6 Distributing Injection Pumps
238(2)
10.7 Fuel-Injection Nozzles
240(2)
10.8 Unit Injectors
242(1)
10.9 Electronic Fuel Injection Systems
243(8)
10.10 Bleeding Injection Systems
251(1)
10.11 Timing Fuel Injections
252(1)
10.12 Diesel Combustion and Smoke
252(1)
10.13 Starting Diesel Engines
253(1)
10.14 Chapter Summary
254(5)
CHAPTER 11 Intake and Exhaust Systems
11.1 Introduction
259(1)
11.2 Air Cleaners
259(3)
11.3 Manifolds
262(1)
11.4 Mufflers
263(1)
11.5 Supercharging an Engine with Air
264(1)
11.6 Turbochargers
265(3)
11.7 Aftercoolers
268(1)
11.8 Engine Families
269(3)
11.9 Air Pressure and Flow in a Turbocharged Engine
272(1)
11.10 Altitude Compensators
273(1)
11.11 Chapter Summary
274(5)
CHAPTER 12 Cooling Systems
12.1 Introduction
279(1)
12.2 Heat Transfer in an Engine
279(1)
12.3 Air Cooling
280(1)
12.4 Water Cooling by Thermosiphon
281(1)
12.5 Water Pumps and Fans
282(1)
12.6 Radiators
283(2)
12.7 Temperature Control
285(2)
12.8 Coolants
287(2)
12.9 Cooling System Maintenance
289(1)
12.10 Ceramic Engines
290(1)
12.11 Chapter Summary
290(3)
CHAPTER 13 Lubricants and Lubricating Systems
13.1 Introduction
293(1)
13.2 Theory of Lubrication
293(2)
13.3 Types of Lubricating Oils
295(1)
13.4 Lubrication with Grease
295(2)
13.5 Viscosity of Motor Oils
297(5)
13.6 Oil Additives
302(2)
13.7 Service Classification for Motor Oils
304(1)
13.8 Engine Lubrication Systems
305(2)
13.9 Oil Coolers
307(1)
13.10 Lubrication of Power Transmission Systems
308(3)
13.11 Maintenance of Lubricating Systems
311(1)
13.12 Synthetic and Low-Friction Motor Oils
311(1)
13.13 Chapter Summary
312(5)
CHAPTER 14 Hydraulic Systems and Hitches
14.1 Introduction
317(1)
14.2 Basic Principles
317(4)
14.3 Standard Symbols
321(1)
14.4 Hydraulic Pumps
321(9)
14.5 Hydraulic Valves
330(4)
14.6 Hydraulic Actuators
334(5)
14.7 Hydraulic Accumulators
339(1)
14.8 Filters, Reservoirs, and Coolers
340(2)
14.9 Hydraulic Lines
342(1)
14.10 Hydraulic Fluids
343(2)
14.11 Hydraulic Systems
345(6)
14.12 Hydraulic Hitches
351(4)
14.13 A Complete Tractor Hydraulic System
355(2)
14.14 Hydraulic System Maintenance and Troubleshooting
357(1)
14.15 Chapter Summary
358(7)
CHAPTER 15 Power Trains
15.1 Introduction
365(1)
15.2 Clutches and Brakes
365(5)
15.3 Basic Principles of Transmissions
370(4)
15.4 Theory and Types of Transmissions
374(2)
15.5 Manual Shift Transmissions
376(4)
15.6 Synchromesh Transmissions
380(2)
15.7 Power Shift Transmissions
382(8)
15.8 Continuously-Variable Transmission
390(5)
15.9 Hybrid Transmissions
395(1)
15.10 Hydrokinetic Transmissions
396(3)
15.11 Front Wheel Assists
399(1)
15.12 Steering Drives for Rubber-Tracked Tractors
400(2)
15.13 Differentials
402(3)
15.14 Final Drives
405(1)
15.15 Power Take-Off Drives
406(3)
15.16 Chapter Summary
409(8)
CHAPTER 16 Weight, Transfer, Traction, and Safety
16.1 Introduction
417(1)
16.2 Moments and Center of Gravity
417(2)
16.3 Weight Transfer
419(2)
16.4 Tractor Tires
421(4)
16.5 Basic Concepts of Traction
425(3)
16.6 Predicting Tractive Performance
428(6)
16.7 Ballasting for Traction
434(2)
16.8 Traction Prediction Spreadsheet
436(1)
16.9 Spreadsheet for a Tractor-Implement Combination
437(1)
16.10 Limits to Performance
438(1)
16.11 Sideways Overturns
439(2)
16.12 Tractor Safety
441(2)
16.13 Chapter Summary
443(8)
Appendix A Bibliography 451(4)
Appendix B Symbols 455(4)
Appendix C ASAE Standard 459(4)
Subject Index 463

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