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Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgments | p. xix |
Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design | p. 1 |
Drafting Technology | p. 2 |
Occupations in Architecture and Engineering Drafting Fields | p. 2 |
Professional Organization | p. 9 |
How to Become a Drafter | p. 10 |
Drafting Occupational Levels | p. 10 |
Drafting Job Opportunities | p. 11 |
Searching for a Drafting Position | p. 11 |
Drafting Salaries and Working Conditions | p. 13 |
Computers in Design and Drafting | p. 13 |
Workplace Ethics | p. 15 |
CADD Applications: Once Is Always Enough with CADD | p. 15 |
Copyrights | p. 17 |
Patents | p. 17 |
Trademarks | p. 18 |
Web Site Research | p. 19 |
Professional Perspective | p. 19 |
Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design Test | p. 20 |
Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design Problems | p. 21 |
Sketching, Lettering, and Lines | p. 22 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 22 |
Sketching | p. 23 |
Tools and Materials | p. 23 |
Sketching Straight Lines | p. 23 |
Sketching Circular Lines | p. 24 |
Sketching Arcs | p. 27 |
Sketching Ellipses | p. 28 |
Measurement Lines and Proportions | p. 29 |
Procedures in Sketching | p. 29 |
Creating Multiview Sketches | p. 30 |
Lettering | p. 34 |
Single-Stroke Gothic Lettering | p. 34 |
Other Lettering Styles | p. 35 |
CADD Applications: Lettering | p. 35 |
Lettering Legibility | p. 36 |
Vertical Freehand Lettering | p. 37 |
Lettering Techniques | p. 38 |
Composition | p. 38 |
Making Guidelines | p. 39 |
Other Lettering Aids and Guideline Methods | p. 39 |
Basic Lettering Considerations | p. 39 |
Lettering Guide Templates | p. 39 |
Mechanical Lettering Equipment | p. 39 |
Lines | p. 40 |
Types of Lines | p. 41 |
CADD Applications: Drawing Lines | p. 42 |
Pencil and Ink Line Techniques | p. 49 |
Professional Perspective | p. 51 |
Web Site Research | p. 52 |
Pulling It All Together | p. 52 |
Math Application: Fractional Arithmatic | p. 52 |
Sketching, Lettering, and Lines Test | p. 52 |
Sketching, Lettering, and Lines Problems | p. 56 |
Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction Methods | p. 65 |
Introduction | p. 65 |
Drafting Equipment | p. 65 |
Drafting Furniture | p. 66 |
Drafting Pencils, Leads, and Sharpeners | p. 66 |
Technical Pens and Accessories | p. 67 |
Erasers and Accessories | p. 68 |
Drafting Instruments | p. 69 |
Drafting Machines | p. 73 |
Scales | p. 76 |
Cleaning Drafting Equipment | p. 81 |
Drafting Media | p. 81 |
Papers and Films | p. 82 |
Sheet Sizes, Title Blocks, and Borders | p. 83 |
Taping Down Your Drawing | p. 88 |
Diazo Reproduction | p. 88 |
Safety Precautions for Diazo Printers | p. 89 |
Photocopy Reproduction | p. 89 |
How to Properly Fold Prints | p. 90 |
Microfilm | p. 90 |
CADD Applications: CADD vs. Microfim | p. 90 |
Digitizing Existing Drawings | p. 90 |
CADD Applications: CAD/CAM | p. 92 |
Math Application: Angle Measurement in Radians | p. 92 |
Optical Scanning of Existing Drawings | p. 92 |
Web Site Research | p. 92 |
Drafting Equipment Test | p. 93 |
Drafting Equipment Problems | p. 94 |
Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) | p. 97 |
The Engineering Design Application: The Project Planning Process | p. 97 |
What is CADD? | p. 98 |
Industry and CADD | p. 99 |
The CADD Workstation | p. 102 |
The Future of CADD | p. 109 |
Virtual Reality | p. 109 |
Getting Started with a CADD Project | p. 111 |
Scaling and Scale Factors | p. 113 |
Using Layers | p. 114 |
The Importance of Template Drawings | p. 115 |
Basic Drawing Functions | p. 116 |
Drawing with the Computer | p. 119 |
Creating and Using Symbols | p. 123 |
Storing a Drawing | p. 124 |
File Management | p. 125 |
Internet-Based CADD | p. 125 |
Research Techniques | p. 126 |
Ergonomics | p. 127 |
Professional Perspective | p. 128 |
Web Site Research | p. 130 |
Math Application | p. 130 |
Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Test | p. 131 |
Introduction to CADD Problems | p. 131 |
The Engineering Design Process | p. 134 |
The Engineering Design Application: Transitions to a Systems Approach: A Historic Point of View | p. 134 |
Today's Engineering Design Models | p. 136 |
The Engineering Design Process | p. 136 |
Creativity and Innovation in Design | p. 136 |
Design Analysis and Problem Solving | p. 138 |
Change and the Impact on the Design Process | p. 139 |
Tracking Documents: ECO/ECR | p. 139 |
The Design Review Process | p. 140 |
Life Cycle of a Design Project | p. 140 |
Design Deliverables | p. 141 |
How the Design Process Has Responded to Changes in Engineering | p. 141 |
Professional Perspective: Only The Fast Survive | p. 142 |
Web Site Research | p. 143 |
The Engineering Design Process Test | p. 143 |
The Engineering Design Process Problems | p. 144 |
Geometric Construction | p. 145 |
Geometric Construction | p. 145 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 145 |
Characteristics of Lines | p. 146 |
Geometric Shapes | p. 146 |
CADD Applications: A Layout Approach for CADD Applications | p. 146 |
Common Geometric Constructions | p. 150 |
Constructing Polygons | p. 154 |
CADD Applications: Drawing Geometric Shapes | p. 158 |
Constructing Circles and Tangencies | p. 160 |
Constructing an Ellipse | p. 164 |
CADD Applications | p. 165 |
Web Site Research | p. 165 |
Professional Perspective | p. 166 |
Math Application: Interior Angles of Regular Polygons | p. 166 |
Geometric Construction Test | p. 166 |
Geometric Construction Problems | p. 167 |
Multiviews | p. 171 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 171 |
Multiviews | p. 172 |
View Selection | p. 175 |
Projection of Circles and Arcs | p. 178 |
CADD Applications: Fillets and Rounds | p. 180 |
Line Precedence | p. 180 |
Third-Angle Projection | p. 181 |
First-Angle Projection | p. 182 |
Recommended Review | p. 184 |
Layout | p. 184 |
CADD Application | p. 187 |
Math Application: Weight of an Elliptical Plate | p. 188 |
Professional Perspective | p. 190 |
Multiviews Test | p. 190 |
Multiviews Problems | p. 190 |
Auxiliary Views | p. 212 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 212 |
Auxiliary Views | p. 212 |
Plotting Curves in Auxiliary Views | p. 215 |
Enlargements | p. 216 |
Secondary Auxiliary Views | p. 216 |
CADD Applications: Multiview and Auxiliary View Drawing | p. 219 |
Auxiliary View Layout | p. 220 |
Professional Perspective | p. 221 |
Math Application: Projected Area | p. 221 |
Auxiliary Views Test | p. 223 |
Auxiliary Views Problems | p. 223 |
Descriptive Geometry I | p. 236 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 236 |
Basic Concepts | p. 236 |
Projection of a Point (Basic Concept 1) | p. 238 |
Lines | p. 241 |
Projection of a Line (Basic Concept 2) | p. 242 |
Projection of a Line to Find Its True Length (Basic Concept 3) | p. 243 |
Projection of a True-Length Line to Find Where It Appears as a Point (Basic Concept 4) | p. 247 |
Planes | p. 248 |
Projection of a Plane | p. 249 |
Professional Perspective | p. 256 |
Math Application | p. 256 |
Descriptive Geometry I Test | p. 257 |
Descriptive Geometry I Problems | p. 257 |
Descriptive Geometry II | p. 265 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 265 |
Directions of Lines and Planes | p. 266 |
True Distance Between a Point and a Line | p. 269 |
True Distance Between Two Skew Lines | p. 270 |
Intersection of a Line and a Plane | p. 270 |
Visibility | p. 271 |
Intersection of Planes | p. 271 |
Dihedral Angles | p. 273 |
An Introduction to Vector Geometry | p. 275 |
Forces in Equilibrium | p. 278 |
Professional Perspective | p. 280 |
Descriptive Geometry II Problems | p. 280 |
Manufacturing Materials and Processes | p. 286 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 286 |
Introduction | p. 286 |
Manufacturing Materials | p. 287 |
Plastics | p. 290 |
Manufacturing Processes | p. 293 |
CADD Applications: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine Tools | p. 298 |
Machine Processes | p. 299 |
Tool Design | p. 317 |
CADD Applications: Jig and Fixture Design | p. 317 |
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) | p. 322 |
Integration of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) | p. 323 |
Statistical Process Control (SPC) | p. 324 |
Web Site Research | p. 326 |
Professional Perspective | p. 326 |
Math Application: Finding Means for SPC | p. 327 |
Manufacturing Materials and Processes Test | p. 327 |
Manufacturing Materials and Processes Problems | p. 330 |
Dimensioning and Tolerancing | p. 332 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 332 |
Dimensioning Systems | p. 335 |
Dimensioning Rules | p. 337 |
Dimensioning Fundamentals | p. 340 |
Preferred Dimensioning Practices | p. 342 |
CADD Applications: Dimensioning | p. 346 |
Notes for Size Features | p. 347 |
Location Dimensions | p. 351 |
Dimension Origin | p. 352 |
Dimensioning Auxiliary Views | p. 353 |
General Notes | p. 353 |
CADD Applications: Using Layers for Dimensioning | p. 354 |
Tolerancing | p. 355 |
Dimensions Applied to Platings and Coatings | p. 359 |
Maximum and Minimum Dimensions | p. 359 |
Casting Drawing and Design | p. 359 |
Machining Allowance | p. 360 |
Machined Surfaces | p. 363 |
CADD Applications: Dimensioning Software Packages | p. 369 |
Design and Drafting of Machined Features | p. 370 |
Symbols | p. 370 |
An Introduction to ISO 9000 | p. 370 |
Professional Perspective | p. 371 |
CADD Applications: Dimensioning for CADD/CAM | p. 373 |
Recommended Review | p. 374 |
Math Application: Finding Diagonals | p. 375 |
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Test | p. 375 |
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Problems | p. 377 |
Fasteners and Springs | p. 386 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 386 |
Screw Thread Fasteners | p. 386 |
Thread-Cutting Tools | p. 388 |
Thread Forms | p. 389 |
Thread Representations | p. 391 |
Thread Notes | p. 394 |
Measuring Screw Threads | p. 395 |
CADD Applications: Drawing Fasteners | p. 397 |
Threaded Fasteners | p. 397 |
Washers | p. 406 |
Dowel Pins | p. 406 |
Taper and Other Pins | p. 406 |
Retaining Rings | p. 407 |
Keys, Keyways, and Keyseats | p. 407 |
Rivets | p. 407 |
Springs | p. 407 |
CADD Applications: Drawing Springs | p. 411 |
Recommended Review | p. 412 |
Web Site Research | p. 412 |
Professional Perspective | p. 412 |
Math Application: Ratio and Proportion of a Taper Pin | p. 414 |
Fasteners and Springs Test | p. 414 |
Fasteners and Springs Problems | p. 415 |
Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional Breaks | p. 421 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 421 |
Sectioning | p. 422 |
Cutting-Plane Lines | p. 422 |
Section Lines | p. 422 |
Full Sections | p. 424 |
Half Sections | p. 424 |
Offset Sections | p. 424 |
Aligned Sections | p. 425 |
Unsectioned Features | p. 426 |
CADD Applications: Sectioning | p. 427 |
Intersections in Section | p. 428 |
Conventional Revolutions | p. 428 |
Broken-Out Sections | p. 428 |
Auxiliary Sections | p. 429 |
Conventional Breaks | p. 429 |
Revolved Sections | p. 429 |
Removed Sections | p. 430 |
Recommended Review | p. 430 |
Professional Perspective | p. 431 |
Math Application: Distance Between Holes on a Bolt Circle | p. 433 |
Sectioning Test | p. 433 |
Sectioning Problems | p. 434 |
Geometric Tolerancing | p. 458 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 458 |
General Tolerancing | p. 459 |
Symbology | p. 460 |
Datum Feature Symbols | p. 460 |
Datum Reference Frame | p. 460 |
Datum Features | p. 462 |
Datum Target Symbols | p. 462 |
Datum Axis | p. 464 |
Feature Control Frame | p. 464 |
Basic Dimensions | p. 467 |
Geometric Tolerances | p. 468 |
Material Condition Symbols | p. 477 |
CADD Applications: Geometric Tolerancing | p. 478 |
Location Tolerance | p. 481 |
Datum Precedence and Material Condition | p. 484 |
Position of Multiple Features | p. 484 |
Composite Positional Tolerancing | p. 485 |
Two Single-Segment Feature Control Frames | p. 486 |
Positional Tolerance of Tabs | p. 486 |
Positional Tolerance of Slotted Holes | p. 486 |
Positional Tolerance of Threaded Features and Gears | p. 487 |
Positional Tolerance of Counterbored Holes | p. 487 |
Positional Tolerance of Coaxial Holes | p. 487 |
Positional Tolerancing of Nonparallel Holes | p. 488 |
Projected Tolerance Zone | p. 488 |
CADD Applications: Geometric Tolerancing Symbols | p. 491 |
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing with AutoCAD | p. 491 |
Virtual Condition | p. 492 |
Statistical Tolerancing with Geometric Controls | p. 493 |
Combination Controls | p. 493 |
Web Site Research | p. 494 |
Professional Perspective | p. 495 |
Math Applications: Rounding Numbers | p. 497 |
Geometric Tolerancing Test | p. 497 |
Geometric Tolerancing Problems | p. 499 |
Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and Bearings | p. 507 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 507 |
CADD Applications: Mechanism Design | p. 508 |
Mechanisms | p. 509 |
Linkages | p. 509 |
Linkage Symbols | p. 509 |
Types of Linkages | p. 509 |
CADD Applications: Cams and Gears | p. 512 |
Cams | p. 512 |
Cam Displacement Diagrams | p. 513 |
Construction of an In-Line Follower Plate Cam Profile | p. 516 |
Construction of an Offset Follower Plate Cam Profile | p. 517 |
Drum Can Drawing | p. 518 |
Gears | p. 519 |
CADD Applications: Cam Displacement Diagrams and Profiles; Cam Manufacturing | p. 520 |
Gear Structure | p. 520 |
Splines | p. 521 |
Gear Types | p. 521 |
Spur Gear Design | p. 523 |
Gear Accuracy | p. 525 |
Drawing Specifications and Tolerances | p. 525 |
Designing and Drawing Spur Gears | p. 525 |
CADD Applications: Gear Teeth | p. 526 |
Designing Spur Gear Trains | p. 526 |
Designing and Drawing the Rack and Pinion | p. 528 |
Designing and Drawing Bevel Gears | p. 528 |
Designing and Drawing Worm Gears | p. 528 |
Plastic Gears | p. 529 |
Bearings | p. 532 |
Drawing Bearing Symbols | p. 533 |
Bearing Codes | p. 534 |
CADD Applications: Bearing Symbols | p. 534 |
Bearing Selection | p. 534 |
Gear and Bearing Assemblies | p. 539 |
Professional Perspective | p. 540 |
Web site Research | p. 541 |
Math Applications: Length of a Connecting Rod | p. 541 |
Mechanisms Test | p. 542 |
Mechanisms Problems | p. 542 |
Belt and Chain Drives | p. 551 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 551 |
Advantages of Gear Drives | p. 552 |
Advantages of Belt Drives | p. 552 |
Advantages of Chain Drives | p. 552 |
Belts and Belt Drives | p. 552 |
Belt Types | p. 552 |
Typical Belt Drive Arrangements | p. 554 |
Belt Drive Selection | p. 555 |
Chain Drives | p. 558 |
Chain Drive Sprockets | p. 559 |
Chain Classification and Types | p. 559 |
Precision Chains | p. 559 |
CADD Applications: Sprockets | p. 559 |
Nonprecision Chains | p. 560 |
Light-Duty Chain | p. 560 |
Chain Drive Arrangements | p. 560 |
Roller Chain Drive Selection | p. 562 |
Professional Perspective | p. 565 |
Web Site Research | p. 565 |
Math Application: Belt Length | p. 566 |
Belt and Chain Drives Test | p. 566 |
Belt and Chain Drives Problems | p. 567 |
Working Drawings | p. 572 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 572 |
Detail Drawings | p. 573 |
Assembly Drawings | p. 576 |
Types of Assembly Drawings | p. 577 |
CADD Applications: Working Drawings | p. 580 |
Identification Numbers | p. 580 |
Parts Lists | p. 583 |
Purchase Parts | p. 584 |
Engineering Changes | p. 584 |
Drawing from a Prototype | p. 588 |
Analysis of a Set of Working Drawings | p. 589 |
Professional Perspective | p. 589 |
Web Site Research | p. 592 |
Math Application: Distance Between Tangent Circles | p. 594 |
Working Drawings Test | p. 595 |
Working Drawings Problems | p. 595 |
Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations | p. 652 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 652 |
Pictorial Drawings | p. 653 |
Isometric Projections and Drawings | p. 653 |
Types of Isometric Drawings | p. 655 |
Isometric Construction Techniques | p. 655 |
Dimetric Pictorial Representation | p. 660 |
Trimetric Pictorial Representation | p. 660 |
CADD Applications: 3-D Capabilities | p. 662 |
Exploded Pictorial Drawing | p. 662 |
Oblique Drawing | p. 662 |
Perspective Drawing | p. 664 |
One-Point Perspective | p. 665 |
Two-Point Perspective | p. 665 |
Three-Point Perspective | p. 666 |
Circles and Curves in Perspective | p. 666 |
Basic Shading Techniques | p. 667 |
Layout Techniques | p. 668 |
Math Application | p. 670 |
Professional Perspective | p. 670 |
Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations Test | p. 671 |
Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations Problems | p. 671 |
Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality | p. 677 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 677 |
Types of 3D CAD Models | p. 678 |
Modeling Kernel | p. 680 |
Parametric Modeling and the Design Process | p. 680 |
Working with Parts, Assemblies, and Features | p. 682 |
Built-in Features | p. 684 |
Editing Feature History | p. 684 |
Animation | p. 684 |
Virtual Reality | p. 686 |
Professional Perspective | p. 689 |
Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality Problems | p. 691 |
Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality Test | p. 691 |
Welding Processes and Representations | p. 693 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 693 |
Welding Tests | p. 706 |
CADD Aplications: Welding Symbols and Applications | p. 707 |
Welding Specifications | p. 710 |
Prequalified Welded Joints | p. 710 |
Weld Design | p. 710 |
Professional Perspective | p. 710 |
Math Applications: Percentage of Welded Parts | p. 711 |
Welding Processes and Representations Test | p. 711 |
Welding Processes and Representations Problems | p. 712 |
Industrial Process Piping | p. 722 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 722 |
Where Is Industrial Piping Used? | p. 722 |
What Is Pipe Drafting? | p. 722 |
Types of Pipe | p. 727 |
CADD Applications: Piping | p. 727 |
Pipe Connection Methods | p. 731 |
Fittings | p. 733 |
CADD Applications: Three-Dimensional System Models | p. 735 |
Flanges | p. 736 |
Valves | p. 738 |
Pipe Drafting | p. 744 |
Piping Details | p. 747 |
CADD Applications: 3-D Digitizing | p. 756 |
Layout Techniques | p. 757 |
Professional Perspective | p. 758 |
Math Application | p. 759 |
Industrial Process Piping Test | p. 759 |
Industrial Process Piping Problems | p. 760 |
Structural Drafting | p. 765 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 765 |
Line Work | p. 766 |
Lettering | p. 766 |
Coordination of Working Drawings | p. 766 |
Structural Drafting Related to Construction Systems | p. 769 |
Concrete Construction | p. 769 |
Concrete Block Construction | p. 776 |
Wood Construction | p. 777 |
Steel Construction | p. 789 |
Common Connection Methods | p. 793 |
Components in a Set of Structural Drawings | p. 796 |
CADD Applications: Structural Drafting | p. 797 |
Drawing Revisions | p. 804 |
Basic Drawing Layout Steps | p. 807 |
Pictorial Drawings | p. 810 |
Web Site Research | p. 810 |
CADD Applications | p. 812 |
Professional Perspective | p. 812 |
Math Application: Designing An Observation Platform | p. 813 |
Structural Drafting Test | p. 813 |
Structural Drafting Problems | p. 814 |
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)/Pattern Development and Precision Sheet Metal Drafting | p. 828 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 828 |
HVAC Drafting and Pattern Development | p. 829 |
HVAC Systems | p. 829 |
Ventilation | p. 831 |
Thermostat | p. 832 |
HVAC Symbols | p. 832 |
HVAC Drawings | p. 832 |
CADD Applications: HVAC Pictorials | p. 835 |
Sheet Metal Drafting | p. 842 |
Drawing Revisions | p. 842 |
CADD Applications: HVAC Industry | p. 844 |
Pattern Development | p. 846 |
Intersections | p. 855 |
CADD Applications: Sheet Metal Pattern Design | p. 857 |
Material Bending and Chassis Layout | p. 861 |
CADD Applications: Precision Sheet Metal Fabrication | p. 863 |
Professional Perspective | p. 864 |
Math Application: Sheet Metal Bend Angles | p. 865 |
HVAC/Sheet Metal Drafting Test | p. 865 |
HVAC/Sheet Metal Drafting Problems | p. 866 |
Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting | p. 883 |
The Engineering Design Application | p. 883 |
Fundamentals of Electrical Diagrams | p. 884 |
Generation, Transmission, and Distribution of Electricity | p. 887 |
The Electric Power Substation Design Drawings | p. 888 |
Residential and Commercial Electrical Plans | p. 893 |
Professional Perspective | p. 895 |
Electronic Schematic Drafting | p. 898 |
Electronic Diagrams | p. 899 |
Printed Circuit Technology | p. 909 |
Pictorial Drawings | p. 917 |
CADD Applications: Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) | p. 919 |
Professional Perspective | p. 920 |
Math Application: Working with Powers of Ten | p. 920 |
Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting Test | p. 921 |
Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting Problems | p. 922 |
Appendices | p. 945 |
Glossary | p. 997 |
Index | p. 1005 |
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