Preface | p. xiii |

Acknowledgments | p. xix |

Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design | p. 1 |

Drafting Technology | p. 2 |

Occupations in Architecture and Engineering Drafting Fields | p. 2 |

Professional Organization | p. 9 |

How to Become a Drafter | p. 10 |

Drafting Occupational Levels | p. 10 |

Drafting Job Opportunities | p. 11 |

Searching for a Drafting Position | p. 11 |

Drafting Salaries and Working Conditions | p. 13 |

Computers in Design and Drafting | p. 13 |

Workplace Ethics | p. 15 |

CADD Applications: Once Is Always Enough with CADD | p. 15 |

Copyrights | p. 17 |

Patents | p. 17 |

Trademarks | p. 18 |

Web Site Research | p. 19 |

Professional Perspective | p. 19 |

Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design Test | p. 20 |

Introduction to Engineering Drawing and Design Problems | p. 21 |

Sketching, Lettering, and Lines | p. 22 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 22 |

Sketching | p. 23 |

Tools and Materials | p. 23 |

Sketching Straight Lines | p. 23 |

Sketching Circular Lines | p. 24 |

Sketching Arcs | p. 27 |

Sketching Ellipses | p. 28 |

Measurement Lines and Proportions | p. 29 |

Procedures in Sketching | p. 29 |

Creating Multiview Sketches | p. 30 |

Lettering | p. 34 |

Single-Stroke Gothic Lettering | p. 34 |

Other Lettering Styles | p. 35 |

CADD Applications: Lettering | p. 35 |

Lettering Legibility | p. 36 |

Vertical Freehand Lettering | p. 37 |

Lettering Techniques | p. 38 |

Composition | p. 38 |

Making Guidelines | p. 39 |

Other Lettering Aids and Guideline Methods | p. 39 |

Basic Lettering Considerations | p. 39 |

Lettering Guide Templates | p. 39 |

Mechanical Lettering Equipment | p. 39 |

Lines | p. 40 |

Types of Lines | p. 41 |

CADD Applications: Drawing Lines | p. 42 |

Pencil and Ink Line Techniques | p. 49 |

Professional Perspective | p. 51 |

Web Site Research | p. 52 |

Pulling It All Together | p. 52 |

Math Application: Fractional Arithmatic | p. 52 |

Sketching, Lettering, and Lines Test | p. 52 |

Sketching, Lettering, and Lines Problems | p. 56 |

Drafting Equipment, Media, and Reproduction Methods | p. 65 |

Introduction | p. 65 |

Drafting Equipment | p. 65 |

Drafting Furniture | p. 66 |

Drafting Pencils, Leads, and Sharpeners | p. 66 |

Technical Pens and Accessories | p. 67 |

Erasers and Accessories | p. 68 |

Drafting Instruments | p. 69 |

Drafting Machines | p. 73 |

Scales | p. 76 |

Cleaning Drafting Equipment | p. 81 |

Drafting Media | p. 81 |

Papers and Films | p. 82 |

Sheet Sizes, Title Blocks, and Borders | p. 83 |

Taping Down Your Drawing | p. 88 |

Diazo Reproduction | p. 88 |

Safety Precautions for Diazo Printers | p. 89 |

Photocopy Reproduction | p. 89 |

How to Properly Fold Prints | p. 90 |

Microfilm | p. 90 |

CADD Applications: CADD vs. Microfim | p. 90 |

Digitizing Existing Drawings | p. 90 |

CADD Applications: CAD/CAM | p. 92 |

Math Application: Angle Measurement in Radians | p. 92 |

Optical Scanning of Existing Drawings | p. 92 |

Web Site Research | p. 92 |

Drafting Equipment Test | p. 93 |

Drafting Equipment Problems | p. 94 |

Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) | p. 97 |

The Engineering Design Application: The Project Planning Process | p. 97 |

What is CADD? | p. 98 |

Industry and CADD | p. 99 |

The CADD Workstation | p. 102 |

The Future of CADD | p. 109 |

Virtual Reality | p. 109 |

Getting Started with a CADD Project | p. 111 |

Scaling and Scale Factors | p. 113 |

Using Layers | p. 114 |

The Importance of Template Drawings | p. 115 |

Basic Drawing Functions | p. 116 |

Drawing with the Computer | p. 119 |

Creating and Using Symbols | p. 123 |

Storing a Drawing | p. 124 |

File Management | p. 125 |

Internet-Based CADD | p. 125 |

Research Techniques | p. 126 |

Ergonomics | p. 127 |

Professional Perspective | p. 128 |

Web Site Research | p. 130 |

Math Application | p. 130 |

Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Test | p. 131 |

Introduction to CADD Problems | p. 131 |

The Engineering Design Process | p. 134 |

The Engineering Design Application: Transitions to a Systems Approach: A Historic Point of View | p. 134 |

Today's Engineering Design Models | p. 136 |

The Engineering Design Process | p. 136 |

Creativity and Innovation in Design | p. 136 |

Design Analysis and Problem Solving | p. 138 |

Change and the Impact on the Design Process | p. 139 |

Tracking Documents: ECO/ECR | p. 139 |

The Design Review Process | p. 140 |

Life Cycle of a Design Project | p. 140 |

Design Deliverables | p. 141 |

How the Design Process Has Responded to Changes in Engineering | p. 141 |

Professional Perspective: Only The Fast Survive | p. 142 |

Web Site Research | p. 143 |

The Engineering Design Process Test | p. 143 |

The Engineering Design Process Problems | p. 144 |

Geometric Construction | p. 145 |

Geometric Construction | p. 145 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 145 |

Characteristics of Lines | p. 146 |

Geometric Shapes | p. 146 |

CADD Applications: A Layout Approach for CADD Applications | p. 146 |

Common Geometric Constructions | p. 150 |

Constructing Polygons | p. 154 |

CADD Applications: Drawing Geometric Shapes | p. 158 |

Constructing Circles and Tangencies | p. 160 |

Constructing an Ellipse | p. 164 |

CADD Applications | p. 165 |

Web Site Research | p. 165 |

Professional Perspective | p. 166 |

Math Application: Interior Angles of Regular Polygons | p. 166 |

Geometric Construction Test | p. 166 |

Geometric Construction Problems | p. 167 |

Multiviews | p. 171 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 171 |

Multiviews | p. 172 |

View Selection | p. 175 |

Projection of Circles and Arcs | p. 178 |

CADD Applications: Fillets and Rounds | p. 180 |

Line Precedence | p. 180 |

Third-Angle Projection | p. 181 |

First-Angle Projection | p. 182 |

Recommended Review | p. 184 |

Layout | p. 184 |

CADD Application | p. 187 |

Math Application: Weight of an Elliptical Plate | p. 188 |

Professional Perspective | p. 190 |

Multiviews Test | p. 190 |

Multiviews Problems | p. 190 |

Auxiliary Views | p. 212 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 212 |

Auxiliary Views | p. 212 |

Plotting Curves in Auxiliary Views | p. 215 |

Enlargements | p. 216 |

Secondary Auxiliary Views | p. 216 |

CADD Applications: Multiview and Auxiliary View Drawing | p. 219 |

Auxiliary View Layout | p. 220 |

Professional Perspective | p. 221 |

Math Application: Projected Area | p. 221 |

Auxiliary Views Test | p. 223 |

Auxiliary Views Problems | p. 223 |

Descriptive Geometry I | p. 236 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 236 |

Basic Concepts | p. 236 |

Projection of a Point (Basic Concept 1) | p. 238 |

Lines | p. 241 |

Projection of a Line (Basic Concept 2) | p. 242 |

Projection of a Line to Find Its True Length (Basic Concept 3) | p. 243 |

Projection of a True-Length Line to Find Where It Appears as a Point (Basic Concept 4) | p. 247 |

Planes | p. 248 |

Projection of a Plane | p. 249 |

Professional Perspective | p. 256 |

Math Application | p. 256 |

Descriptive Geometry I Test | p. 257 |

Descriptive Geometry I Problems | p. 257 |

Descriptive Geometry II | p. 265 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 265 |

Directions of Lines and Planes | p. 266 |

True Distance Between a Point and a Line | p. 269 |

True Distance Between Two Skew Lines | p. 270 |

Intersection of a Line and a Plane | p. 270 |

Visibility | p. 271 |

Intersection of Planes | p. 271 |

Dihedral Angles | p. 273 |

An Introduction to Vector Geometry | p. 275 |

Forces in Equilibrium | p. 278 |

Professional Perspective | p. 280 |

Descriptive Geometry II Problems | p. 280 |

Manufacturing Materials and Processes | p. 286 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 286 |

Introduction | p. 286 |

Manufacturing Materials | p. 287 |

Plastics | p. 290 |

Manufacturing Processes | p. 293 |

CADD Applications: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine Tools | p. 298 |

Machine Processes | p. 299 |

Tool Design | p. 317 |

CADD Applications: Jig and Fixture Design | p. 317 |

Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) | p. 322 |

Integration of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) | p. 323 |

Statistical Process Control (SPC) | p. 324 |

Web Site Research | p. 326 |

Professional Perspective | p. 326 |

Math Application: Finding Means for SPC | p. 327 |

Manufacturing Materials and Processes Test | p. 327 |

Manufacturing Materials and Processes Problems | p. 330 |

Dimensioning and Tolerancing | p. 332 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 332 |

Dimensioning Systems | p. 335 |

Dimensioning Rules | p. 337 |

Dimensioning Fundamentals | p. 340 |

Preferred Dimensioning Practices | p. 342 |

CADD Applications: Dimensioning | p. 346 |

Notes for Size Features | p. 347 |

Location Dimensions | p. 351 |

Dimension Origin | p. 352 |

Dimensioning Auxiliary Views | p. 353 |

General Notes | p. 353 |

CADD Applications: Using Layers for Dimensioning | p. 354 |

Tolerancing | p. 355 |

Dimensions Applied to Platings and Coatings | p. 359 |

Maximum and Minimum Dimensions | p. 359 |

Casting Drawing and Design | p. 359 |

Machining Allowance | p. 360 |

Machined Surfaces | p. 363 |

CADD Applications: Dimensioning Software Packages | p. 369 |

Design and Drafting of Machined Features | p. 370 |

Symbols | p. 370 |

An Introduction to ISO 9000 | p. 370 |

Professional Perspective | p. 371 |

CADD Applications: Dimensioning for CADD/CAM | p. 373 |

Recommended Review | p. 374 |

Math Application: Finding Diagonals | p. 375 |

Dimensioning and Tolerancing Test | p. 375 |

Dimensioning and Tolerancing Problems | p. 377 |

Fasteners and Springs | p. 386 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 386 |

Screw Thread Fasteners | p. 386 |

Thread-Cutting Tools | p. 388 |

Thread Forms | p. 389 |

Thread Representations | p. 391 |

Thread Notes | p. 394 |

Measuring Screw Threads | p. 395 |

CADD Applications: Drawing Fasteners | p. 397 |

Threaded Fasteners | p. 397 |

Washers | p. 406 |

Dowel Pins | p. 406 |

Taper and Other Pins | p. 406 |

Retaining Rings | p. 407 |

Keys, Keyways, and Keyseats | p. 407 |

Rivets | p. 407 |

Springs | p. 407 |

CADD Applications: Drawing Springs | p. 411 |

Recommended Review | p. 412 |

Web Site Research | p. 412 |

Professional Perspective | p. 412 |

Math Application: Ratio and Proportion of a Taper Pin | p. 414 |

Fasteners and Springs Test | p. 414 |

Fasteners and Springs Problems | p. 415 |

Sections, Revolutions, and Conventional Breaks | p. 421 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 421 |

Sectioning | p. 422 |

Cutting-Plane Lines | p. 422 |

Section Lines | p. 422 |

Full Sections | p. 424 |

Half Sections | p. 424 |

Offset Sections | p. 424 |

Aligned Sections | p. 425 |

Unsectioned Features | p. 426 |

CADD Applications: Sectioning | p. 427 |

Intersections in Section | p. 428 |

Conventional Revolutions | p. 428 |

Broken-Out Sections | p. 428 |

Auxiliary Sections | p. 429 |

Conventional Breaks | p. 429 |

Revolved Sections | p. 429 |

Removed Sections | p. 430 |

Recommended Review | p. 430 |

Professional Perspective | p. 431 |

Math Application: Distance Between Holes on a Bolt Circle | p. 433 |

Sectioning Test | p. 433 |

Sectioning Problems | p. 434 |

Geometric Tolerancing | p. 458 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 458 |

General Tolerancing | p. 459 |

Symbology | p. 460 |

Datum Feature Symbols | p. 460 |

Datum Reference Frame | p. 460 |

Datum Features | p. 462 |

Datum Target Symbols | p. 462 |

Datum Axis | p. 464 |

Feature Control Frame | p. 464 |

Basic Dimensions | p. 467 |

Geometric Tolerances | p. 468 |

Material Condition Symbols | p. 477 |

CADD Applications: Geometric Tolerancing | p. 478 |

Location Tolerance | p. 481 |

Datum Precedence and Material Condition | p. 484 |

Position of Multiple Features | p. 484 |

Composite Positional Tolerancing | p. 485 |

Two Single-Segment Feature Control Frames | p. 486 |

Positional Tolerance of Tabs | p. 486 |

Positional Tolerance of Slotted Holes | p. 486 |

Positional Tolerance of Threaded Features and Gears | p. 487 |

Positional Tolerance of Counterbored Holes | p. 487 |

Positional Tolerance of Coaxial Holes | p. 487 |

Positional Tolerancing of Nonparallel Holes | p. 488 |

Projected Tolerance Zone | p. 488 |

CADD Applications: Geometric Tolerancing Symbols | p. 491 |

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing with AutoCAD | p. 491 |

Virtual Condition | p. 492 |

Statistical Tolerancing with Geometric Controls | p. 493 |

Combination Controls | p. 493 |

Web Site Research | p. 494 |

Professional Perspective | p. 495 |

Math Applications: Rounding Numbers | p. 497 |

Geometric Tolerancing Test | p. 497 |

Geometric Tolerancing Problems | p. 499 |

Mechanisms: Linkages, Cams, Gears, and Bearings | p. 507 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 507 |

CADD Applications: Mechanism Design | p. 508 |

Mechanisms | p. 509 |

Linkages | p. 509 |

Linkage Symbols | p. 509 |

Types of Linkages | p. 509 |

CADD Applications: Cams and Gears | p. 512 |

Cams | p. 512 |

Cam Displacement Diagrams | p. 513 |

Construction of an In-Line Follower Plate Cam Profile | p. 516 |

Construction of an Offset Follower Plate Cam Profile | p. 517 |

Drum Can Drawing | p. 518 |

Gears | p. 519 |

CADD Applications: Cam Displacement Diagrams and Profiles; Cam Manufacturing | p. 520 |

Gear Structure | p. 520 |

Splines | p. 521 |

Gear Types | p. 521 |

Spur Gear Design | p. 523 |

Gear Accuracy | p. 525 |

Drawing Specifications and Tolerances | p. 525 |

Designing and Drawing Spur Gears | p. 525 |

CADD Applications: Gear Teeth | p. 526 |

Designing Spur Gear Trains | p. 526 |

Designing and Drawing the Rack and Pinion | p. 528 |

Designing and Drawing Bevel Gears | p. 528 |

Designing and Drawing Worm Gears | p. 528 |

Plastic Gears | p. 529 |

Bearings | p. 532 |

Drawing Bearing Symbols | p. 533 |

Bearing Codes | p. 534 |

CADD Applications: Bearing Symbols | p. 534 |

Bearing Selection | p. 534 |

Gear and Bearing Assemblies | p. 539 |

Professional Perspective | p. 540 |

Web site Research | p. 541 |

Math Applications: Length of a Connecting Rod | p. 541 |

Mechanisms Test | p. 542 |

Mechanisms Problems | p. 542 |

Belt and Chain Drives | p. 551 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 551 |

Advantages of Gear Drives | p. 552 |

Advantages of Belt Drives | p. 552 |

Advantages of Chain Drives | p. 552 |

Belts and Belt Drives | p. 552 |

Belt Types | p. 552 |

Typical Belt Drive Arrangements | p. 554 |

Belt Drive Selection | p. 555 |

Chain Drives | p. 558 |

Chain Drive Sprockets | p. 559 |

Chain Classification and Types | p. 559 |

Precision Chains | p. 559 |

CADD Applications: Sprockets | p. 559 |

Nonprecision Chains | p. 560 |

Light-Duty Chain | p. 560 |

Chain Drive Arrangements | p. 560 |

Roller Chain Drive Selection | p. 562 |

Professional Perspective | p. 565 |

Web Site Research | p. 565 |

Math Application: Belt Length | p. 566 |

Belt and Chain Drives Test | p. 566 |

Belt and Chain Drives Problems | p. 567 |

Working Drawings | p. 572 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 572 |

Detail Drawings | p. 573 |

Assembly Drawings | p. 576 |

Types of Assembly Drawings | p. 577 |

CADD Applications: Working Drawings | p. 580 |

Identification Numbers | p. 580 |

Parts Lists | p. 583 |

Purchase Parts | p. 584 |

Engineering Changes | p. 584 |

Drawing from a Prototype | p. 588 |

Analysis of a Set of Working Drawings | p. 589 |

Professional Perspective | p. 589 |

Web Site Research | p. 592 |

Math Application: Distance Between Tangent Circles | p. 594 |

Working Drawings Test | p. 595 |

Working Drawings Problems | p. 595 |

Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations | p. 652 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 652 |

Pictorial Drawings | p. 653 |

Isometric Projections and Drawings | p. 653 |

Types of Isometric Drawings | p. 655 |

Isometric Construction Techniques | p. 655 |

Dimetric Pictorial Representation | p. 660 |

Trimetric Pictorial Representation | p. 660 |

CADD Applications: 3-D Capabilities | p. 662 |

Exploded Pictorial Drawing | p. 662 |

Oblique Drawing | p. 662 |

Perspective Drawing | p. 664 |

One-Point Perspective | p. 665 |

Two-Point Perspective | p. 665 |

Three-Point Perspective | p. 666 |

Circles and Curves in Perspective | p. 666 |

Basic Shading Techniques | p. 667 |

Layout Techniques | p. 668 |

Math Application | p. 670 |

Professional Perspective | p. 670 |

Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations Test | p. 671 |

Pictorial Drawings and Technical Illustrations Problems | p. 671 |

Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality | p. 677 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 677 |

Types of 3D CAD Models | p. 678 |

Modeling Kernel | p. 680 |

Parametric Modeling and the Design Process | p. 680 |

Working with Parts, Assemblies, and Features | p. 682 |

Built-in Features | p. 684 |

Editing Feature History | p. 684 |

Animation | p. 684 |

Virtual Reality | p. 686 |

Professional Perspective | p. 689 |

Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality Problems | p. 691 |

Solid Modeling, Animation, and Virtual Reality Test | p. 691 |

Welding Processes and Representations | p. 693 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 693 |

Welding Tests | p. 706 |

CADD Aplications: Welding Symbols and Applications | p. 707 |

Welding Specifications | p. 710 |

Prequalified Welded Joints | p. 710 |

Weld Design | p. 710 |

Professional Perspective | p. 710 |

Math Applications: Percentage of Welded Parts | p. 711 |

Welding Processes and Representations Test | p. 711 |

Welding Processes and Representations Problems | p. 712 |

Industrial Process Piping | p. 722 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 722 |

Where Is Industrial Piping Used? | p. 722 |

What Is Pipe Drafting? | p. 722 |

Types of Pipe | p. 727 |

CADD Applications: Piping | p. 727 |

Pipe Connection Methods | p. 731 |

Fittings | p. 733 |

CADD Applications: Three-Dimensional System Models | p. 735 |

Flanges | p. 736 |

Valves | p. 738 |

Pipe Drafting | p. 744 |

Piping Details | p. 747 |

CADD Applications: 3-D Digitizing | p. 756 |

Layout Techniques | p. 757 |

Professional Perspective | p. 758 |

Math Application | p. 759 |

Industrial Process Piping Test | p. 759 |

Industrial Process Piping Problems | p. 760 |

Structural Drafting | p. 765 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 765 |

Line Work | p. 766 |

Lettering | p. 766 |

Coordination of Working Drawings | p. 766 |

Structural Drafting Related to Construction Systems | p. 769 |

Concrete Construction | p. 769 |

Concrete Block Construction | p. 776 |

Wood Construction | p. 777 |

Steel Construction | p. 789 |

Common Connection Methods | p. 793 |

Components in a Set of Structural Drawings | p. 796 |

CADD Applications: Structural Drafting | p. 797 |

Drawing Revisions | p. 804 |

Basic Drawing Layout Steps | p. 807 |

Pictorial Drawings | p. 810 |

Web Site Research | p. 810 |

CADD Applications | p. 812 |

Professional Perspective | p. 812 |

Math Application: Designing An Observation Platform | p. 813 |

Structural Drafting Test | p. 813 |

Structural Drafting Problems | p. 814 |

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC)/Pattern Development and Precision Sheet Metal Drafting | p. 828 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 828 |

HVAC Drafting and Pattern Development | p. 829 |

HVAC Systems | p. 829 |

Ventilation | p. 831 |

Thermostat | p. 832 |

HVAC Symbols | p. 832 |

HVAC Drawings | p. 832 |

CADD Applications: HVAC Pictorials | p. 835 |

Sheet Metal Drafting | p. 842 |

Drawing Revisions | p. 842 |

CADD Applications: HVAC Industry | p. 844 |

Pattern Development | p. 846 |

Intersections | p. 855 |

CADD Applications: Sheet Metal Pattern Design | p. 857 |

Material Bending and Chassis Layout | p. 861 |

CADD Applications: Precision Sheet Metal Fabrication | p. 863 |

Professional Perspective | p. 864 |

Math Application: Sheet Metal Bend Angles | p. 865 |

HVAC/Sheet Metal Drafting Test | p. 865 |

HVAC/Sheet Metal Drafting Problems | p. 866 |

Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting | p. 883 |

The Engineering Design Application | p. 883 |

Fundamentals of Electrical Diagrams | p. 884 |

Generation, Transmission, and Distribution of Electricity | p. 887 |

The Electric Power Substation Design Drawings | p. 888 |

Residential and Commercial Electrical Plans | p. 893 |

Professional Perspective | p. 895 |

Electronic Schematic Drafting | p. 898 |

Electronic Diagrams | p. 899 |

Printed Circuit Technology | p. 909 |

Pictorial Drawings | p. 917 |

CADD Applications: Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) | p. 919 |

Professional Perspective | p. 920 |

Math Application: Working with Powers of Ten | p. 920 |

Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting Test | p. 921 |

Electrical and Electronic Schematic Drafting Problems | p. 922 |

Appendices | p. 945 |

Glossary | p. 997 |

Index | p. 1005 |

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