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PREFACE ix
CHAPTER 1 Building a Solid Foundation 1
1.1 Defining Engineering Fluid Mechanics 2
1.2 Describing Liquids and Gases 3
1.3 Idealizing Matter 5
1.4 Dimensions and Units 6
1.5 Carrying and Canceling Units 9
1.6 Applying the Ideal Gas Law (IGL) 13
1.7 The Wales-Woods Model 15
1.8 Checking for Dimensional Homogeneity (DH) 19
1.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 22
CHAPTER 2 Fluid Properties 28
2.1 Defining the System 28
2.2 Characterizing Mass and Weight 30
2.3 Modeling Fluids as Constant Density 32
2.4 Finding Fluid Properties 34
2.5 Describing Viscous Effects 35
2.6 Applying the Viscosity Equation 39
2.7 Characterizing Viscosity 42
2.8 Characterizing Surface Tension 45
2.9 Predicting Boiling Using Vapor Pressure 50
2.10 Characterizing Thermal Energy in Flowing Gases 51
2.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 52
CHAPTER 3 Fluid Statics 60
3.1 Describing Pressure 61
3.2 Calculating Pressure Changes Associated with Elevation Changes 65
3.3 Measuring Pressure 72
3.4 Predicting Forces on Plane Surfaces (Panels) 77
3.5 Calculating Forces on Curved Surfaces 83
3.6 Calculating Buoyant Forces 85
3.7 Predicting Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies 88
3.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 92
CHAPTER 4 The Bernoulli Equation and Pressure Variation 111
4.1 Describing Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 112
4.2 Characterizing Velocity of a Flowing Fluid 114
4.3 Describing Flow 117
4.4 Acceleration 123
4.5 Applying Euler’s Equation to Understand Pressure Variation 127
4.6 Applying the Bernoulli Equation along a Streamline 132
4.7 Measuring Velocity and Pressure 139
4.8 Characterizing Rotational Motion of a Flowing Fluid 142
4.9 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 146
4.10 Describing the Pressure Field for Flow over a Circular Cylinder 147
4.11 Calculating the Pressure Field for a Rotating Flow 149
4.12 Summarizing Key Knowledge 152
CHAPTER 5 Control Volume Approach and Continuity Equation 169
5.1 Characterizing the Rate of Flow 170
5.2 The Control Volume Approach 176
5.3 Continuity Equation (Theory) 182
5.4 Continuity Equation (Application) 184
5.5 Predicting Caviation 191
5.6 Summarizing Key Knowledge 194
CHAPTER 6 Momentum Equation 208
6.1 Understanding Newton’s Second Law of Motion 209
6.2 The Linear Momentum Equation: Theory 213
6.3 Linear Momentum Equation: Application 216
6.4 The Linear Momentum Equation for a Stationary Control Volume 218
6.5 Examples of the Linear Momentum Equation (Moving Objects) 228
6.6 The Angular Momentum Equation 233
6.7 Summarizing Key Knowledge 236
CHAPTER 7 The Energy Equation 252
7.1 Energy Concepts 253
7.2 Conservation of Energy 255
7.3 The Energy Equation 257
7.4 The Power Equation 265
7.5 Mechanical Efficiency 267
7.6 Contrasting the Bernoulli Equation and the Energy Equation 270
7.7 Transitions 270
7.8 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines 273
7.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 277
CHAPTER 8 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude 292
8.1 Need for Dimensional Analysis 292
8.2 Buckingham II Theorem 294
8.3 Dimensional Analysis 295
8.4 Common π-Groups 299
8.5 Similitude 302
8.6 Model Studies for Flows without Free-Surface Effects 305
8.7 Model-Prototype Performance 308
8.8 Approximate Similitude at High Reynolds Numbers 309
8.9 Free-Surface Model Studies 312
8.10 Summarizing Key Knowledge 315
CHAPTER 9 Predicting Shear Force 324
9.1 Uniform Laminar Flow 325
9.2 Qualitative Description of the Boundary Layer 330
9.3 Laminar Boundary Layer 331
9.4 Boundary Layer Transition 335
9.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer 336
9.6 Pressure Gradient Effects of Boundary Layers 347
9.7 Summarizing Key Knowledge 349
CHAPTER 10 Flow in Conduits 359
10.1 Classifying Flow 360
10.2 Specifying Pipe Sizes 363
10.3 Pipe Head Loss 363
10.4 Stress Distributions in Pipe Flow 366
10.5 Laminar Flow in a Round Tube 367
10.6 Turbulent Flow and the Moody Diagram 371
10.7 Strategy for Solving Problems 375
10.8 Combined Head Loss 380
10.9 Nonround Conduits 384
10.10 Pumps and Systems of Pipes 385
10.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 391
CHAPTER 11 Drag and Lift 406
11.1 Relating Lift and Drag to Stress Distributions 407
11.2 Calculating Drag Force 408
11.3 Drag of Axisymmetric and 3-D Bodies 413
11.4 Terminal Velocity 418
11.5 Vortex Shedding 419
11.6 Reducing Drag by Streamlining 420
11.7 Drag in Compressible Flow 421
11.8 Theory of Lift 422
11.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 426
11.10 Lift and Drag on Road Vehicles 432
11.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 435
CHAPTER 12 Compressible Flow 445
12.1 Wave Propagation in Compressible Fluids 445
12.2 Mach Number Relationships 451
12.3 Normal Shock Waves 455
12.4 Isentropic Compressible Flow Through a Duct with Varying Area 460
12.5 Summarizing Key Knowledge 471
CHAPTER 13 Flow Measurements 478
13.1 Measuring Velocity and Pressure 478
13.2 Measuring Flow Rate (Discharge) 486
13.3 Measurement in Compressible Flow 501
13.4 Accuracy of Measurements 505
13.5 Summarizing Key Knowledge 506
CHAPTER 14 Turbomachinery 517
14.1 Propellers 518
14.2 Axial-Flow Pumps 523
14.3 Radial-Flow Machines 527
14.4 Specific Speed 531
14.5 Suction Limitations of Pumps 532
14.6 Viscous Effects 534
14.7 Centrifugal Compressors 535
14.8 Turbines 538
14.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 547
CHAPTER 15 Flow in Open Channels 554
15.1 Description of Open-Channel Flow 555
15.2 Energy Equation for Steady Open-Channel Flow 557
15.3 Steady Uniform Flow 558
15.4 Steady Nonuniform Flow 567
15.5 Rapidly Varied Flow 567
15.6 Hydraulic Jump 577
15.7 Gradually Varied Flow 582
15.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 589
CHAPTER 16 Modeling of Fluid Dynamics Problems 598
16.1 Models in Fluid Mechanics 599
16.2 Foundations for Learning Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) 603
16.3 The Continuity Equation 612
16.4 The Navier-Stokes Equation 619
16.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 623
16.6 Examples of CFD 628
16.7 A Path for Moving Forward 631
16.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 632
Appendix 639
Answers 651
Index 661