The 10th edition of Crowe's Engineering Fluid Mechanics will build upon the strengths and success of the 9th edition, including a focus on pedigogical support and deep integration with WileyPLUS, providing considering deeper support for development of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This new edition retains the hallmark features of Crowe's distinguished history: clarity of coverage, strong examples and practice problems, and comprehensiveness of material, but expands coverage to Computational Fluid Dynamics-a topic missed in earlier editions.

PREFACE ix

**CHAPTER 1 ****Building a Solid Foundation ****1**

1.1 Defining Engineering Fluid Mechanics 2

1.2 Describing Liquids and Gases 3

1.3 Idealizing Matter 5

1.4 Dimensions and Units 6

1.5 Carrying and Canceling Units 9

1.6 Applying the Ideal Gas Law (IGL) 13

1.7 The Wales-Woods Model 15

1.8 Checking for Dimensional Homogeneity (DH) 19

1.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 22

**CHAPTER 2 ****Fluid Properties ****28**

2.1 Defining the System 28

2.2 Characterizing Mass and Weight 30

2.3 Modeling Fluids as Constant Density 32

2.4 Finding Fluid Properties 34

2.5 Describing Viscous Effects 35

2.6 Applying the Viscosity Equation 39

2.7 Characterizing Viscosity 42

2.8 Characterizing Surface Tension 45

2.9 Predicting Boiling Using Vapor Pressure 50

2.10 Characterizing Thermal Energy in Flowing Gases 51

2.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 52

**CHAPTER 3 ****Fluid Statics ****60**

3.1 Describing Pressure 61

3.2 Calculating Pressure Changes Associated with Elevation Changes 65

3.3 Measuring Pressure 72

3.4 Predicting Forces on Plane Surfaces (Panels) 77

3.5 Calculating Forces on Curved Surfaces 83

3.6 Calculating Buoyant Forces 85

3.7 Predicting Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies 88

3.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 92

**CHAPTER 4 ****The Bernoulli Equation and Pressure ****Variation 111**

4.1 Describing Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 112

4.2 Characterizing Velocity of a Flowing Fluid 114

4.3 Describing Flow 117

4.4 Acceleration 123

4.5 Applying Euler’s Equation to Understand Pressure Variation 127

4.6 Applying the Bernoulli Equation along a Streamline 132

4.7 Measuring Velocity and Pressure 139

4.8 Characterizing Rotational Motion of a Flowing Fluid 142

4.9 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 146

4.10 Describing the Pressure Field for Flow over a Circular Cylinder 147

4.11 Calculating the Pressure Field for a Rotating Flow 149

4.12 Summarizing Key Knowledge 152

**CHAPTER 5 ****Control Volume Approach and Continuity Equation ****169**

5.1 Characterizing the Rate of Flow 170

5.2 The Control Volume Approach 176

5.3 Continuity Equation (Theory) 182

5.4 Continuity Equation (Application) 184

5.5 Predicting Caviation 191

5.6 Summarizing Key Knowledge 194

**CHAPTER 6 ****Momentum Equation ****208**

6.1 Understanding Newton’s Second Law of Motion 209

6.2 The Linear Momentum Equation: Theory 213

6.3 Linear Momentum Equation: Application 216

6.4 The Linear Momentum Equation for a Stationary Control Volume 218

6.5 Examples of the Linear Momentum Equation (Moving Objects) 228

6.6 The Angular Momentum Equation 233

6.7 Summarizing Key Knowledge 236

**CHAPTER 7 ****The Energy Equation ****252**

7.1 Energy Concepts 253

7.2 Conservation of Energy 255

7.3 The Energy Equation 257

7.4 The Power Equation 265

7.5 Mechanical Efficiency 267

7.6 Contrasting the Bernoulli Equation and the Energy Equation 270

7.7 Transitions 270

7.8 Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines 273

7.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 277

**CHAPTER 8 ****Dimensional Analysis and Similitude ****292**

8.1 Need for Dimensional Analysis 292

8.2 Buckingham II Theorem 294

8.3 Dimensional Analysis 295

8.4 Common π-Groups 299

8.5 Similitude 302

8.6 Model Studies for Flows without Free-Surface Effects 305

8.7 Model-Prototype Performance 308

8.8 Approximate Similitude at High Reynolds Numbers 309

8.9 Free-Surface Model Studies 312

8.10 Summarizing Key Knowledge 315

**CHAPTER 9 ****Predicting Shear Force ****324**

9.1 Uniform Laminar Flow 325

9.2 Qualitative Description of the Boundary Layer 330

9.3 Laminar Boundary Layer 331

9.4 Boundary Layer Transition 335

9.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer 336

9.6 Pressure Gradient Effects of Boundary Layers 347

9.7 Summarizing Key Knowledge 349

**CHAPTER 10 ****Flow in Conduits ****359**

10.1 Classifying Flow 360

10.2 Specifying Pipe Sizes 363

10.3 Pipe Head Loss 363

10.4 Stress Distributions in Pipe Flow 366

10.5 Laminar Flow in a Round Tube 367

10.6 Turbulent Flow and the Moody Diagram 371

10.7 Strategy for Solving Problems 375

10.8 Combined Head Loss 380

10.9 Nonround Conduits 384

10.10 Pumps and Systems of Pipes 385

10.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 391

**CHAPTER 11 ****Drag and Lift ****406**

11.1 Relating Lift and Drag to Stress Distributions 407

11.2 Calculating Drag Force 408

11.3 Drag of Axisymmetric and 3-D Bodies 413

11.4 Terminal Velocity 418

11.5 Vortex Shedding 419

11.6 Reducing Drag by Streamlining 420

11.7 Drag in Compressible Flow 421

11.8 Theory of Lift 422

11.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 426

11.10 Lift and Drag on Road Vehicles 432

11.11 Summarizing Key Knowledge 435

**CHAPTER 12 ****Compressible Flow ****445**

12.1 Wave Propagation in Compressible Fluids 445

12.2 Mach Number Relationships 451

12.3 Normal Shock Waves 455

12.4 Isentropic Compressible Flow Through a Duct with Varying Area 460

12.5 Summarizing Key Knowledge 471

**CHAPTER 13 ****Flow Measurements ****478**

13.1 Measuring Velocity and Pressure 478

13.2 Measuring Flow Rate (Discharge) 486

13.3 Measurement in Compressible Flow 501

13.4 Accuracy of Measurements 505

13.5 Summarizing Key Knowledge 506

**CHAPTER 14 ****Turbomachinery ****517**

14.1 Propellers 518

14.2 Axial-Flow Pumps 523

14.3 Radial-Flow Machines 527

14.4 Specific Speed 531

14.5 Suction Limitations of Pumps 532

14.6 Viscous Effects 534

14.7 Centrifugal Compressors 535

14.8 Turbines 538

14.9 Summarizing Key Knowledge 547

**CHAPTER 15 ****Flow in Open Channels ****554**

15.1 Description of Open-Channel Flow 555

15.2 Energy Equation for Steady Open-Channel Flow 557

15.3 Steady Uniform Flow 558

15.4 Steady Nonuniform Flow 567

15.5 Rapidly Varied Flow 567

15.6 Hydraulic Jump 577

15.7 Gradually Varied Flow 582

15.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 589

**CHAPTER 16 ****Modeling of Fluid Dynamics Problems ****598**

16.1 Models in Fluid Mechanics 599

16.2 Foundations for Learning Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) 603

16.3 The Continuity Equation 612

16.4 The Navier-Stokes Equation 619

16.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 623

16.6 Examples of CFD 628

16.7 A Path for Moving Forward 631

16.8 Summarizing Key Knowledge 632

Appendix 639

Answers 651

Index 661