9780131405707

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131405707

  • ISBN10:

    0131405705

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 6/10/2003
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

This applied thermoscience book explores the basic principles and applications of various types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines.KEY TOPICSIt covers both spark ignition and compression ignition enginesas well as those operating on four-stroke cycles and on two stroke cyclesranging in size from small model airplane engines to the larger stationary engines.For use as a reference guide in the field of engines, and a basic understanding of the operating of internal combustion engines.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Notation xix
Introduction
1(37)
Introduction
1(3)
Early History
4(1)
Engine Classifications
5(10)
Terminology and Abbreviations
15(4)
Engine Components
19(6)
Basic Engine Cycles
25(5)
Hybrid Vehicles
30(3)
Fuel Cell Vehicles
33(2)
Engine Emissions and Air Pollution
35(3)
Problems
36(1)
Design Problems
37(1)
Operating Characteristics
38(46)
Engine Parameters
38(9)
Work
47(6)
Mean Effective Pressure
53(1)
Torque and Power
54(3)
Dynamometers
57(5)
Air-Fuel Ratio and Fuel-Air Ratio
62(2)
Specific Fuel Consumption
64(4)
Engine Efficiencies
68(1)
Volumetric Efficiency
69(4)
Emissions
73(2)
Noise Abatement
75(1)
42-Volt Electrical Systems
75(2)
Variable Displacement---Cylinder Cutout
77(1)
Conclusions---Working Equations
78(6)
Problems
79(4)
Design Problems
83(1)
Engine Cycles
84(55)
Air-Standard Cycles
84(4)
Otto Cycle
88(8)
Real Air--Fuel Engine Cycles
96(2)
SI Engine Cycle at Part Throttle
98(3)
Exhaust Process
101(5)
Diesel Cycle
106(4)
Dual Cycle
110(3)
Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and Dual Cycles
113(6)
Miller Cycle
119(4)
Comparison of Miller Cycle and Otto Cycle
123(1)
Two-Stroke Cycles
124(5)
Stirling Cycle
129(2)
Lenoir Cycle
131(2)
Summary
133(6)
Problems
133(5)
Design Problems
138(1)
Thermochemistry and Fuels
139(51)
Thermochemistry
139(12)
Hydrocarbon Fuels---Gasoline
151(2)
Some Common Hydrocarbon Components
153(5)
Self-Ignition and Octane Number
158(8)
Diesel Fuel
166(5)
Alternate Fuels
171(13)
Conclusions
184(6)
Problems
185(4)
Design Problems
189(1)
Air and Fuel Induction
190(59)
Intake Manifold
190(2)
Volumetric Efficiency of SI Engines
192(6)
Intake Valves
198(4)
Variable Value Control
202(3)
Fuel Injection
205(12)
Carburetors
217(9)
Supercharging and Turbocharging
226(5)
Dual-Fuel Engines
231(2)
Intake for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
233(5)
Intake for CI Engines
238(4)
Nitrous Oxide
242(2)
Conclusions
244(5)
Problems
244(4)
Design Problems
248(1)
Fluid Motion within Combustion Chamber
249(24)
Turbulence
249(2)
Swirl
251(6)
Squish and Tumble
257(1)
Divided Combustion Chambers
258(2)
Crevice Flow and Blowby
260(3)
Mathematical Models and Computer Simulation
263(2)
Internal Combustion Engine Simulation Program
265(5)
Conclusions
270(3)
Problems
270(2)
Design Problems
272(1)
Combustion
273(40)
Combustion in SI Engines with Homogeneous Air--Fuel Mixtures
274(14)
Combustion in Divided Chamber Engines and Stratified Charge Lean-Burn Engines
288(4)
Engine Operating Characteristics
292(2)
Modern Fast Burn Combustion Chambers
294(3)
Combustion in CI Engines
297(8)
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition---HCCI
305(1)
Variable Compression Ratio
306(3)
Summary
309(4)
Problems
310(2)
Design Problems
312(1)
Exhaust Flow
313(17)
Blowdown
313(3)
Exhaust Stroke
316(3)
Exhaust Valves
319(1)
Exhaust Temperature
320(1)
Exhaust Manifold
321(2)
Turbochargers
323(1)
Exhaust Gas Recycle---EGR
324(1)
Tailpipe and Muffler
324(1)
Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
324(2)
Summary and Conclusions
326(4)
Problems
327(2)
Design Problems
329(1)
Emissions and Air Pollution
330(40)
Air Pollution
330(2)
Hydrocarbons (HC)
332(6)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
338(1)
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
339(3)
Particulates
342(3)
Other Emissions
345(3)
Aftertreatment
348(1)
Catalytic Converters
349(9)
CI Engines
358(1)
Chemical Methods to Reduce Emissions
359(1)
Exhaust Gas Recycle---EGR
360(3)
Nonexhaust Emissions
363(1)
Noise Pollution
364(6)
Problems
365(4)
Design Problems
369(1)
Heat Transfer in Engines
370(40)
Energy Distribution
371(2)
Engine Temperatures
373(3)
Heat Transfer in Intake System
376(1)
Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers
377(7)
Heat Transfer in Exhaust System
384(3)
Effect of Engine Operating Variables on Heat Transfer
387(6)
Air Cooled Engines
393(2)
Liquid Cooled Engines
395(6)
Oil as a Coolant
401(1)
Adiabatic Engines
401(1)
Some Modern Trends in Engine Cooling
402(1)
Thermal Storage
403(3)
Summary
406(4)
Problems
406(3)
Design Problems
409(1)
Friction and Lubrication
410(33)
Mechanical Friction and Lubrication
410(2)
Engine Friction
412(11)
Forces on Piston
423(6)
Engine Lubrication Systems
429(1)
Two-Stroke Cycle Engines
430(2)
Lubricating Oil
432(6)
Oil Filters
438(2)
Crankcase Explosions
440(1)
Summary and Conclusions
441(2)
Problems
441(1)
Design Problems
442(1)
Appendix 443(5)
References 448(12)
Answers to Selected Review Problems 460(3)
Index 463

Excerpts

The goal of the second edition of this book is the same as that of the first edition, with updated material in several areas that reflects the ever-advancing technology of internal combustion engines. This book was written to be used as an applied thermoscience textbook in a one-semester, college-level, undergraduate engineering course on internal combustion engines. It provides the material needed for a basic understanding of the operation of internal combustion engines. Students are assumed to have knowledge of fundamental thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics as a prerequisite to get maximum benefit from the text. This book can also be used for self-study or as a reference book in the field of engines.Contents include the fundamentals of most types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. Both spark ignition and compression ignition engines are covered, as are those operating on four-stroke cycles and on two-stroke cycles, and ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the largest stationary engines. Rocket engines and jet engines are not included. Because of the large number of engines that are used in automobiles and other vehicles, a major emphasis is placed on these.The book is divided into 11 chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction, terminology, definitions, and basic operating characteristics. These are followed in Chapter 3 with detailed analysis of basic engine cycles. Chapter 4 reviews fundamental thermochemistry as it applies to engine operation and engine fuels. Chapters 5 through 9 follow the air-fuel charge as it passes sequentially through an engine, including intake, motion within a cylinder, combustion, exhaust, and emissions. Engine heat transfer, friction, and lubrication are covered in Chapters 10 and 11. Each chapter includes solved example problems and historical notes, followed by a set of unsolved review problems. Also included at the end of each chapter are open-ended problems that require limited design application, in keeping with the modern engineering education trend of emphasizing design through the entire curriculum. These design problems can be used as minor weekly exercises or as major group projects.Fueled by intensive commercial competition and increasingly strict government regulations on emissions and safety, the field of engine technology is constantly changing. It is difficult to stay knowledgeable about all advancements in engine design, materials, controls, and fuel development that we experience at an ever-increasing rate. During the years as the outline for this text evolved, continuous changes were required as new developments occurred. Those advancements that are covered in this book include tie Miller cycle, lean burn engines, hybrid vehicles, 42-volt electrical systems, variable valve timing, fuel cell technology, gasoline direct injection, variable compression ratios, cylinder cutout, thermal storage, etc. Advancements and technological changes will continue to occur, and further updating of this text will be required periodically.Information in the book represents an accumulation of general material collected by the author over a period of years while teaching courses and working in research and development in the field of internal combustion engines in the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. During this time, information has been collected from many sources, including conferences, newspapers, personal communication, books, technical periodicals, research, product literature, television, etc. This information became the basis for the outline and notes used in the teaching of a class about internal combustion engines. These class notes, in turn, evolved into the general outline for this textbook. A list of references from the technical literature from which specific information for this book was taken is included at the back of the book.

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