9780195150971

Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195150971

  • ISBN10:

    019515097X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 7/24/2005
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2/e analyzes the behavior and properties of composite materials--rigid, high-strength, lightweight components that can be used in infrastructure, aircraft, automobiles, biomedical products, and a myriad of other goods. This edition featuresadditional exercises and new material based on the author's research and advances in the field.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
Introduction
1(17)
Definition and Characteristics
1(1)
Historical Development
2(1)
Applications
3(10)
Overview of Advantages and Limitations of Composite Materials
13(3)
Micromechanics
14(1)
Macromechanics
14(1)
Mechanical Characterization
14(1)
Structural Design, Analysis, and Optimization
14(1)
Manufacturing Technology
15(1)
Maintainability, Serviceability, and Durability
15(1)
Cost Effectiveness
15(1)
Significance and Objectives of Composite Materials Science and Technology
16(1)
Current Status and Future Prospects
16(2)
References
17(1)
Basic Concepts, Materials, Processes, and Characteristics
18(25)
Structural-Performance of Conventional Materials
18(1)
Geometric and Physical Definitions
18(2)
Type of Material
18(1)
Homogeneity
19(1)
Heterogeneity or Inhomogeneity
19(1)
Isotropy
19(1)
Anisotropy/Orthotropy
20(1)
Material Response Under Load
20(4)
Types and Classification of Composite Materials
24(2)
Lamina and Laminate---Characteristics and Configurations
26(1)
Scales of Analysis---Micromechanics and Macromechanics
27(2)
Basic Lamina Properties
29(1)
Degrees of Anisotropy
30(1)
Constituent Materials
30(5)
Reinforcement
30(3)
Matrices
33(2)
Material Forms---Prepregs
35(1)
Manufacturing Methods for Composite Materials
36(4)
Autoclave Molding
37(1)
Filament Winding
37(1)
Resin Transfer Molding
38(2)
Properties of Typical Composite Materials
40(3)
References
42(1)
Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina---Micromechanics
43(20)
Scope and Approaches
43(2)
Micromechanics Methods
45(4)
Mechanics of Materials Methods
46(1)
Bounding Methods
46(2)
Semiempirical Methods
48(1)
Geometric Aspects and Elastic Symmetry
49(1)
Longitudinal Elastic Properties---Continuous Fibers
49(2)
Transverse Elastic Properties---Continuous Fibers
51(5)
In-Plane Shear Modulus
56(2)
Longitudinal Properties---Discontinuous (Short) Fibers
58(5)
Elastic Stress Transfer Model---Shear Lag Analysis (Cox)
58(2)
Semiempirical Relation (Halpin)
60(1)
References
60(1)
Problems
61(2)
Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina---Macromechanics
63(35)
Stress-Strain Relations
63(8)
General Anisotropic Material
63(3)
Specially Orthotropic Material
66(1)
Transversely Isotropic Material
67(2)
Orthotropic Material Under Plane Stress
69(2)
Isotropic Material
71(1)
Relations Between Mathematical and Engineering Constants
71(5)
Stress-Strain Relations for a Thin Lamina (Two-Dimensional)
76(1)
Transformation of Stress and Strain (Two-Dimensional)
77(1)
Transformation of Elastic Parameters (Two-Dimensional)
78(3)
Transformation of Stress-Strain Relations in Terms of Engineering Constants (Two-Dimensional)
81(2)
Transformation Relations for Engineering Constants (Two-Dimensional)
83(5)
Transformation of Stress and Strain (Three-Dimensional)
88(2)
General Transformation
88(1)
Rotation About 3-Axis
89(1)
Transformation of Elastic Parameters (Three-Dimensional)
90(8)
References
92(1)
Problems
92(6)
Strength of Unidirectional Lamina---Micromechanics
98(22)
Introduction
98(1)
Longitudinal Tension---Failure Mechanisms and Strength
98(4)
Longitudinal Tension---Ineffective Fiber Length
102(3)
Longitudinal Compression
105(5)
Transverse Tension
110(3)
Transverse Compression
113(1)
In-Plane Shear
114(1)
Out-of-Plane Loading
115(1)
General Micromechanics Approach
116(4)
References
116(1)
Problems
117(3)
Strength of Composite Lamina---Macromechanics
120(38)
Introduction
120(2)
Failure Theories
122(1)
Maximum Stress Theory
123(3)
Maximum Strain Theory
126(2)
Energy-Based Interaction Theory (Tsai-Hill)
128(2)
Interactive Tensor Polynomial Theory (Tsai-Wu)
130(5)
Failure-Mode-Based Theories (Hashin-Rotem)
135(2)
Failure Criteria for Textile Composites
137(2)
Computational Procedure for Determination of Lamina Strength---Tsai-Wu Criterion (Plane Stress Conditions)
139(4)
Evaluation and Applicability of Lamina Failure Theories
143(15)
References
148(1)
Problems
149(9)
Elastic Behavior of Multidirectional Laminates
158(46)
Basic Assumptions
158(1)
Strain-Displacement Relations
158(2)
Stress-Strain Relations of a Layer Within a Laminate
160(1)
Force and Moment Resultants
161(2)
General Load-Deformation Relations: Laminate Stiffnesses
163(2)
Inversion of Load-Deformation Relations: Laminate Compliances
165(2)
Symmetric Laminates
167(4)
Symmetric Laminates with Isotropic Layers
168(1)
Symmetric Laminates with Specially Orthotropic Layers (Symmetric Crossply Laminates)
169(1)
Symmetric Angle-Ply Laminates
170(1)
Balanced Laminates
171(4)
Antisymmetric Laminates
172(1)
Antisymmetric Crossply Laminates
172(2)
Antisymmetric Angle-Ply Laminates
174(1)
Orthotropic Laminates: Transformation of Laminate Stiffnesses and Compliances
175(2)
Quasi-isotropic Laminates
177(2)
Design Considerations
179(2)
Laminate Engineering Properties
181(8)
Symmetric Balanced Laminates
181(1)
Symmetric Laminates
182(2)
General Laminates
184(5)
Computational Procedure for Determination of Engineering Elastic Properties
189(1)
Comparison of Elastic Parameters of Unidirectional and Angle-Ply Laminates
190(1)
Carpet Plots for Multidirectional Laminates
191(1)
Textile Composite Laminates
192(1)
Modified Lamination Theory---Effects of Transverse Shear
193(3)
Sandwich Plates
196(8)
References
200(1)
Problems
200(4)
Hygrothermal Effects
204(39)
Introduction
204(1)
Physical and Chemical Effects
205(1)
Effects on Mechanical Properties
205(1)
Hygrothermoelastic (HTE) Effects
205(1)
Hygrothermal Effects on Mechanical Behavior
205(3)
Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of a Unidirectional Lamina
208(4)
Hygrothermal Strains in a Unidirectional Lamina
212(1)
Hygrothermoelastic Load-Deformation Relations
213(2)
Hygrothermoelastic Deformation-Load Relations
215(1)
Hygrothermal Load-Deformation Relations
216(1)
Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Multidirectional Laminates
216(1)
Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Balanced/Symmetric Laminates
217(2)
Physical Significance of Hygrothermal Forces and Moments
219(1)
Hygrothermal Isotropy and Stability
220(4)
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of Unidirectional and Multidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminates
224(1)
Hygrothermoelastic Stress Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates
225(2)
Residual Stresses
227(5)
Warpage
232(3)
Computational Procedure for Hygrothermoelastic Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates
235(8)
References
237(2)
Problems
239(4)
Stress and Failure Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates
243(60)
Introduction
243(1)
Types of Failure
244(1)
Stress Analysis and Safety Factors for First Ply Failure of Symmetric Laminates (In-Plane Loading)
244(2)
Strength Components for First Ply Failure of Symmetric Laminates
246(6)
Computational Procedure for Stress and Failure Analysis of General Multidirectional Laminates (First Ply Failure)
252(1)
Comparison of Strengths of Unidirectional and Angle-Ply Laminates (First Ply Failure)
253(1)
Carpet Plots for Strength of Multidirectional Laminates (First Ply Failure)
254(1)
Effect of Hygrothermal History on Strength of Multidirectional Laminates (First Ply Failure; Tsai-Wu Criterion)
255(3)
Computational Procedure for Stress and Failure Analysis of Multidirectional Laminates Under Combined Mechanical and Hygrothermal Loading (First Ply Failure; Tsai-Wu Criterion)
258(2)
Micromechanics of Progressive Failure
260(5)
Progressive and Ultimate Laminate Failure---Laminate Efficiency
265(2)
Analysis of Progressive and Ultimate Laminate Failure
267(4)
Determination of First Ply Failure (FPF)
267(1)
Discounting of Damaged Plies
268(1)
Stress Analysis of the Damaged Laminate
268(1)
Second Ply Failure
268(1)
Ultimate Laminate Failure
268(1)
Computational Procedure
269(2)
Laminate Failure Theories---Overview, Evaluation, and Applicability
271(5)
Design Considerations
276(1)
Interlaminar Stresses and Strength of Multidirectional Laminates: Edge Effects
277(7)
Introduction
277(1)
Angle-Ply Laminates
277(1)
Crossply Laminates
278(1)
Effects of Stacking Sequence
279(3)
Interlaminar Strength
282(2)
Interlaminar Fracture Toughness
284(2)
Design Methodology for Structural Composite Materials
286(3)
Illustration of Design Process: Design of a Pressure Vessel
289(5)
Aluminum Reference Vessel
290(1)
Crossply [0m/90n]s Laminates
290(1)
Angle-Ply [±θ]ns Laminates
291(1)
[90/±θ]ns Laminates
292(1)
[0/±θ]ns Laminates
293(1)
Quasi-isotropic [0/±45/90]ns Laminates
293(1)
Summary and Comparison of Results
294(1)
Ranking of Composite Laminates
294(9)
References
295(3)
Problems
298(5)
Experimental Methods for Characterization and Testing of Composite Materials
303(70)
Introduction
303(1)
Characterization of Constituent Materials
304(6)
Mechanical Fiber Characterization
304(3)
Thermal Fiber Characterization
307(1)
Matrix Characterization
308(1)
Interface/Interphase Characterization
308(2)
Physical Characterization of Composite Materials
310(6)
Density
310(1)
Fiber Volume Ratio
310(1)
Void Volume Ratio (Porosity)
311(2)
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
313(1)
Coefficients of Hygric (Moisture) Expansion
314(2)
Determination of Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Laminae
316(2)
Determination of Compressive Properties of Unidirectional Laminae
318(4)
Determination of Shear Properties of Unidirectional Laminae
322(7)
Determination of Through-Thickness Properties
329(6)
Through-Thickness Tensile Properties
329(2)
Through-Thickness Compressive Properties
331(1)
Interlaminar Shear Strength
331(4)
Determination of Interlaminar Fracture Toughness
335(7)
Mode I Testing
335(2)
Mode II Testing
337(2)
Mixed-Mode Testing
339(2)
Mode III Testing
341(1)
Biaxial Testing
342(6)
Introduction
342(1)
Off-Axis Uniaxial Test
343(2)
Flat Plate Specimen
345(1)
Thin-Wall Tubular Specimen
346(2)
Characterization of Composites with Stress Concentrations
348(7)
Introduction
348(1)
Laminates with Holes
348(4)
Laminates with Cracks
352(3)
Test Methods for Textile Composites
355(4)
In-Plane Tensile Testing
355(1)
In-Plane Compressive Testing
356(1)
In-Plane Shear Testing
357(1)
Through-Thickness Testing
357(2)
Interlaminar Fracture Toughness
359(1)
Structural Testing
359(1)
Summary and Discussion
360(13)
References
364(9)
Appendix A: Material Properties 373(12)
Appendix B: Three-Dimensional Transformations of Elastic Properties of Composite Lamina 385(4)
Appendix C: Answers to Selected Problems 389(8)
Author Index 397(6)
Subject Index 403

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