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Environment and Society : Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues,9780130165558
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Environment and Society : Human Perspectives on Environmental Issues

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130165558

ISBN10:
0130165557
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2000
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
List Price: $66.00

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Summary

Appropriate for upper-division undergraduates in various departments such as Sociology, Environmental Studies, Anthropology, Political Science and Human Geography. With appropriate supplements, the text could also be used by beginning graduate students. This integrative text about human-environment relations connects many issues about human societies, ecological systems, and environments with data and perspectives from different fields of study. While the viewpoint is primarily sociological, coverage is specifically designed to relate to a diverse audience and encompass viewpoints from a variety of natural and social science approaches.

Table of Contents

Preface x
PART I INTRODUCTION
Environmental Problems and Ecosystems
3(29)
Environmental News
4(3)
The Vanishing Wilderness
4(1)
Agricultural Resources under Stress
4(1)
Pollution and Other Garbage
5(2)
The Spectre of Climate Change
7(1)
Ecocatastrophe or Eco Hype?
7(4)
Pollyannas and Cassandras
8(3)
Ecosystems
11(14)
Ecosystem Concepts
12(9)
Explaining Ecosystem Dynamics: Change and Evolution
21(1)
The Evolution of Ecosystems
22(3)
What You Can Expect from the Rest of this Book and How It Is Organized
25(1)
Science, Values, and Language
26(1)
Personal Connections
27(5)
Human Systems, Environment, and Social Science
32(49)
Sociocultural Systems
32(7)
Culture
34(1)
Social Institutions
35(1)
Social Structure
36(1)
The Duality of Human Life
37(1)
Worldviews, Social Paradigms, and Cognized Environments
37(2)
Historical Change, Human-Environment Relationships, and Paradigms
39(10)
Hunter-Gatherer Societies
39(1)
Agricultural Societies
40(5)
Industrial Societies
45(4)
Explaining Sociocultural Evolution: Human Ecology and Political Economy
49(8)
Ecosystem and Sociocultural Evolution
49(4)
The Political Economy of the World System and Globalization
53(4)
Environmental Social Science
57(12)
Economic Thought
58(4)
Sociological Thought
62(7)
Conclusion: Human Systems and Environmental Systems
69(5)
The Human Driving Forces of Environmental and Ecological Change
69(3)
System Connections
72(1)
Intellectual Paradigms about Human-Environment Relations
73(1)
Personal Connections
74(7)
PART II READING THE EARTH'S VITAL SIGNS
The Resources of the Earth: Sources and Sinks
81(43)
Land and Soil
82(5)
Soil and Food
83(1)
Present and Future Status of the World's Soils
84(1)
Addressing Soil Problems
85(1)
Ecosystem Services: Pricing Soil Degradation
86(1)
Water Resources
87(4)
Growing Water Use and Its Problems
88(1)
Water and Political Conflict
89(1)
Addressing Water Problems
90(1)
Freshwater Ecosystem Services
91(1)
Biodiversity and Forests
91(12)
Forest Resources
92(1)
Forest Ecosystem Services
93(1)
Declining Biodiversity
94(7)
Addressing Deforestation and Declining Biodiversity
101(2)
Nonfuel Minerals, Materials, and Solid Wastes
103(8)
Reserves and Sources of Minerals
103(3)
Problems with Mineral Production
106(2)
Sinks: Solid Waste Problems
108(1)
Addressing Solid Waste Problems
109(2)
Chemical Pollution and Toxic Wastes
111(7)
Chemical Pollution from Agriculture
112(2)
Chemical Pollutants from Industry
114(1)
Urban and Municipal Pollution
115(1)
Pollution Trends
116(2)
Conclusion: The Resources of the Earth
118(2)
Personal Connections
120(4)
Global Climate Change, Scientific Uncertainty, and Risk
124(47)
Ozone Depletion and Ultraviolet Radiation
127(5)
Destroying the Ozone Layer
128(1)
A Cautionary Tale: Technology, Progress, and Environmental Damage
129(1)
A Happy Ending?
130(2)
Turning Up the Heat: Global Warming?
132(18)
General Climate Models
133(3)
More and Less Uncertainty
136(3)
Impacts on Society
139(2)
Policy Options: What Could Be Done about Global Warming?
141(9)
Understanding Uncertainty and Risk
150(12)
Sources of Scientific Uncertainty
150(6)
Assessing Risks, Analytic Modeling, and the Risk Establishment
156(6)
Conclusion: Criteria for Policy and Action
162(2)
Do We Know Enough to Act?
162(1)
Can We Afford the Costs?
163(1)
Personal Connections
164(7)
PART III THE HUMAN CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Population, Environment, and Food
171(49)
The Dynamics of Population Change
173(13)
The Demographic Transition Model
174(2)
Demographic Divergence: MDCs and LDCs
176(2)
Population Redistribution: Urbanization and Migration
178(8)
How Serious Is the Problem of World Population Growth?
186(8)
Neo-Malthusian Arguments
187(1)
Economistic Arguments
188(1)
Inequality Arguments
189(3)
Population Policy and Politics
192(2)
Making Sense Out of This Controversy
194(3)
An Emerging Consensus?
196(1)
Population and Food
197(4)
Pressing the Earth's Limits?
199(2)
How Can We Feed Nine Billion People in the Next 50 Years?
201(10)
Increasing Food Security: Technical Options
202(5)
Increasing Food Security: Political-Economic Options
207(3)
Food Options and Policy Questions
210(1)
Stabilizing World Population: Policy Questions
211(2)
Promoting Fertility Decline
212(1)
Conclusion
213(1)
Personal Connections
213(7)
Energy and Society
220(43)
The Winter of 1973
221(2)
Energy Problems: Environmental and Social
223(6)
Source Problems: Energy Resource Supplies
223(1)
Energy, Population Growth, and Economic Development
224(1)
Policy, Economic, and Geopolitical Problems
225(2)
Sink Problems: Energy and Environment
227(2)
The Energetics of Human Societies
229(13)
Low- and High-Energy Societies
230(2)
Social Science and Energetics
232(10)
The Present Energy System and Its Alternatives
242(11)
Fossil Fuels
242(1)
Nuclear Energy
243(2)
Renewable Energy Sources
245(8)
Changing The World Energy System: Barriers and Policy
253(5)
Barriers
254(1)
Transitions
255(2)
Making Energy Policy
257(1)
Personal Connections
258(5)
Alternative Futures: Sustainability, Inequality, and Social Change
263(44)
Sustainability
264(3)
Conceptualizing the Human Impact Again: I = PAT
267(2)
Affluence, Social Inequality, and Environment
269(7)
Social Inequality and Stratification
270(3)
Inequality and Environmental Degradation
273(3)
Social and Environmental Futures: Two Views
276(15)
A Future without Limits: Cornucopia?
277(2)
A Future with Limits: Outbreak-Crash?
279(6)
The Two Scenarios: Evidence and Understanding the Debate
285(4)
Thinking about High-Risk Choices in Contexts of Uncertainty
289(2)
What Would a Sustainable Society Look Like?
291(3)
Transformation and Sustainable Societies: Social Change
294(5)
Functionalism and Change
294(1)
Conflict Perspectives and Change
295(1)
Interactionism, Social Constructionism, and Change
296(1)
Multiple Perspectives and Change: Agency, Structure, and Time Horizons
296(3)
Conclusion: A Transformation to Sustainability?
299(1)
Personal Connections
300(7)
PART IV TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE WORLD?
Transforming Structures: Markets, Politics, and Policy
307(38)
Markets
309(13)
Market Failures
310(3)
Environmentally Perverse Subsidies and Market Incentives
313(1)
Transforming Market Incentives: Green Taxes and Owning the Commons
314(2)
New Measures of Economic and Social Progress
316(1)
Rational-Choice Theory and Human-Environment Problems
317(2)
But Markets Are Not the Answer
319(3)
Politics and Policy
322(9)
Public Policy and Strategies of Social Change
323(1)
Policy and the Economic Production Cycle
324(2)
Policy and Social Structure
326(2)
Politics and the Limits of Policy
328(3)
The Potential for Structural Change
331(9)
Signs of Progress?
331(3)
Revisiting the Tragedy of the Commons: Community Resource Management
334(6)
Personal Connections
340(5)
Environmentalism: Ideology, Action, and Movements
345(40)
American Environmentalism
348(26)
American Environmental Movements, 1870-1950
350(2)
Contemporary Environmentalism
352(18)
Manifest Destiny: Anti-Environmentalism and Countermovements
370(4)
Environmentalism and Change
374(6)
The Question of Durability
374(1)
Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
374(2)
Paradigm Change?
376(2)
Voluntary Simplicity Again?
378(1)
Changed Economic Structures
379(1)
Conclusion: How Successful Is Environmentalism?
380(1)
Personal Connections
381(4)
Globalization: Trade, Environment, and the Third Revolution
385(42)
The Growth of Trade and the World Market Economy
387(1)
Global Environmentalism
388(4)
Organizations, Trade, Treaties, and the Environment
392(12)
Approaches to International Trade
394(2)
Transnational Corporations (TNCs) and World Trade
396(2)
Environmentalists, Neoliberal ``Free Traders,'' and LDCs
398(5)
Trouble in the World System: Seattle and the WTO
403(1)
A Global Civil Society
404(4)
Toward a Greener Global System?
408(9)
Evolving Treaties and International Regimes
408(1)
Hard Rocks: Problems in Global Regime Formation
409(3)
Effective Global Treaties: Bargains, Strategies, and the World System
412(5)
Progress and Problems
417(4)
Progress and Problems: Political Security
418(1)
Goals for Change: What Needs to Be Done
419(2)
Conclusion: Long Transformations and the Third Revolution
421(3)
Personal Connections
424(3)
References 427(27)
Name Index 454(5)
Subject Index 459


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