This book offers one of the most comprehensive, up-to-date treatments of environmental geology available--from fundamental geologic principles to the specifics of environmental law and geological hazards. It fully discusses both processes and environmental issues, and where appropriate, includes boxes with quantification of processes. Case Histories and examples reflect a cross-section of the United States, and Special Features boxes highlight "classic" and recent environmental disasters. Features high-quality photographs and illustrations throughout. Earth Materials and Processes. Soils and Environment. Natural Hazards: An Overview. Rivers and Flooding. Landslides and Related Phenomena. Earthquakes and Related Phenomena. Volcanic Activity. Coastal Hazards. Water: Process, Supply, and Use. Water Pollution and Treatment. Waste Management. The Geologic Aspects of Environmental Health. Mineral Resources and Environment. Energy and Environment. Global Change and Earth System Science. Air Pollution. Landscape Evaluation and Land Use. For geologists, environmental scientists, and foresters.
Table of Contents
I. FOUNDATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY.
1. Philosophy and Fundamental Concepts.
2. Earth Materials and Processes.
3. Soils and Environment.
II. HAZARDOUS EARTH PROCESSES.
4. Natural Hazards: An Overview.
5. Rivers and Flooding.
6. Landslides and Related Phenomena.
7. Earthquakes and Related Phenomena.
8. Volcanic Activity.
9. Coastal Hazards.
III. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT.
10. Water: Process, Supply, and Use.
11. Water Pollution and Treatment.
12. Waste Management.
13. The Geologic Aspects of Environmental Health.
IV. MINERALS, ENERGY, AND ENVIRONMENT.
14. Mineral Resources and Environment.
15. Energy and Environment.
V. GLOBAL CHANGE, LAND USE, AND DECISION MAKING.
16. Global Change and Earth System Science.
17. Air Pollution.
18. Landscape Evaluation and Land Use.
PREFACE Environmental geology is the application of geologic information to the entire spectrum of interactions between people and our physical environment. Those students who become more interested in the subject may go on to become environmental geologists. They will take advanced courses in subjects such as engineering geology and hydrogeology. Study of environmental geology is facilitated by previous exposure to an introductory physical geology or geography course. However, most students may not have the flexibility in their undergraduate curriculum to take more than a single geology course. As a result,Environmental Geologyis designed so that students who have had no previous exposure to the geological sciences may comprehend and understand the principles of environmental geology. This requires that a fair amount of physical geology is presented along with discussion of relationships between geology and the environment. One important objective of the book is to present a broad spectrum of subject matter relevant to students studying a wide variety of traditional sciences such as chemistry, biology, geology, physical geography, and physics; liberal arts students studying subjects such as anthropology, economics, environmental studies, human geography, literature, political science, and sociology; and students who may be preparing for professional schools such as engineering, architecture, or planning. ORGANIZATION The organization of the eighth edition is similar to the seventh with appropriate expansion of the two water chapters: water supply and management, and water pollution. The continuing emphasis on water results because of the tremendous importance of water resources and their use to all people on earth. Of particular significance is the added material concerning surface and groundwater processes. Since the seventh edition, the subjects of earth system science and air pollution are now stand-alone chapters. The subject of earth system science and global change is of particular importance to environmental geology, and considerable discussion has been added concerning such global environmental problems as potential global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and acid rain. The subject material forEnvironmental Geologyis arranged in five parts. Part 1 introduces fundamental principles important in the study of environmental geology. The purpose is to set the philosophical framework for the remainder of the text, as well as to introduce important aspects of geology necessary to undertake a study of applied geology. Emphasis is on geologic process and the study of the earth as a system. This is facilitated through study of earth materials such as minerals, rocks, soils as they relate to processes operating in the solid earth, biosphere, hydrosphere (surface and groundwaters), and atmosphere. Part 2 addresses the important subject of natural processes (hazards) that continue to make life on earth occasionally difficult for people. These include flooding, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and coastal erosion. Discussion of hazardous natural processes is facilitated through the introduction of numerous case histories that represent the spectrum of hazards and the response of society. New case histories or discussions include the 1993 floods of the Mississippi River and the 1994 earthquake that damaged part of the Los Angeles, California, area. Part 3 focuses on human interactions with the environment and includes detailed discussions of water resources, water pollution, integrated waste management, and geologic aspects of environmental health. In particular, the material in Chapters 10 and 11 has been completely reorganized and updated in light of important issues related to water as a resource and water pollution. Finally, because groundwater processes are becoming so important in many environmental geology areas, additional discussion is provided s