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Environmental Law and Policy

by ;
ISBN13:

9781566629843

ISBN10:
1566629845
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2001
Publisher(s):
West Group

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Summary

The authors provide a broad conceptual overview of environmental law while also explaining the major statutes and cases. The first part of the book discusses the major themes and issues that cross-cut environmental law. The second part of the book examines the substance of environmental law, with separate sections on each of the major statutes. International issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and transboundary waste disposal are also addressed. These chapters build on the conceptual framework in the first part of the text to integrate the discussion of individual statutes into a broad portrait of the law.

Table of Contents

Preface v
PART I. TOOLS OF THE TRADE
An Introduction to Environmental Law and Policy
1(10)
Why Study Environmental Law?
1(2)
A Short History of Environmental Protection in America
3(8)
Natural Resources
3(5)
Pollution
8(3)
Perspectives on Environmental Law and Policy
11(29)
Basic Themes of Environmental Law
11(15)
Scientific Uncertainty
11(3)
Market Failures
14(1)
Public Goods
15(1)
The Tragedy of the Commons
16(1)
Collective Action and Free Riders
17(1)
Externalities
17(2)
Mismatched Scales
19(2)
Cognitive Biases
21(2)
Sustainable Development
23(2)
Protected Interests
25(1)
Three Analytical Frameworks
26(14)
Environmental Rights
27(3)
Utilitarianism and Cost--Benefit Analysis
30(6)
Environmental Justice
36(4)
The Practice of Environmental Protection
40(37)
Instrument Choice
40(13)
Common Law Versus Regulation
41(2)
Property Rights
43(1)
Prescriptive Regulation
44(1)
Market Instruments
45(1)
Information
45(1)
The Regulatory Toolkit
46(2)
Instrument Design Issues
48(2)
Where to Go from Here?
50(3)
The Administration of Environmental Protection
53(6)
Basics of Administrative Law
53(2)
Rulemaking
55(4)
Adjudication
59(1)
Constitutional Issues in Environmental Policy
59(9)
Congressional Powers
60(2)
Legislative Delegation
62(2)
Regulatory Takings
64(4)
How Citizen Groups Shape Environmental Law
68(9)
Lobbying for Legislative and Administrative Action
68(1)
Citizen Suits
69(3)
Standing
72(5)
PART II. POLLUTION LAW
Air Pollution
77(46)
The Clean Air Act
77(25)
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
81(4)
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)
85(2)
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Grandfathered Sources
87(2)
Mobile Sources and Technology--Forcing
89(2)
Trading
91(8)
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
99(3)
The CAA of Tomorrow
102(1)
Ozone Depletion
102(9)
The Science of Ozone Depletion
103(1)
International Controls
104(4)
Developing Countries
108(1)
Remaining Challenges
109(1)
Lessons Learned
110(1)
Climate Change
111(12)
The Science of Climate Change
111(4)
Impacts of Climate Change
115(2)
Legal Responses
117(2)
Climate Change Policies---No Regrets, Trading, Joint Implementation, and the CDM
119(3)
The Future of the Climate Regime
122(1)
Water Pollution
123(25)
An Overview of Water Pollution
124(2)
A Brief History of Water Quality Regulation
126(1)
The Clean Water Act
127(21)
Regulation of Point Sources
129(1)
NPDES Permits
130(1)
Publicly Owned Treatment Works
130(1)
Industrial Point Sources
131(3)
Existing Point Sources
134(1)
New Point Sources
135(1)
Industry-by-Industry Determination
136(1)
Indirect Sources
137(1)
Criticism of the Technological Approach
137(1)
The Non--Regulation of Nonpoint Sources
138(2)
Escaping Regulation as a Point Source
140(2)
Water Quality Standards
142(3)
Always Cleaner, Never Dirtier
145(1)
Interstate Water Pollution
146(2)
Regulating Toxic Substances
148(22)
The Difficulties of Regulating Toxic Substances
149(9)
Is ``Tolerable Risk'' an Oxymoron?
149(3)
The Problem of Uncertainty
152(1)
A Paucity of Information
152(2)
The Difficulty of Determining Cancer Risks
154(2)
Regulating Under Uncertainty
156(2)
Major Regulatory Options
158(12)
Pure Health--Based Statutes
158(2)
Feasibility Statutes
160(2)
Risk--Benefit Statutes
162(1)
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
162(1)
Toxic Substances Control Act
163(1)
``Paralysis By Analysis''
163(2)
Criticisms
165(1)
Informational Approaches
166(1)
The Toxic Release Inventory
166(2)
California's Proposition 65
168(2)
Waste Management
170(43)
The Resource Conservation Recovery Act
170(14)
What is It?
172(1)
Solid Waste and Strategic Behavior
172(3)
Solid Hazardous Waste and Closing Loopholes
175(3)
Who am I?
178(1)
Generators, Transporters and TSDs
178(1)
The Land Ban and Regulatory Hammers
179(3)
Subtitle D
182(1)
The Challenge of Pollution Prevention
182(2)
The Dormant Commerce Clause and Waste Disposal
184(7)
The Basel Convention
191(6)
The Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act
197(16)
The Cleanup Process
199(1)
Listing and Prioritization of Sites
199(1)
Responses
200(1)
Compensation for Response Actions
201(1)
Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs)
202(1)
Liability Standards
203(1)
Defenses
204(1)
Acts of God, War, or a Third Party
204(1)
Divisibility
205(1)
Small Contributors
205(1)
Municipalities
206(1)
Lenders
206(1)
Innocent Landowners
207(1)
Settlement Strategies
207(1)
Brownfields
208(1)
How Clean Is Clean?
209(2)
Superfund Reform
211(2)
PART III. TRADE
Trade and Environment
213(26)
The Trade Debate
214(3)
The GATT and WTO
217(8)
Like Products and PPMs
219(5)
Multilateral Environmental Agreements
224(1)
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
225(8)
Environmental Provisions
226(1)
Environmental Side Agreement
227(3)
Chapter 11
230(3)
The Trade in Chemicals
233(6)
PART IV. NATURAL RESOURCES
Protecting Natural Resources
239(36)
The Nation's Diminishing Resources
239(1)
The Public Trust Doctrine
240(3)
Protecting Wetlands
243(11)
Rivers & Harbors Act of 1899
244(1)
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act
244(1)
What are ``navigable waters''?
245(2)
What is a ``Discharge'' of Material?
247(2)
Special Exceptions
249(1)
The Permitting Process
250(2)
General Permits
252(1)
EPA Vetoes
253(1)
Constitutional Takings Challenges
253(1)
Incentive Programs
253(1)
The Endangered Species Act
254(21)
Listing Species
258(3)
Limits on Federal Agency Actions
261(4)
Private Violations
265(1)
The Prohibition On ``Takings''
265(3)
Incidental Take Permits
268(1)
Administrative Reform Efforts
269(1)
Criticisms of Section 9
270(1)
Constitutional Takings Challenges to Section 9
271(1)
Recovery Plans & Other Provisions
271(1)
Does the ESA Work?
272(3)
PART V. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS
The National Environmental Policy Act
275(12)
NEPA Grows Teeth
276(1)
When Must An Agency Prepare An EIS?
277(3)
Major Actions
278(1)
Significantly Affecting the Human Environment
279(1)
Timing
280(1)
Adequacy of the EIS
281(3)
Does It Work?
284(3)
Table of Cases 287(4)
Index 291


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