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Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

by
ISBN13:

9780321031280

ISBN10:
0321031288
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div

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Summary

The Fifth Edition of this best-selling text continues to thoroughly introduce students to the study of environmental and natural resource economics. In continuing the trend toward a more international focus, Tietenberg increases attention paid to environmental problems and policies in Eastern and Western Europe, China, and developing nations. In addition, an explicit integration of research and policy within each chapter connects actual examples to economic theory, providing students with the context in which to understand the material.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Vision of the Future
1(15)
Introduction
1(3)
The Self-Extinction Premise
1(2)
The Use of Models
3(1)
Thinking about the Future
3(1)
Example 1.1 The Dangers of Prognostication
4(1)
The Basic Pessimist Model
4(4)
Conclusions of Pessimist Model
5(1)
The Nature of the Model
6(2)
The Basic Optimist Model
8(2)
Conclusions of the Optimist Model
8(1)
The Nature of the Model
8(2)
The Road Ahead
10(3)
The Issues
10(1)
An Overview of the Book
11(2)
Summary
13(3)
Further Reading
14(1)
Additional Readings
14(1)
Discussion Questions
15(1)
Valuing the Environment: Concepts
16(18)
Introduction
16(1)
The Human Environment Relationship
17(2)
The Environment as an Asset
17(2)
The Economic Approach
19(1)
Normative Criteria for Decision-Making
19(7)
Evaluating Predefined Options
19(2)
Example 2.1 Nature Knows Best
21(5)
Finding the Optimal Outcome
26(2)
Static Efficiency
27(1)
Dynamic Efficiency
28(1)
Applying the Concepts
28(2)
Pollution Control
28(1)
Example 2.2 Does Reducing Pollution Make Economic Sense?
29(1)
Preservation versus Development
30(1)
Summary
30(3)
Example 2.3 Chossing between Preservation and Development In Australia
31(1)
Further Reading
32(1)
Additional References
32(1)
Discussion Question
32(1)
Problem
32(1)
Appendix
33(1)
The Simple Mathematics of Dynamic Efficiency
33(1)
Valuing the Environment: Methods
34(27)
Introduction
34(1)
Valuing Benefits
35(19)
Types of Values
37(1)
Example 3.1 Valuing the Northern Spotted Owl
38(1)
Classifying Valuation Methods
38(4)
Valuing Human Life
42(1)
Example 3.2 Valuing Damage From Groundwater Contamination Using Averting Expenditures
43(1)
Example 3.3 Valuing Diesel Odor Reduction by contingent Ranking
44(1)
Issues in Benefit Estimation
44(1)
Primary versus Secondary Effects
44(1)
Example 3.4 The Value of Wildlife Viewing
45(2)
Tangible versus Intangible Benefits
47(1)
Approaches to Cost Estimation
47(1)
The Survey Approach
48(1)
The Engineering Approach
48(1)
The Combined Approach
48(1)
The Treatment of Risk
48(3)
Chosing the Discount Rate
51(1)
A Critical Appraisal
51(1)
Example 3.5 The Importance of the Discount Rate
52(2)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
54(1)
Impact Analysis
55(2)
Example 3.6 NO2 Control in Chicago: An example of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
56(1)
Summary
57(4)
Further Reading
58(1)
Additional References
59(1)
Discussion questions
60(1)
Problems
60(1)
Property Rights, Externalities, and Environmental Problems
61(25)
Introduction
61(1)
Property Rights
62(3)
Property Rights and Efficient Market Allocations
62(1)
Efficient Property Right Structures
62(1)
Example 4.1 Pollution in Centrally Planned Economies
63(2)
Externalities as a Source of Market Failure
65(4)
The concept Introduced
65(3)
Types of Externalities
68(1)
Improperly Designed Property Rights Systems
69(4)
Other Property Rights Regimes
69(2)
Public Goods
71(2)
Imperfect Market Structures
73(1)
Example 4.2 Public Goods Privately Provided: The Nature Conservancy
74(1)
Divergence of Social and Private Discount Rates
74(2)
Government Failure
76(2)
Example 4.3 Religion as the Source of Environmental Problems
77(1)
The Pursuit of Efficiency
78(3)
Private Resolution Through Negotiation
78(1)
The Courts: Property Rules and Liability Rules
79(2)
Legislative and Executive Regulation
81(1)
An Efficient Role for Government
82(1)
Summary
82(4)
Further Reading
83(1)
Additional References
83(1)
Discussion Questions
84(1)
Problems
84(2)
Sustainable Development: Defining the Concept
86(14)
Introduction
86(1)
A Two-Period Model
87(4)
Defining Intertemporal Fairness
91(1)
Are Efficient Allocations Fair?
92(1)
Applying The Sustainability Criterion
93(2)
Implications for environmental Policy
95(1)
Summary
95(3)
Further Reading
97(1)
Additional References
97(1)
Discussion Questions
98(1)
Problems
98(1)
Appendix
98(2)
The Mathematics of the Two-Period Model
98(2)
The Population Problem
100(25)
Introduction
100(1)
Historical Perspective
101(3)
World Population Growth
101(1)
Population Growth in the United States
102(2)
Effects of Population Growth on Economic Development
104(6)
Effects of Economic Development on Population Growth
110(3)
The Economic Approach to Population control
113(8)
Example 6.1 The Value of an Averted Birth
114(4)
Example 6.2 Fertility Decline in Korea: A Case Study
118(2)
Example 6.3 Income-Generating Activities as Fertility control: Bangladesh
120(1)
Summary
121(4)
Further Reading
122(1)
Additional References
122(1)
Discussion questions
123(1)
Problems
124(1)
The Allocation of Depletable and Renewable Resources: An Overview
125(24)
Introduction
125(1)
A Resource Taxonomy
126(5)
Example 7.1 The Pitfalls in Missing Reserve Data
129(2)
Efficient Intertemporal Allocations
131(7)
The Two-Period Model Revisited
131(1)
The N-Period Constant-Cost Case
132(1)
Transition to a Renewable Substitute
132(4)
Increasing Marginal Extraction Cost
136(1)
Exploration and Technological Progress
137(1)
Market Allocations
138(4)
Appropriate Property Right Structures
138(1)
Example 7.2 Technological Progress in the Iron Ore Industry
139(1)
Environmental costs
140(2)
Summary
142(2)
Further Reading
143(1)
Additional References
143(1)
Problems
143(1)
Appendix
144(5)
Extensions of the Basic Depletable Resource Model
144(1)
The N-Period, Constant-Cost, No-Substitute Case
144(1)
Constant Marginal cost with an Abundant Renewable Substitute
145(2)
Increasing Marginal Cost Case
147(1)
Including Environmental cost
148(1)
Depletable, Nonrecyclable Energy Resources: Oil, Gas, Coal, and Uranium
149(30)
Introduction
149(1)
Natural Gas: Price Controls
150(6)
Example 8.1 Price Controls and Substitution Bias
154(2)
Oil: The Cartel Problem
156(6)
Price Elasticity of Demand
157(1)
Example 8.2 Optimal OPEC Pricing
158(1)
Example 8.3 Are Soft Energy Paths Doomed?
159(1)
Income elasticity of Demand
159(1)
Non-Opec suppliers
160(1)
Compatibility of Member Interests
161(1)
Oil: National Security Problem
162(4)
Transition Fuels: Environmental Problems
166(4)
Electricity
170(3)
The Long Run
173(2)
Summary
175(4)
Further Reading
176(1)
Additional References
176(1)
Discussion Questions
177(1)
Problems
178(1)
Recyclable Resources: Minerals, Paper, Glass, Etc.
179(28)
Introduction
179(1)
An Efficient Allocation of Recyclable Resources
180(4)
Extraction and Disposal Cost
181(1)
Example 9.1 Population Density and Recycling: The Japanese Experience
181(1)
Example 9.2 New Markets for Trash: Tires
182(1)
Recycling: A Closer Look
182(1)
Recycling and Virgin Ore Depletion
183(1)
The Strategic-Material Problem Revisited
184(4)
General Principles
184(1)
Example 9.3 Lead Recycling
184(1)
government Response
185(1)
Cobalt: A Case Study
186(1)
Substitution and Vulnerability
186(2)
Waste Disposal and Pollution Damage
188(9)
Disposal Cost and Efficiency
188(1)
The Disposal Decision
188(2)
Disposal Costs and the Scrap Market
190(1)
Public Policies
190(5)
Pollution Damage
195(1)
Example 9.4 Implementing the ``Take-Back'' Principle
196(1)
Tax Treatment of Minerals
197(2)
Product Durability
199(4)
Functional Obsolescence
200(1)
Fashion Obsolescence
200(1)
Durability Obsolescence
200(3)
Summary
203(4)
Further Reading
203(1)
Additional References
204(1)
Discussion Questions
205(1)
Problems
205(2)
Replenishable but Depletable Resources: Water
207(22)
Introduction
207(1)
The Potential for Water Scarcity
208(2)
The Efficient allocation of Scarce Water
210(3)
Surface Water
210(2)
Groundwater
212(1)
The Current Allocation System
213(5)
Riparian and Prior Appropriation Doctrines
213(1)
Sources of Inefficiency
214(1)
Restrictions of Transfers
215(1)
Federal Reclamation Projects
216(1)
Water Pricing
217(1)
Common Property Problems
217(1)
Potential Remedies
218(6)
Example 10.1 Using Economic Principles to Conserve Water In California
219(1)
Example 10.2 Protecting Instream Uses Through Acquiring Water Rights
220(4)
Summary
224(5)
Example 10.3 Politics and the Pricing of Scarce Water
225(1)
Further Reading
226(1)
Additional References
226(1)
Discussion Questions
227(1)
Problems
228(1)
Reproducible Private-Property Resources: Agriculture
229(25)
Introduction
229(1)
Global Scarcity
230(1)
Formulating the Global Scarcity Hypothesis
231(2)
Testing the Hypothesis
233(5)
Outlook for the Future
234(1)
Technological Progress
234(1)
Allocation of Agricultural land
235(1)
Energy Costs
236(1)
Environmental Costs
236(2)
The Role of Agricultural Policies
238(1)
A Summing Up
239(1)
Distribution of Food Resources
239(7)
Difining the Problem
240(1)
Domestic Production in LDCs
240(2)
The Undervaluation Bias
242(1)
Example 11.1 The Price Responsiveness of Supply: Thailand
243(1)
Feeding the Poor
244(1)
Example 11.2 Perverse Government Intervention: The Case of Colombia
245(1)
Feast and Famine Cycles
246(3)
Summary
249(5)
Further Reading
250(1)
Additional References
251(1)
Discussion questions
252(1)
Problems
253(1)
Storables, Renewable Resources: Forests
254(25)
Introduction
254(2)
Defining Efficient Management
256(7)
The Biological Dimension
256(1)
The Economics of Forest Harvesting
257(4)
Extending the Basic Model
261(2)
Sources of Inefficiency
263(5)
Global Inefficiencies
263(1)
Biodiversity
263(1)
Global Warming
263(1)
Poverty and Debt
264(1)
Perverse Incentives
265(2)
Example 12.1 Externalities in Forest Management: Waldsterben
267(1)
Implementing Efficient Management
268(5)
Debt-Nature Swaps
270(1)
Extractive Reserves
271(1)
Establishing Conservation Easements
271(1)
Example 12.2 Success Stories in Conserving Tropical Forests
272(1)
Summary
273(4)
Example 12.3 The International Tropical Timber Agreement
273(1)
Example 12.4 Trust Funds for Habitat Preservation
274(1)
Further Reading
275(1)
Additional Reference
276(1)
Discussion Questions
277(1)
Problems
277(1)
Appendix
277(2)
The Harvesting Decision: Forests
277(2)
Renewable Common-Property Resources: Fisheries and Other Species
279(31)
Introduction
279(1)
Efficient Allocation
280(6)
The Biological Dimension
280(2)
Static Efficient Sustainable Yield
282(2)
Dynamic Efficient Sustainable Yield
284(2)
Appropriability And Market Solutions
286(6)
Example 13.1 Property Rights and Fisheries: Oysters
289(1)
Example 13.2 Free-Access Harvesting of the Minke whale
290(1)
Example 13.3 Harbor Gangs of Maine
291(1)
Public Policy Toward Fisheries
292(11)
Aquaculture
292(1)
Raising the Real Cost of Fishing
293(2)
Taxes
295(1)
Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs)
296(1)
Example 13.4 Efficient Versus Market Exploitation of Lobsters
297(3)
The 200-Mile Limit
300(1)
The Economics of Enforcement
301(1)
Extension to Other Species
302(1)
Summary
302(1)
Example 13.5 Local Approaches to Wildlife Protection: Zimbabwe
303(4)
Further Reading
304(1)
Additional References
304(2)
Discussion Questions
306(1)
Problems
306(1)
Appendix
307(3)
The Harvesting Decision: Fisheries
307(3)
Generalized Resource Scarcity
310(24)
Introduciton
310(1)
Factors Mitigating Resource Scarcity
311(2)
Exploration and Discovery
311(1)
Technological Progress
312(1)
Substitution
312(1)
Detecting Resource Scarcity
313(6)
Example 14.1 Resource Scarcity in Historical Perspective: Timber
314(1)
Cirteria for an Ideal Scarcity Indicator
315(1)
Applying the Criteria
315(1)
The Physical Indicators
315(1)
Resource Prices
316(1)
Scarcity Rent
317(1)
Marginal Discovery cost
318(1)
Marginal Extraction Cost
318(1)
Evidence On Resource Scarcity
319(12)
Physical Indicators
319(5)
Economic Indicators
324(1)
Extraction Cost
324(2)
Example 14.2 Geochemically Scarce Metals: How Would the Economy React?
326(2)
Studies of Resource Price Trends
328(1)
Example 14.3 The Bet
329(1)
Discovery Cost
330(1)
Juxtaposing Alternative Measures
330(1)
Summary
331(3)
Further Reading
331(1)
Additonal References
332(2)
Economics of Pollution Control: An Overview
334(29)
Introduction
334(1)
Pollutant Taxonomy
335(1)
Defining the Efficient Allocation of Pollution
336(4)
Stock Pollutants
336(2)
Fund Pollutants
338(2)
Market Allocations
340(1)
Efficient Policy Responses
341(2)
Example 15.1 Environmental Taxation in China
342(1)
Cost-Effective Policies for Uniformly Mixed Find Pollutants
343(6)
Defining A Cost-Effective Allocation
343(1)
Cost-Effective Pollution Control Policies
344(1)
Emission Standards
345(1)
Emission Charges
345(3)
Transferable Emission Permits
348(1)
Cost-Effective Policies for Nonuniformly Mixed Surface Pollutants
349(6)
The Single-Receptor Case
349(3)
Policy Approaches
352(2)
The Many-Receptors Case
354(1)
Other Policy Dimensions
355(2)
Example 15.2 Energy-Demand Uncertainty and the Cost of Being Wrong: Permits Versus Charges
357(1)
Summary
357(4)
Further Reading
359(1)
Additional References
359(1)
Discussion Questions
360(1)
Problems
360(1)
Appendix
361(2)
The Simple Mathematics of Cost-Effective Pollution Control
361(1)
Policy Instruments
362(1)
Stationary-Source Local Air Pollution
363(25)
Introduction
363(1)
Conventional Pollutants
364(10)
The Command-and-Control Policy Framework
364(4)
The Efficiency of the Command-and-Control Approach
368(1)
The Threshold Concept
368(1)
The Level of the Ambient Standard
368(1)
Uniformity
369(1)
Timing of Emission Flows
Example 16.1 Net Benefit Analysis of the Particulate Ambient Standard
370(1)
Concentration versus Exposure
371(1)
Cost-Effectiveness of the Command-and-Control Approach
371(2)
Air Quality
373(1)
Innovative Approaches
374(8)
The Emissions Trading Program
374(1)
The Emission Reduction Credit
374(1)
The Offset Policy
374(1)
The Bubble Policy
374(1)
Netting
375(1)
Example 16.2 The Bubble and Offset Policies in Action
376(1)
Banking
376(1)
The Effectiveness of Emissions Trading
376(3)
Smog Trading
379(1)
Hazardous Pollutants
380(2)
Summary
382(6)
Example 16.3 Efficient Regulation of Hazardous Pollutants: The Benzene Case
384(1)
Further Reading
385(1)
Additional References
386(1)
Discussion Questions
387(1)
Problems
387(1)
Regional and Global Air Pollutants: Acid Rain and Atmospheric Modification
388(27)
Introduction
388(1)
Regional Pollutants
389(9)
Acid Rain
389(2)
Example 17.1 Adirondack Acidification
391(5)
Example 17.2 The Sulfur Allowance Program
396(1)
Example 17.3 Why and How do Environmentalists But Pollution?
397(1)
Global Pollutants
398(12)
Ozone Depletion
398(3)
Global Warming
401(2)
Example 17.4 Tradable Permits for Ozone-Depleting Chemicals
403(2)
Example 17.5 Ethics, Risk Aversion, and the Greenhouse Effect
405(5)
Summary
410(5)
Further Reading
412(1)
Additional References
412(2)
Problems
414(1)
Mobile-Source Air Pollution
415(24)
Introduction
415(4)
Economies of Mobile-Source Pollution
417(1)
Implicit Subsidies
417(1)
Externalities
417(1)
Consequences
418(1)
Policy Toward Mobile Sources
419(4)
History
419(1)
Structure of the U.S. Approach
420(1)
Certification Program
420(1)
Associated Enforcement Programs
421(1)
Lead
421(1)
Local Responsibilities
422(1)
Alternative Fuels and Vehicles
422(1)
European Approaches
423(1)
An Economic and Political Assessment
423(9)
Example 18.1 Car Sharing: Better Use of Automotive Capital?
424(1)
Technology Forcing and Sanctions
425(1)
Differentiated Regulation
425(1)
Uniformity of Control
426(1)
Example 18.2 Setting the National Automobile Emissions Standards
427(1)
The Deterioration of New-Car Emission Rates
428(1)
Inspection and Maintenance Programs
428(1)
Other Local Strategies
428(2)
Lead Phaseout Program
430(1)
Alternative Fuels
430(1)
Example 18.3 Getting the Lead Out: The Lead Phaseout Program
431(1)
Air Quality
431(1)
Ozone
431(1)
Carbon Monoxide
432(1)
Possible Reforms
432(3)
Example 18.4 Innovative Mobile Pollution-Control Strategies: Singapore and Hong Kong
434(1)
Summary
435(4)
Example 18.5 Counterproductive Policy Design
436(1)
Further Reading
437(1)
Additional References
437(1)
Discussion Questions
438(1)
Pollution
439(29)
Indroduction
439(1)
Nature of Water Pollution Problems
440(5)
Types of Waste-Receiving Water
440(1)
Sources of Contamination
440(1)
Rivers and Lakes
440(1)
Example 19.1 Incidents of Groundwater Pollution
441(1)
Ocean Pollution
442(1)
Type of Pollutants
442(2)
Fund Pollutants
444(1)
Traditional Water Pollution Control Policy
445(4)
Early Legislation
445(1)
Subsequent Legislation
446(1)
Point Sources
446(1)
Nonpoint Sources
447(1)
The Safe Drinking Water Act
448(1)
Ocean Pollution
449
Oil Spills
448(1)
Ocean Dumping
449(1)
Citizen Suits
449(1)
Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness
449(14)
Ambient Standards and the Zero-Discharge Goal
449(1)
National Effluent Standards
450(1)
Enforcement Problems
451(1)
Allocating Control Responsibility
451(3)
Thee European Experience
454(1)
Municipal Waster Treatment Subsidies
455(1)
The Allocation of Funds
455(1)
Example 19.2 Marketable Emission Permits on the Fox River
456(1)
Operation and Maintenance
456(1)
Capital of Costs
457(1)
Pretreatment Standards
457(1)
Nonpoint Pollution
457(1)
Costs
457(1)
Example 19.3 Cost-Effective Pretreatment Standards
458(1)
Oil Spills
458(2)
Example 19.4 Anatomy of an Oil Spill Suit: Amoca Cadiz
460(1)
Citizen Suits
461(1)
An Overall Assessment
462(1)
Summary
463(5)
Further Reading
464(1)
Additional References
465(2)
Discussion Questions
467(1)
Problem
467(1)
Toxic Substances
468(29)
Introduction
468(5)
Nature of Toxic Substance Pollution
469(1)
Health Effects
470(1)
Cancer
470(1)
Reproductive Effects
470(1)
Policy Issues
470(1)
Number of Substances
470(1)
Latency
471(1)
Uncertainty
472(1)
Markt Allocations and Toxic Substances
473(5)
Occupational Hazard
473(3)
Example 20.1 Susceptible Population in the Hazardous Workplace
476(1)
Product Safety
476(1)
Third Parties
477(1)
Current Policy
478(1)
Common Law
478(1)
Negligence
478(1)
Strict Liability
479(1)
Criminal Law
479(6)
Statutory Law
480(1)
Example 202 Judicial Remedies Toxic Substance Control: The Kepone Case
481(1)
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
481(1)
Occcupational Safety and Health Act
482(1)
Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act
482(1)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
483(1)
Toxic Substances Control Act
483(1)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
483(1)
International Agreements
484(1)
An Assessment of The Legal Remedies
485(8)
The Common Law
485(1)
Judicial-Legislative Complementarily
485(1)
Limitations of Judicial Remedies
486(2)
Joint and Several Liability Doctrine
488(1)
The Statutory Law
489(1)
Balancing the Costs
489(1)
Example 20.3 Weighing the Risks: Saccharin
490(1)
Degree and Form of Intervention
491(1)
Scale
492(1)
Assurance Bonds: An Innovative Proposal
492(1)
Example 20.4 Performance Bonds for Brominated Flame Retardant
493(1)
Summary
493(4)
Further Reading
494(1)
Additional References
495(1)
Discussion Questions
496(1)
Environmental Justice
497(23)
Introduction
497(1)
The Incidence of Hazardous Waster Siting Decisions
498(3)
The Economics of Site Location
499(1)
The Policy Response
500(1)
The Incidence of Pollution Control Costs: Individual Industries
501(6)
A Competitive Industry
501(1)
Incidence
501(2)
Scale Effects
503(1)
New-Source Bias
504(1)
Example 21.1 The Effects of Environmental controls on the Tissue Industry
505(1)
Monopoly
506(1)
The Generation of Pollutants
507(1)
The Incidence of Households
508(5)
Air Pollution
508(1)
Automobile Control
508(1)
Stationary Source control
509(1)
A Combined Assessment
510(1)
Water Pollution
511(1)
Point Sources
512(1)
Nonpoint Sources
512(1)
Implications for Policy
513(3)
Example 21.2 Distributional Impacts of RECLAIM
515(1)
Summary
516(4)
Further Reading
517(1)
Additional References
517(2)
Discussion Questions
519(1)
Development, Poverty, and the environment
520(28)
Introduction
520(2)
The Growth Process
522(8)
The Nature of the Process
522(1)
Increases in Inputs
522(1)
Technological Progress
522(1)
Example 22.1 The Generalized Cobb-Douglas Production Function
523(1)
Potential Sources of Reduced Growth
523(1)
Reduced Input Flows
524(2)
Limits on Technological Progress
526(1)
Environmental Policy
526(2)
Energy
528(1)
Example 22.2 Jobs Versus the Environment: What is the Evidence?
529(1)
Outlook for the Near Future
530(2)
Population Impacts
530(1)
The Information Economy
531(1)
The growth-Development Relationship
532(4)
conventional Measures
532(2)
Alternative Measures
534(2)
Growth and Poverty: The Industrialized Nations
536(1)
The Effects on Income Inequality
537(1)
Poverty in the Less Industrialized Nations
537(6)
Example 22.3 Does Money Buy Happiness?
538(1)
Appropriateness of the Traditional Model
539(1)
Scale
539(1)
Forms of Development
539(1)
Barriers to Development
540(1)
Population Growth
540(1)
Land Ownership Patterns
540(1)
Trade Policies
541(1)
Debt
542(1)
Summary
543(5)
Futher Reading
544(1)
Additioal References
544(2)
Discussion Questions
546(2)
The Quest for Sustainable Development
548(29)
Introduction
548(1)
Sustainability of Growth
548(8)
Market Allocations
550(1)
Efficiency and Sustainability
551(2)
Example 23.1 Resource Depletion and Economic Sustainability: Malaysia
553(2)
Trade and the Environment
555(1)
A Menu of Opportunities
556(3)
Agriculture
556(1)
Energy
557(1)
Waste Reduction
558(1)
Managing the Transition
559(2)
Example 23.2 Sustainable Development: Three Success Stories
560(1)
Prospects for International Cooperation
561(8)
Example 23.3 Controlling Land Development with TDRs
562(1)
Opportunities for Cooperation
562(1)
Restructuring Incentives
563(1)
The Full-Cost Principle
564(2)
The Cost-Effectiveness Principle
566(1)
The Property Rights Principle
567(1)
The Sustainability Principle
568(1)
The Information Principle
569(1)
Forced Transition
569(3)
Difining the Target
570(1)
Institutional Structure
570(1)
Population Stabilization
571(1)
Example 23.4 Reputational Strategies for Pollution Control in Indonesia
571(1)
Stock and Throughput Stabilization
571(1)
Ensuring Distributiional Fairness
572(1)
Administration
572(1)
Summary
572(5)
Further Reading
573(1)
Additional References
574(2)
Discussion Questions
576(1)
Visions of the Future Revisited
577(10)
Addressing the Issues
577(10)
Conceptualizing the problem
577(2)
Institutional Responses
579(3)
Sustainable development
582(3)
A concluding comment
585(2)
Problem Set Answers 587(10)
Glossary 597(12)
Name Index 609(4)
Subject Index 613


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