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The Environmental Policy Paradox,9780130993083
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The Environmental Policy Paradox

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130993083

ISBN10:
0130993085
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $80.60
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Summary

No other book combines ecology, law, politics, and environmental science in a way designed to inform the reader as to how it all fits together. This book, clearly and engagingly written, makes the complex and often confusing concepts of environmental policy making easy to understand. This book provides a basic understanding of environmental topics and our current policy-making process, discussing the ecosystem, public awareness, governmental regulations, as well as air and water pollution, energy, toxic wastes, land management issues, and international environmental issues. For those employed in the environmental, land management, urban planning, public policy, and hazardous materials fields.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Abbreviations xv
About the Author xix
PART ONE: THE POLICY-MAKING PROCESS
Ecosystem Interdependence
1(6)
The Steady State
4(1)
Common Pool Resources
4(1)
Summary
5(1)
Notes
5(2)
Changing Cultural and Social Beliefs: From Conservation to Environmentalism
7(25)
Dominant Social Paradigm
7(8)
Economics and Growth
8(3)
Science and Technology: Our Views of Nature
11(2)
The Role of Religion
13(2)
History of the Environmental Movement
15(4)
Dominance
15(1)
Early Awakening
15(1)
Early Conservationist
15(1)
Later Conservationist
15(2)
The Reawakening
17(1)
Complacency
17(1)
The Little Reagan Revolution
18(1)
Post-Reagan Resurgence
18(1)
Interest Groups
19(1)
Public Opinion and the Environment
20(8)
Survivalism
24(1)
Prometheans
24(1)
Administrative Rationalism
25(1)
Democratic Pragmatism
25(1)
Economic Rationalism
25(1)
Sustainable Development
26(1)
Ecological Modernization
26(1)
Green Romanticism
27(1)
Green Rationalism
27(1)
Summary
28(1)
Notes
28(4)
The Regulatory Environment
32(13)
The Regulatory Context
32(9)
Science and Risk Analysis
33(4)
The Role of Government
37(2)
Approaches to Regulation
39(2)
Fundamentals of Environmental Law
41(2)
Summary
43(1)
Notes
44(1)
The Political and Institutional Setting
45(37)
The Institutional Setting
45(6)
Formal Institutions
45(3)
Informal Institutions
48(3)
Institutional Biases
51(5)
Incrementalism
51(1)
Decentralization
52(1)
Short-Term Bias
52(1)
Ideological Bias
53(1)
Private Nature of Public Policy Making
54(1)
Crisis and Reforms
54(2)
The Political Setting
56(21)
Pluralism
56(4)
The Regulators
60(17)
Summary
77(1)
Notes
78(4)
PART TWO: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
Air Pollution
82(40)
Sources
82(8)
Health Effects
85(2)
Motor Vehicles
87(3)
Air Pollution: Law, Regulations, and Enforcement
90(24)
Regulatory Innovations
93(3)
Regulatory Issues
96(2)
Toxic Air Pollution
98(3)
Acid Rain
101(4)
Stratospheric Ozone
105(4)
The Greenhouse Effect
109(5)
Summary
114(1)
Notes
115(7)
Water
122(20)
Sources
123(4)
Nonpoint Sources of Pollution
124(1)
Groundwater Pollution
125(1)
Health Effects of Water Pollution
126(1)
Water Law and Regulation
127(12)
Clean Water Act
128(3)
Safe Drinking Water Act
131(2)
Criticisms of Water Pollution Policy
133(1)
The Paradox in Water Pollution Policy
134(5)
Summary
139(1)
Notes
139(3)
Energy
142(40)
History of Energy
144(11)
Industrial Revolution
144(1)
Oil and War
144(1)
Role of Personal Consumption
145(1)
OPEC and the Oil Crises
146(2)
Development of Nuclear Power
148(2)
Development of a National Energy Policy
150(5)
Nonrenewable Energy Sources
155(4)
Coal
155(1)
Oil
156(1)
Natural Gas
157(1)
Geothermal Energy
158(1)
Nuclear Power
158(1)
Renewable Energy
159(7)
Hydropower
160(2)
Solar Power
162(1)
Wind Power
163(1)
Biomass
164(2)
Conservation and Energy Efficiency: Some Suggestions for the Future
166(4)
Conservation in Homes and Buildings
166(2)
Conservation in Transportation
168(1)
Conservation in Industry
169(1)
Obstacles to Conservation
170(1)
An Ecological Conclusion
170(1)
Summary
171(1)
Notes
171(11)
Toxic and Hazardous Materials and Waste Management
182(31)
Solid Waste
183(7)
What Is Solid Waste?
183(1)
Scope of the Problem
183(2)
Disposal Methods
185(1)
Regulations
186(1)
Solutions
186(4)
Hazardous Wastes
190(16)
Nature of the Problem
190(2)
Disposal Methods
192(4)
Federal Regulations
196(3)
Regulatory Problems
199(4)
Hazardous Waste Case Study: GE, EPA, PCBs, and the Hudson River
203(1)
The Policy Paradox in Hazardous Waste Management
204(2)
Summary
206(1)
Notes
207(6)
Land Management Issues
213(26)
Local Land Use Planning
213(6)
Soil Erosion
217(1)
Farmland Conversion
218(1)
Desertification
219(1)
Federal Land Management
219(3)
Multiple Use
220(1)
Recreation
220(1)
Fee Demonstration Project
221(1)
Commercial Recreation Permits and Concessions
221(1)
Fire Management
222(1)
Wilderness
222(10)
History
222(2)
Proposed Wilderness and Wilderness Study Areas
224(2)
National Park Service Management
226(1)
Endangered Species
227(4)
Ecosystem Management
231(1)
Summary
232(1)
Notes
233(6)
International Environmental Issues
239(22)
Population and Food Production
240(5)
Desertification and Food Production
245(1)
Global Pollution
246(6)
The Ozone Layer
246(2)
The Greenhouse
248(2)
Deforestation
250(1)
Ocean Pollution
251(1)
Less Developed Countries: North vs. South
252(4)
International Conflict
253(3)
Summary
256(1)
Notes
256(5)
International Environmental Management
261(21)
Alternative Political Systems
263(5)
Market-Based Economies
263(1)
Collective Ownership Systems
264(1)
Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
264(2)
China
266(2)
International Environmental Management
268(4)
Common Pool Resources
268(1)
Creation of an IGO
269(3)
Economic Globalization and the Second Industrial Revolution
272(1)
International Regulatory Efforts
273(4)
Controlling Oceanic Pollution
273(1)
Atmospheric Conventions
274(2)
Hazardous Waste Control at the International Level
276(1)
Protection of Endangered and Threatened Species
276(1)
Trends in the International Regulatory Process
277(1)
Summary
278(1)
Notes
278(4)
Conclusion 282(2)
Notes 284(2)
Index 286

Excerpts

The policy-making process described in many public policy and American government texts reveals just the tip of the iceberg. This book, designed for courses on environmental policy, environmental studies, and public policy and as supplemental reading in American government, public administration and planning, and other courses, exposes the rest of the iceberg: the workings of government that are rarely visible but necessary for an appreciation of the formation of environmental policy. It examines U.S. environmental policy in air, water, land use, agriculture, energy, waste disposal, and other areas, and, in so doing, provides an introduction to the policy-making process in the United States. A paradox is an apparently contradictory combination of opposing ideas. The paradox of environmental policy is that we often understand what the best short- and long-term solutions to environmental problems are, yet the task of implementing these solutions is either left undone or is completed too late. Although this is a general characteristic of policy formation in the United States, it is particularly true of environmental policy. The explanation lies in the nature of the policy-making process. A few broad examples will illustrate the nature of the environmental policy paradox. Problems of farming and food production in the United States include the loss of topsoil due to soil erosion, the loss of soil productivity, and the overuse of pesti~1des and fertilizers. Although opinions vary, there is strong evidence that a shift to organic farming would increase farm income and reduce soil erosion and nutrient depletion while meeting American food needs and reducing oil imports. Most people who study the matter feel we would be better off in the long run converting to organic farming. However, regardless of the potential benefits of organic farming, the incentives operating on policy makers, which include, for example, the money and influence of the manufacturers of pesticides, make it difficult to make significant changes in U.S. farm policy. That is what we call a paradox of environmental policy. Energy provides another good example. Although estimates vary as to how long fossil fuels will last, there is widespread agreement that a transition must be made from fossil to renewable fuels. This transition will have a significant impact on our economic, social, cultural, and political lives. The paradox is that today little is being done in the public sector to prepare for this change. Any examination of environmental policy must begin with a discussion of the setting in which policy is formulated. No simple explanations or definitions can completely convey why or why not a given policy comes into being. Limitations on human comprehension, as well as in the quality and extent of information available, make it difficult to fully understand the cause-and-effect relationships in public policy formation. This book, nevertheless, provides a basic understanding of why some environmental ideas shape policy while others do not. We describe the formal institutional setting in which environmental policy is developed, the major participants involved, and the political and institutional incentives that motivate those attempting to influence the policy-formation system. Through an understanding of the informal political and institutional incentives that influence policy formation, the reader will be able to see that the system, though complex and uncertain, does respond to appropriate inputs. It is important to know how the system works because only when we understand how the game is played can we affect changes in the system. ORGANIZATION The book is divided into two parts. Part One, The Policy-Making Process, provides an overview of how governmental policy is made in the United States. It emphasizes informal and noninstitutional aspects of the process and the incentives in the policy-making process that direc


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