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Environmental Policy and Politics : Towards the 21st Century,9780321042569

Environmental Policy and Politics : Towards the 21st Century

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780321042569

ISBN10:
0321042565
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
List Price: $57.00
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Summary

This up-to-date and readable text is a concise yet thorough examination of environmental, natural resource and energy policy and politics, primarily within the United States. Drawing from work within environmental science, policy analysis, and political science, it critically examines the key strengths and weaknesses of policy-making processes today, as well as the promise of new policy approaches. It offers extensive coverage of the nature of environmental problems and historical developments in environmental policy. The overriding theme of Environmental Policy and Politics, Second Edition, is that democratic approaches to policy-making and policy change are likely to be the most effective over time, based on strong public support. In that vein, the book stresses the opportunities available to citizens to shape environmental policies at all levels of government.

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Boxes
x
Preface xi
Environmental Problems and Politics
1(25)
Environmental Policy and Politics
3(2)
Perspectives on Environmental Problems
5(4)
Scientific Knowledge and Its Use
6(1)
Economics and Incentives
6(2)
Environmental Values and Ethics
8(1)
The Role of Government and Politics
9(2)
Democracy, Politics, and Environmental Policy
11(1)
Defining Environmental Policy
12(3)
Policy Typologies
12(1)
The Breadth of Environmental Policy
13(1)
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Policy
14(1)
Environmental Problems and Public Policy
15(7)
Defining the Problems: The Nature of Environmental Risks
15(4)
Coping with Environmental Risks
19(3)
Public Policy Responses
22(1)
Conclusion
23(1)
Suggested Readings
24(2)
Judging the State of the Environment
26(32)
Air Quality
27(7)
Gains in Air Quality and Remaining Problems
28(2)
The Case of Southern California
30(1)
Indoor Air Quality
31(1)
Acid Precipitation
32(1)
CFCs and the Stratospheric Ozone Layer
32(2)
Water Quality
34(4)
Pollution of Surface Waters
34(3)
Drinking Water
37(1)
Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes
38(5)
Toxic Chemicals and Health Effects
38(3)
Handling of Hazardous Wastes
41(1)
Contaminated Federal Facilities
42(1)
Radioactive Wastes
43(1)
Solid Waste and Consumer Waste
43(2)
Energy Use and Climate Change
45(2)
The Scope of Energy Problems
45(1)
Fossil Fuels and the Threat of Climate Change
46(1)
Biological Diversity and Habitat Loss
47(4)
Biodiversity Loss and Implications
48(2)
Policy Actions and Effects
50(1)
Human Polution Growth
51(3)
Population and Sustainable Development
51(1)
Growth Rates and Projected Population Increase
52(2)
Conclusions
54(1)
Suggested Readings
55(3)
The Policy-Making Process and the Environment
58(23)
The Policy-Making Process and the Environment
59(8)
The Policy Cycle Model
60(5)
Patterns in Environmental Policy Making
65(2)
Agenda Setting and Environmental Policy Change
67(3)
Problems, Policies, and Politics
67(1)
Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Change
68(2)
Characteristics of U.S. Government and Politics
70(8)
Constitutional and Political Features
70(1)
Institutional Fragmentation and Policy Gridlock
71(5)
The Benefits of Dispersed Power
76(2)
Conclusion
78(1)
Suggested Readings
79(2)
U.S. Politics and the Evolution of Environmental Policy
81(21)
Natural Resources and Environmental Policies in Historical Perspective
81(5)
The Settlement and ``Conquest'' of Nature
82(1)
The Conservation Movement and Advances in Public Health
83(1)
From the New Deal to the Environmental Movement
84(2)
The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Achievements
86(11)
The Role of Environmental Interest Groups
89(3)
Public Opinion and the Environment
92(3)
Environmental Issues in Election Campaigns
95(2)
Political Reaction in the 1980s and 1990s
97(2)
Conclusion
99(1)
Suggested Readings
100(2)
Environmental Protection Policy: Controlling Pollution
102(41)
The Contours of Environmental Protection Policy
103(17)
The Clean Air Act
103(4)
The Clean Water Act
107(4)
The Safe Drinking Water Act
111(1)
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
112(2)
The Toxic Substances Control Act
114(1)
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
115(2)
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
117(3)
The Institutional Context of Policy Implementation
120(8)
The EPA's Organization, Budget, and Staff
121(4)
Working with the States
125(2)
Political Support and Opposition
127(1)
Setting Environmental Standards
128(3)
Environmental Goals and Objectives
128(1)
Environmental Quality Criteria
128(2)
Setting Quality Standards
130(1)
Emission Standards
131(1)
Balancing Statutory Goals and Costs
131(3)
Adopting and Enforcing Regulations
134(5)
Administrative Rule Making
134(2)
Compliance and Enforcement
136(1)
White House Oversight
137(2)
Conclusions
139(1)
Suggested Readings
140(3)
Energy and Natural Resource Policies
143(42)
The Vagaries of Energy Policy: Goals and Means
144(3)
Indirect Policy Impacts
146(1)
Shifting Energy Priorities
146(1)
The Energy Policy Cycle: 1973-1989
147(2)
Carter's National Energy Plan and Conservation Gains
147(2)
Reagan's Nonpolicy on Energy
149(1)
Energy Policy for the Twenty-First Century
149(6)
The Bush Administration's National Energy Strategy
150(2)
The Clinton Administration Tries Its Hand
152(2)
State and Local Energy Initiatives
154(1)
Natural Resources and Policy Change
155(17)
Environmental Stewardship or Economic Development?
155(2)
The Environmentalist Challenge to Resource Development
157(2)
Natural Resource Policies and Agencies
159(1)
Managing the Nation's Forests
160(5)
Battles Over Wilderness
165(2)
Governing the Range
167(3)
BLM Lands and the Sagebrush Rebellion
170(1)
Other Protected Lands and Agencies
171(1)
Environmental Impacts and Natural Resources Decision Making
172(6)
The Endangered Species Act
172(4)
The National Environmental Policy Act
176(2)
The Changing Natural Resources Policy Agenda
178(1)
Conclusions
179(2)
Suggested Readings
181(4)
Evaluating Environmental Policy
185(32)
Approaches to Environmental Policy Evaluation
187(3)
Program Outcomes
188(1)
Process and Institutional Evaluation
189(1)
Signs of Progress
190(4)
Environmental Protection Policies
190(2)
Natural Resource Policies
192(1)
The Need for Data Assessment and Public Dialogue
193(1)
Costs, Benefits, and Risks
194(5)
Comparing Risks and Setting Priorities
196(1)
Controversies over Cost-Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment
197(1)
Environmentalists' Use of Economic Analysis
198(1)
Jobs, the Economy, and the Environment
199(3)
Employment, Business Costs, and Environmental Policy
199(2)
Seeking Common Ground: Toward Environmental Sustainability
201(1)
Reforming Environmental Regulation
202(6)
The Case for Policy Alternatives
203(2)
Assessing New Policy Approaches
205(3)
New Directions in Energy and Natural Resources Policy
208(6)
The Appeal of User Fees
208(1)
Privatization
209(1)
Social Cost Accounting
210(1)
Government Purchasing Power
211(1)
Ecosystem Management
212(2)
Conclusions
214(1)
Suggested Readings
214(3)
Environmental Policy and Politics for the Twenty-First Century
217(26)
Environmental Goals and Policy Choices
218(1)
An Evolving Policy Agenda
219(4)
Improving Environmental Policies and Institutions
219(2)
A New Culture at the EPA and Other Federal Agencies?
221(1)
Environmental Equity
222(1)
Toward Sustainable Development
223(11)
The President's Council on Sustainable Development
224(1)
New Policy Horizons
225(1)
Energy Policy
225(1)
Population Policy
226(2)
Suburban Sprawl and Smart Growth
228(1)
Ecosystem Health and Biodiversity
229(2)
International Environmental Policy
231(2)
Environmental Science and Policy Research
233(1)
Business and the Environment
234(3)
The Greening of Industry?
234(2)
Consumer Demand
236(1)
Democracy and the Environment
237(3)
Grassroots Environmentalism and Public Education
237(1)
Environmental Information and the Internet
238(2)
Conclusions
240(1)
Suggested Readings
241(2)
References 243(21)
Abbreviations 264(2)
Selected Environmental Web Sites 266(3)
Index 269


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