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Environmental Science: Toward A Sustainable Future

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780131442009

ISBN10:
0131442007
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $116.00
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Summary

As the field of environmental science continues to evolve, this highly readable guide presents a full spectrum of views and information to help readers evaluate issues and make informed decisions.& Reflects the changing environmental scene worldwide, with a wide range of viewpoints and information from the latest sources. Places new emphasis on issues such as emerging diseases like avian flu; the 4th World Water Forum; the "gene revolution;" the Endangered Species Act controversy; restoration of the Everglades, and the 2005 Global Forest Resources Assessment. Strives for a balance between pure science and the political, social, and historical perspectives of environmental affairs.& For those interested in learning more about environmental science.

Table of Contents

preface xvii
1 Introduction: Toward a Sustainable Future 1(23)
1.1 The Global Environmental Picture
3(11)
Population Growth and Economic Development
3(1)
The Decline of Ecosystems
4(1)
Global Atmospheric Changes
5(1)
Loss of Biodiversity
6(2)
1.2 Three Strategic Themes: Sustainability, Stewardship, and Sound Science
8(8)
Sustainability
8(2)
Stewardship
10(3)
Sound Science
13(3)
1.3 Three Integrative Themes: Ecosystem Capital, Policy/Politics, and Globalization
16(3)
Ecosystem Capital
16(1)
Policy and Politics
17(1)
Globalization
18(1)
1.4 The Environment in the 21st Century
19(2)
World Summits
19(1)
A New Commitment
20(1)
Revisiting the Themes
21(1)
Review Questions
22(1)
Thinking Environmentally
22
ethics What Is the Stewardship Ethic?
11(3)
earth watch A Danish Missile
14(10)
part one Ecosystems: Basic Units of the Natural World 24(96)
2 Ecosystems: What They Are
26(28)
2.1 Ecosystems: A Description
29(3)
2.2 The Structure of Ecosystems
32(12)
Trophic Categories
32(4)
Trophic Relationships: Food Chains, Food Webs, and Trophic Levels
36(3)
Nonfeeding Relationships
39(2)
Abiotic Factors
41(3)
2.3 From Ecosystems to Global Biomes
44(4)
The Role of Climate
44(1)
Microclimate and Other Abiotic Factors
44(3)
Biotic Factors
47(1)
Physical Barriers
47(1)
Summary
48(1)
2.4 The Human Factor
48(4)
Three Revolutions
49(3)
Revisiting the Themes
52(1)
Review Questions
53(1)
Thinking Environmentally
53
earth watch Taking Stock
28(22)
ethics Can Ecosystems Be Restored?
50(4)
3 Ecosystems: How They Work
54(30)
3.1 Matter, Energy, and Life
56(12)
Matter in Living and Nonliving Systems
56(3)
Energy Basics
59(4)
Energy Changes in Organisms
63(5)
3.2 Energy Flow in Ecosystems
68(3)
Primary Production
68(1)
Energy Flow and Efficiency
68(2)
Running on Solar Energy
70(1)
3.3 The Cycling of Matter in Ecosystems
71(5)
The Carbon Cycle
72(1)
The Phosphorus Cycle
73(1)
The Nitrogen Cycle
74(2)
3.4 Implications for Human Societies
76(6)
Ecosystem Sustainability
76(3)
Value of Ecosystem Capital
79(1)
The Future
79(3)
Revisiting the Themes
82(1)
Review Questions
83(1)
Thinking Environmentally
83
global perspective Light and Nutrients: The Controlling Factors in Marine Ecosystems
70(11)
earth watch Biosphere 2
81(3)
4 Ecosystems: How They Change
84(38)
4.1 Dynamics of Natural Populations
86(4)
Population Growth Curves
87(1)
Biotic Potential versus Environmental Resistance
88(1)
Density Dependence and Critical Number
89(1)
4.2 Mechanisms of Population Equilibrium
90(9)
Predator-Prey Dynamics
90(3)
Competition
93(2)
Introduced Species
95(4)
4.3 Mechanisms of Species Adaptation
99(5)
Change through Natural Selection
99(5)
4.4 Ecosystem Responses to Disturbance
104(10)
Ecological Succession
106(3)
Disturbance and Resilience
109(3)
Evolving Ecosystems?
112(2)
4.5 Lessons to Learn
114(2)
Managing Ecosystems
114(1)
The Pressures of Population
114(2)
Revisiting the Themes
116(1)
Review Questions
117(1)
Thinking Environmentally
118(1)
Making a Difference Part One: Chapters 2, 3, 4
118
guest essay The Village Weaverbird: Marvel or Menace?
96(16)
earth watch An Endangered Ecosystems Act?
112(3)
ethics The Dilemma of Advocacy
115(5)
part two The Human Population 120(56)
5 The Human Population: Dimensions
122(28)
5.1 Human Population Expansion and Its Cause
124(2)
Reasons for the Patterns of Growth
124(2)
5.2 Different Worlds
126(5)
Rich Nations, Poor Nations
126(3)
Population Growth in Rich and Poor Nations
129(1)
Different Populations, Different Problems
130(1)
5.3 Consequences of Population Growth and Affluence
131(6)
The Developing Countries
131(5)
Affluence
136(1)
5.4 Dynamics of Population Growth
137(10)
Population Profiles
138(1)
Future Populations
138(5)
Population Momentum
143(1)
The Demographic Transition
143(4)
Revisiting the Themes
147(1)
Review Questions
148(1)
Thinking Environmentally
149
ethics The Dilemma of Immigration
135(5)
earth watch Are We Living Longer?
140(10)
6 Population and Development
150(28)
6.1 Reassessing the Demographic Transition
152(5)
Large Families or Small?
154(3)
6.2 Promoting Development
157(8)
Good and Bad News
157(2)
Millennium Development Goals
159(2)
World Agencies at Work
161(2)
The Debt Crisis
163(1)
Development Aid
164(1)
6.3 A New Direction: Social Modernization
165(7)
Improving Education
165(1)
Improving Health
166(1)
AIDS
167(1)
Family Planning
168(1)
Employment and Income
169(2)
Resource Management
171(1)
Putting It All Together
171(1)
6.4 The Cairo Conference
172(1)
Revisiting the Themes
173(2)
Review Questions
175(1)
Thinking Environmentally
175(1)
Making a Difference Part Two: Chapters 5 and 6
175
guest essay Poverty Traps and Natural Resources Management
157(13)
ethics The Ethical Dilemma of China's Population Policies
170(6)
part three Renewable Resources 176(144)
7 Water: Hydrologic Cycle and Human Use
178(28)
7.1 Water: A Vital Resource
180(1)
7.2 Hydrologic Cycle: Natural Cycle, Human Impacts
181(8)
Evaporation, Condensation, and Purification
181(2)
Precipitation
183(2)
Groundwater
185(1)
Pools and Fluxes in the Cycle
186(1)
Human Impacts on the Hydrologic Cycle
187(2)
7.3 Water: A Resource to Manage, a Threat to Control
189(6)
Uses and Sources
189(3)
Surface Waters
192(2)
Groundwater
194(1)
7.4 Water Stewardship: Public-Policy Challenges
195(8)
Obtaining More Water
195(4)
Using Less Water
199(2)
Public-Policy Challenges
201(2)
Revisiting the Themes
203(2)
Review Questions
205(1)
Thinking Environmentally
205
earth watch Water Purification
192(11)
global perspective The Third World Water Forum
203(3)
8 Soil: Foundation for Land Ecosystems
206(54)
8.1 Soil and Plants
209(7)
Soil Characteristics
209(3)
Soil and Plant Growth
212(2)
The Soil Community
214(2)
8.2 Soil Degradation
216(10)
Erosion
218(1)
Drylands and Desertification
219(1)
Causing and Correcting Erosion
220(4)
Irrigation and Salinization
224(2)
8.3 Conserving the Soil
226(3)
Public Policy and Soils
227(1)
Helping Individual Landholders
228(1)
Revisiting the Themes
229(1)
Review Questions
230(1)
Thinking Environmentally
231
ethics Erosion by Equation
223(5)
global perspective Three-Strata Forage System for Mountainous Drylands
228(4)
9 The Production and Distribution of Food
232(28)
9.1 Crops and Animals: Major Patterns of Food Production
234(9)
The Development of Modern Industrialized Agriculture
234(2)
The Green Revolution
236(2)
Subsistence Agriculture in the Developing World
238(1)
Animal Farming and Its Consequences
239(2)
Prospects for Increasing Food Production
241(2)
9.2 New Patterns: Genetically Modified Foods
243(4)
The Promise
243(1)
The Problems
244(2)
Policies
246(1)
9.3 Food Distribution and Trade
247(3)
Patterns in Food Trade
247(1)
Food Security
248(2)
9.4 Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine
250(7)
Nutrition vs. Hunger
250(1)
Extent and Consequences of Hunger
251(1)
Root Cause of Hunger
252(1)
Famine
253(2)
Food Aid
255(1)
Closing Thoughts on Hunger
255(2)
Revisiting Themes
257(1)
Review Questions
258(1)
Thinking Environmentally
259
global perspective World Food Summit
251(5)
ethics The Lifeboat Ethic of Garret Hardin
256(4)
10 Wild Species and Biodiversity
260(28)
10.1 The Value of Wild Species
262(5)
Biological Wealth
262(1)
Two Kinds of Value
262(1)
Sources for Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture, and Animal Husbandry
263(1)
Sources for Medicine
264(1)
Recreational, Aesthetic, and Scientific Value
265(1)
Value for Their Own Sake
266(1)
10.2 Saving Wild Species
267(7)
Game Animals in the United States
267(2)
Acts Protecting Endangered Species
269(5)
10.3 Biodiversity and Its Decline
274(8)
The Decline of Biodiversity
274(2)
Reasons for the Decline
276(5)
Consequences of Losing Biodiversity
281(1)
10.4 Protecting Biodiversity
282(3)
International Developments
282(2)
Stewardship Concerns
284(1)
Revisiting the Themes
285(2)
Review Questions
287(1)
Thinking Environmentally
287
global perspective Biodiversity: Essential or Not?
281(1)
earth watch Return of the Gray Wolf
282(6)
11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration
288(32)
11.1 Global Perspective on Biological Systems
290(2)
Major Systems and Their Goods and Services
290(1)
Ecosystems as Natural Resources
291(1)
11.2 Conservation, Preservation, Restoration
292(7)
Conservation Versus Preservation
292(1)
Patterns of Use of Natural Ecosystems
293(4)
Restoration
297(2)
11.3 Biomes and Ecosystems under Pressure
299(13)
Forest Biomes
299(5)
Ocean Ecosystems
304(8)
11.4 Public and Private Lands in the United States
312(4)
National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges
313(1)
National Forests
314(1)
Protecting Nonfederal Lands
315(1)
Conclusion
316(1)
Revisiting the Themes
316(1)
Review Questions
317(1)
Thinking Environmentally
318(1)
Making a Difference Part Three: Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
318
earth watch Nature's Corporations
302(4)
earth watch Will Aquaculture Be Able to Fill the Gap?
306(6)
global perspective The Mangrove Man
312(8)
part four Energy 320(84)
12 Energy from Fossil Fuels
322(26)
12.1 Energy Sources and Uses
325(6)
Harnessing Energy Sources: An Overview
325(1)
Electrical Power Production
326(4)
Matching Sources to Uses
330(1)
12.2 Exploiting Crude Oil 331
How Fossil Fuels Are Formed Crude-Oil
331(1)
Reserves Versus Production Declining
331(2)
U.S. Reserves and Increasing Importation
333(2)
Problems of Growing U.S. Dependency on Foreign Oil
335(3)
12.3 Other Fossil Fuels
338(3)
Natural Gas
338(1)
Coal
339(1)
Oil Shales and Oil Sands
340(1)
12.4 Fossil Fuels and Energy Security
341(4)
Security Threats
341(1)
Supply-Side Polices
342(1)
Demand-Side Policies
343(2)
Development of Non-Fossil-Fuel Energy Sources
345(1)
Revisiting the Themes
345(1)
Review Questions
346(1)
Thinking Environmentally
347
earth watch CHP: Industrial Common Sense
344(4)
13 Energy from Nuclear Power
348(26)
13.1 Nuclear Energy in Perspective
350(2)
13.2 How Nuclear Power Works
352(6)
From Mass to Energy
352(3)
Comparing Nuclear Power with Coal Power
355(3)
13.3 The Hazards and Costs of Nuclear Power Facilities
358(11)
Radioactive Emissions
358(1)
Radioactive Wastes
359(1)
Disposal of Radioactive Wastes
360(3)
Nuclear Power Accidents
363(2)
Safety and Nuclear Power
365(2)
Economic Problems with Nuclear Power
367(2)
13.4 More Advanced Reactors
369(1)
Breeder Reactors
369(1)
Fusion Reactors
369(1)
13.5 The Future of Nuclear Power
370(2)
Opposition
371(1)
Rebirth of Nuclear Power?
371(1)
Revisiting the Themes
372(1)
Review Questions
373(1)
Thinking Environmentally
373
ethics Showdown in the New West
364(10)
14 Renewable Energy
374(30)
14.1 Putting Solar Energy to Work
377(9)
Principles of Solar Energy
377(1)
Solar Heating of Water
378(2)
Solar Space Heating
380(2)
Solar Production of Electricity
382(2)
The Promise of Solar Energy
384(2)
14.2 Indirect Solar Energy
386(4)
Hydropower
386(2)
Wind Power
388(1)
Biomass Energy
389(1)
14.3 Renewable Energy for Transportation
390(4)
Biofuels
391(1)
Hydrogen: The Fuel of the Future
391(3)
14.4 Additional Renewable-Energy Options
394(2)
Geothermal Energy
394(1)
Tidal Power
395(1)
Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion
396(1)
14.5 Policy for a Sustainable-Energy Future
396(5)
National Energy Policy
396(2)
A Clean Energy Blueprint
398(3)
Revisiting the Themes
401(1)
Review Questions
402(1)
Thinking Environmentally
402(1)
Making a Difference Part Four: Chapters 12, 13, and 14
403
earth watch Economic Payoff of Solar Energy
386(1)
ethics Transfer of Energy Technology to the Developing World
387(12)
guest essay Caring for Planet Earth Through the Proper Use of Our Energy Resources
399(5)
part five Pollution and Prevention 404(200)
15 Environmental Hazards and Human Health
406(28)
15.1 Links Between Human Health and the Environment
408(9)
The Picture of Health
409(1)
Environmental Hazards
410(7)
15.2 Pathways of Risk
417(8)
The Risks of Being Poor
417(2)
The Cultural Risk of Tobacco Use
419(2)
Risk and Infectious Diseases
421(2)
Toxic Risk Pathways
423(2)
15.3 Risk Assessment
425(6)
Environmental Risk Assessment by the EPA
426(2)
Public-Health Risk Assessment
428(1)
Risk Management
429(1)
Risk Perception
430(1)
Revisiting the Themes
431(1)
Review Questions
432(1)
Thinking Environmentally
433
ethics The Rights of Smokers?
420(2)
global perspective An Unwelcome Globalization
422(12)
16 Pests and Pest Control
434(28)
16.1 The Need for Pest Control
436(2)
16.2 Promises and Problems of the Chemical Approach
438(9)
Development of Chemical Pesticides and Their Successes
438(2)
Problems Stemming from Chemical Pesticide Use
440(7)
16.3 Alternative Pest Control Methods
447(7)
Cultural Control
447(2)
Control by Natural Enemies
449(1)
Genetic Control
449(4)
Natural Chemical Control
453(1)
16.4 Socioeconomic Issues in Pest Management
454(3)
Pressures to Use Pesticides
454(1)
Integrated Pest Management
455(2)
Organically Grown Food
457(1)
16.5 Pesticides and Policy
457(2)
FIFRA
457(1)
FQPA of 1996
458(1)
Pesticides in Developing Countries
459(1)
Revisiting the Themes
459(1)
Review Questions
460(1)
Thinking Environmentally
461
ethics DDT for Malaria Control: Hero or Villain?
439(3)
earth watch The Ultimate Pest?
442(9)
global perspective Wasps 1, Mealybugs 0
451(11)
17 Water Pollution and Its Prevention
462(28)
17.1 Water Pollution
464(8)
Pollution Essentials
464(2)
Water Pollution: Sources, Types, Criteria
466(6)
17.2 Eutrophication
472(7)
Different Kinds of Aquatic Plants
472(1)
The Impacts of Nutrient Enrichment
473(2)
Combating Eutrophication
475(4)
17.3 Sewage Management and Treatment
479(7)
Development of Sewage Collection and Treatment Systems
479(1)
The Pollutants in Raw Sewage
480(1)
Removing the Pollutants from Sewage
480(3)
Treatment of Sludge
483(2)
Alternative Treatment Systems
485(1)
17.4 Public Policy
486(2)
Revisiting the Themes
488(1)
Review Questions
489(1)
Thinking Environmentally
489
earth watch Monitoring for Sewage Contamination
468(7)
earth watch The Algae from Hell
475(15)
18 Municipal Solid Waste: Disposal and Recovery
490(22)
18.1 The Solid-Waste Problem
492(6)
Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste
492(1)
Landfills
493(4)
Combustion: Waste to Energy
497(1)
Costs of Municipal Solid-Waste Disposal
498(1)
18.2 Solutions to the Solid-Waste Problem
498(7)
Source Reduction
499(1)
The Recycling Solution
500(1)
Municipal Recycling
501(3)
Regional Recycling Options
504(1)
18.3 Public Policy and Waste Management
505(5)
The Regulatory Perspective
505(1)
Integrated Waste Management
506(4)
Revisiting the Themes
510(1)
Review Questions
510(1)
Thinking Environmentally
511
earth watch The Nantucket Story
506(2)
ethics "Affluenza": Do You Have It?
508(4)
19 Hazardous Chemicals: Pollution and Prevention
512(26)
19.1 Toxicology and Chemical Hazards
514(6)
Dose Response and Threshold
514(1)
The Nature of Chemical Hazards: HAZMATs
515(1)
Sources of Chemicals Entering the Environment
516(1)
The Threat from Toxic Chemicals
517(2)
Involvement with Food Chains
519(1)
19.2 A History of Mismanagement
520(5)
Methods of Land Disposal
520(3)
Scope of the Mismanagement Problem
523(2)
19.3 Cleaning Up the Mess
525(4)
Ensuring Safe Drinking Water
525(1)
Groundwater Remediation
525(1)
Superfund for Toxic Sites
525(4)
19.4 Managing Current Hazardous Wastes
529(3)
The Clean Air and Water Acts
530(1)
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
530(1)
Reduction of Accidents and Accidental Exposures
531(1)
19.5 Broader Issues
532(3)
Environmental Justice and Hazardous Wastes
532(1)
Pollution Prevention for a Sustainable Society
533(2)
Revisiting the Themes
535(1)
Review Questions
536(1)
Thinking Environmentally
537
earth watch The Case of the Obee Road NPL Site
529(6)
career link Daniel S. Granz, EPA Environmental Engineer
535(3)
20 The Atmosphere: Climate, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion
538(34)
20.1 Atmosphere and Weather
541(1)
Atmospheric Structure Weather
541(2)
20.2 Climate
543(1)
Climates in the Past
544(1)
Ocean and Atmosphere
545(1)
20.3 Global Climate Change
546(1)
The Earth as a Greenhouse
546(1)
The Greenhouse Gases
548(1)
Evidence of Climate Change
551(8)
20.4 Response to Climate Change
559(1)
Response 1: Mitigation
560(1)
Response 2: Adaptation
563(1)
20.5 Depletion of the Ozone Layer
564(1)
Radiation and Importance of the Shield
564(1)
Formation and Breakdown of the Shield
565(1)
Coming to Grips with Ozone Depletion
568(2)
Revisiting the Themes
570(1)
Review Questions
571(1)
Thinking Environmentally
571
ethics Stewardship of the Atmosphere
556(9)
global perspective Coping with UV Radiation
565(7)
21 Atmospheric Pollution
572(32)
21.1 Air-Pollution Essentials
574(4)
Pollutants and Atmospheric Cleansing
574(1)
The Appearance of Smog
575(3)
21.2 Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources
578(8)
Primary Pollutants
579(2)
Secondary Pollutants
581(1)
Acid Deposition
582(4)
21.3 Impacts of Air Pollutants
586(6)
Effects on Human Health
587(2)
Effects on the Environment
589(3)
21.4 Bringing Air Pollution under Control
592(6)
Control Strategies
593(1)
Limiting Pollutants from Motor Vehicles
594(2)
Coping with Acid Deposition
596(2)
21.5 Unresolved Issues
598(4)
Revisiting the Themes
601(1)
Review Questions
602(1)
Thinking Environmentally
602(1)
Making a Difference Part Five: Chapters 15 to 21
602
global perspective Mexico City: Life in a Gas Chamber
577(23)
earth watch Portland Takes a Right Turn
600(4)
part six Toward a Sustainable Future 604(59)
22 Economics, Public Policy, and the Environment
606(28)
22.1 Economics and Public Policy
608(4)
The Need for Environmental Public Policy
608(1)
Relationships Between Economic Development and the Environment
608(2)
Economic Systems
610(2)
22.2 Resources and the Wealth of Nations
612(6)
The Wealth of Nations
612(2)
Shortcomings of the GNP
614(3)
Resource Distribution
617(1)
22.3 Pollution and Public Policy
618(6)
Public-Policy Development: The Policy Life Cycle
618(2)
Economic Effects of Environmental Public Policy
620(3)
Policy Options: Market or Regulatory?
623(1)
22.4 Benefit-Cost Analysis
624(4)
External and Internal Costs
624(1)
The Costs of Environmental Regulations
624(2)
The Benefits of Environmental Regulation
626(1)
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
627(1)
22.5 Politics, the Public, and Public Policy
628(2)
Politics and the Environment
629(1)
Citizen Involvement
630(1)
Revisiting the Themes
630(2)
Review Questions
632(1)
Thinking Environmentally
633
guest essay A Transformational Environmental Policy
621(4)
earth watch Green Fees and Taxes
625(6)
global perspective The World Trade Organization
631(3)
23 Sustainable Communities and Lifestyles
634(29)
23.1 Urban Sprawl
637(8)
The Origins of Urban Sprawl
637(3)
Measuring Sprawl
640(2)
Impacts of Urban Sprawl
642(2)
Reining In Urban Sprawl: Smart Growth
644(1)
23.2 Urban Blight
645(8)
Economic and Ethnic Segregation
645(2)
The Vicious Cycle of Urban Blight
647(1)
Economic Exclusion of the Inner City
648(1)
Urban Blight in Developing Countries
648(1)
What Makes Cities Livable?
649(4)
23.3 Moving Toward Sustainable Communities
653(2)
Sustainable Cities
653(1)
Sustainable Communities
654(1)
23.4 Toward the Common Good
655(4)
Our Dilemma
655(1)
Lifestyle Changes
656(3)
Revisiting the Themes
659(1)
Review Questions
660(1)
Thinking Environmentally
660(1)
Making a Difference Part Six: Chapters 22, 23
660
ethics The Tangier Island Covenant
657(6)
Appendix A Environmental Organizations 663(4)
Appendix B Units of Measure 667(2)
Appendix C Some Basic Chemical Concept 669(8)
Photo Credits 677(4)
Glossary 681(22)
Index 703

Excerpts

As we plunge into a new century and a new millennium, the environment is being called on to supply the growing needs of an expanding human population in the developing countries and increasing affluence in the developed countries. In many areas, we are already taking more from Earth's systems than they can provide in a sustainable fashion. Our ecological footprint weighs heavily on Earth's natural resources--the "ecosystem capital" that provides the goods and services that sustain human life and economic well-being. Also, there are still billions of people who are not adequately housed, fed, or provided with health care or a paying job. Yet we must, as soon as possible, make a transition to a sustainable civilization, one in which a stable human population recognizes the finite limits of Earth's systems to produce resources and absorb wastes, and acts accordingly. This is hard to picture at present, but it is the only future that makes any sense. If we fail to achieve it by our deliberate actions, the natural world will impose it on us in highly undesirable ways. Environmental science stands at the interface between humans and Earth and explores the interactions and relations between them. This relationship will need to be considered in virtually all future decision making. This text considers a full spectrum of views and information in an effort to establish a solid base of understanding and a sustainable formula for the future. What you have in your hands is a readable guide and up-to-date source of information that will help you to explore the issues in more depth. It will also help you to connect them to a framework of ideas and values that will equip you to become part of the solution to many of the environmental problems confronting us. As the field of environmental science evolves and continues to change, so has this text. In this new edition, I hope to continue to reflect accurately the field of environmental science; in so doing, I have constantly attempted to accomplish each of the following objectives: To write in a style that makes learning about environmental science both interesting to read and easy to understand, without overwhelming the student with details. To present well-established scientific principles and concepts that form the knowledge base for an understanding of our interactions with the natural environment. To organize the text in a way that promotes sequential learning, yet allows individual chapters to stand on their own. To address all of the major environmental issues that confront our society and help to define the subject matter of environmental science. To present the latest information available by making full use of the resources of the Internet, books, and journals. To give an assessment of options or progress in solving environmental problems. To support the text with excellent supplements for the instructor and the student that strongly enhance the teaching and learning processes. Because I believe that learning how to live in the environment is one of the most important subjects in any student's educational experience, I have made every effort to put in your hands a book that will help the study of environmental science come alive. A Guide to the Ninth Edition of Environmental Science Overview Theninth editionis more than just an update. The main new feature of this edition is the extensive use of sixunifying themesthat help the reader to focus on the significance of the many issues that are presented. The themes ofsustainability, sound science,andstewardshipare retained from the eighth edition and now identified asstrategic themes.To these I have added three more themes, which I callintegrative themes: ecosystem capital, policy and politics,andglobalization.These six themes provide important threads linking the different sub


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